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36 
1 5 







STORY OF 



SOUT 




AFRICA 



FROM 1795 TO 1872 



EY 



GEORGE M C CALL THEAL, Litt.D., LL.D. 

FOREIGN MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. AMSTERDAM, CORRESPONDING 

MEMBER OF THE ROYAL HISTORICAL SOCIETY, LONDON, ETC.. ETC., ETC., 

FORMERLY KEEPER OF THE ARCHIVES OF THE CAPE COLONY 



WITH FIFTEEN MAPS AND CHARTS 



IN FIVE VOLUIVIES 



Vol. V 



^THSOfV^ 

JUL 15 1987 



UttKkhUt> 



THIRD EDITION. CAREFULLY REVISED AND ENLARGED 



LONDON: GEORGE ALLEN & UNWIN LTD. 
RUSKIN HOUSE 40 MUSEUM STREET, W.C. 1 









First Edition . 
Reprinted 
Revised Edition 



August 190S 
August 1910 
February 1920 



(All rights reserved) 



.. ... . 

• • • » 






* > 









CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER LXXXIV. 

THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC. 

Commencement of Gold mining at the Tati and Eersteling, 

Mineral wealth of the South African Republic known in 1865. — 
Discovery by Mr. Henry Hartley of ancient mines in the 
north. — Report of Mr. Carl Mauch. — Account of the Matabele 
tribe. — Establishment of a mission station at Inyati. — Death 
of Moselekatse. — Regency of Nombati. — Succession of Lobengula 
as chief of the Matabele. — Inspection of ground along the Tati 
by small parties of diggers. — Arrival of miners from Australia. 
— Formation of various mining companies. — Exploration within 
the South African Republic by Mr. Edward Button. — Opening 
of a mine at Eersteling. — Unsuccessful negotiations with the 
Matabele and Bamangwato chiefs. — Account of the Bamangwato 
tribe. — Career of the chief Matsheng. — Proclamation of boun- 
daries of the South African Republic by President Pretorius. — ■ 
Objections of her Majesty's high commissioner and the Portu- 
guese consul-general. — Views of various parties as to the proper 
boundaries. — Conclusion of a treaty between Portugal and the 
South African Republic. — Boundary between the republic and 
the Portuguese possessions in South-Eastern Africa. — Removal 
of restrictions on liberty of conscience ... 

CHAPTER LXXXV. 

EVENTS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC FROM 1870 TO 1872. 

Various claimants of the diamond-fields along the northern bank 
of the Vaal. — Origin of the different claims. — Conference between 
commissioners of the South African Republic and Batlapin and 
Korana chiefs. — Failure of negotiations for the arrangement of 



iv Contents. 

the Batlapin debt. — Extension of the district of Bloemhof to the 
Hart river. — Claims of the Barolong chief Montsiwa. — Con- 
ference between commissioners of the republic and chiefs of 
the Barolong, Bangwaketse, and Koranas. — Agreement to refer 
disputed territorial claims to a court of arbitration. — Corre- 
spondence between the high commissioner and the president. — 
Resolution of the volksraad to proceed to arbitration. — Offer 
of Nicholas Waterboer to transfer to the British government 
the territory which he claimed. — Appointment by the high 
commissioner of a special magistrate for the diamond-fields. — 
Commission granted to the special magistrate by Nicholas . 
Waterboer. — General repudiation of Waterboer's pretensions. — 
Visit of Sir Henry Barkly to the diamond-fields. — Meeting with 
various chiefs. — Arrangements for arbitration. — Session of the 
court of arbitration at Bloemhof. — Imbecile manner in which 
the case was conducted by the commissioners of the South 
African Republic. — The Keate award. — Consternation of the 
burghers on rinding that a large portion of their settled 
territory as well as all the open land to the west was cut off 
by the award. — Outburst of indignation against the government. 
— Resignation of the president and principal officers. — Appoint- 
ment of Mr. D. J. Erasmus as acting president. — Irritating 
conduct of the reverend Mr. Ludorf. — Repudiation of the 
Keate award by the volksraad. — Declaration of the high 
commissioner that he would maintain it. — Effect of the award 
upon the Barolong and Batlapin clans. — Alteration of the clause 
of the constitution concerning the qualifications of the president. 
— Efforts of a strong part} 7 to unite the two republics under 
President Brand. — Attitude of President Brand. — Election of 
the reverend Thomas Francois Burgers as president of the South 
African Republic 24 



CHAPTER LXXXVI. 

Events in Basutoland from March 1870 to the close of 1872. 

Death of Moshesh. — Reception of Molapo and his clan as Biitish 
subjects. — Objections of the Cape parliament in 1870 to the 
employment of the frontier police in Basutoland. — Reception 
of the Baputi clan under Morosi as British subjects. — Illicit 
trade in munitions of war. — Collection of hut-tax. — Meeting of 
chiefs and leading men at Thaba Bosigo to discuss regula- 
tions for the government of the tribe drawn up by Sir 



Contents . v 

Philip Wodehouse. — Visit of Sir Henry Barkly to Basutoland. — 
Occupation of Thaba Bosigo by Masupha. — Annexation of 
Basutoland to the Cape Colony. — Revenue of Basutoland. — 
Consent of the chiefs to the annexation. — Claim of Letsie to 
part of Nomansland. — Division of Basutoland into magisterial 
districts. — Appointment of Mr. Charles Duncan Griffith as 
governor's agent, and of a staff of subordinate officials. — 
Powers of the magistrates. — Position assigned to the chiefs. — 
Introduction of a code of laws. — Objections of the Basuto 
to some of the regulations. — View of the people with regard 
to marriages by missionaries. — Resumption of their labours in 
Basutoland by the French missionaries. — Establishment of 
schools. — Ratification of the annexation of Basutoland to the 
Cape Colony by the queen in council. — Difficulty concerning 
the custom of letsima. — Conduct of Masupha. — Decision regarding 
Mr. Buchanan. — Compilation of a text book on the laws and 
customs of the Basuto. — Revenue and expenditure to June 

\-<bim •«• l.i it. ai> • ». • •• ait ■•« ••• OO 



CHAPTER LXXXVil. 

ACCOUNT OF THE MAKOLOLO TRIBE AND OF THE HERERO WAR OF 

INDEPENDENCE. 

Formation of the Makololo tribe. — Career of the chief Sebetoane. — 
Account of the Bangwaketse tribe. — Death of the warrior chief 
Makaba. — Account of the Bakwena tribe. — Succession of Set- 
sheli to the chieftainship. — Account of the Bamangwato tribe. 
— Arrival of Sebetoane on the Zambesi. — Settlement of the 
Makololo there as the dominant power. — Attack by a Matabele 
band.— Removal of the Makololo to Liny ant i on the Tshobe 
river. — Visit of the reverend Dr. Livingstone to Liny ant i. — 
Death of Sebetoane. — Succession of Sekeletu to the chieftain- 
ship. — Second visit of Dr. Livingstone to Linyanti. — His 
exploration of the country. — His journey to St. Paul de 
Loanda and back. — His journey to Kilimane. — Attempt to 
establish a mission with the Makololo. — Fate of the mission 
party. — Death of Sekeletu. — Total destruction of the Makololo 
tribe. — Rise of the Barctsi power. — War between the Ovaherero 
and the Naniaqua Hottentots. — Strength of the combatants. 
— Particulars concerning the Hottentots. — Account of the 
Rhenish mission. — First attack upon Otjimbingue. — Part taken 
by Europeans in the war. — Second attack upon Otjimbingue. — 



vi Contents. 

Destruction of mission stations. — Third attack upon Otjim- 
bingue. — Treatment of Europeans by tlie petty captain Jacob 
Bois. — Action of the Cape government. — Settlement of mixed 
breeds in Great Namaqualand. — Final defeat of the Hottentots 
at Omukaru. — Conclusion of peace. — Independence of the 
uvanerero «•• t> . ... ... ... ... *•« ••• oz 



CHAPTER LXXXVIIT. 

ANNEXATION OF WALFISH BAY TO THE CAPE COLONY AND ESTABLISHMENT 
OF A GERMAN PROTECTORATE IN SOUTH-WESTERN AFRICA. 

Condition of the inhabitants of Great Kamaqualand and Herero- 
land. — Conduct of Kamaherero. — Migration of a party of 
farmers from the South African Republic to the country west 
of the Kalahari desert. — Alarm of the Herero chiefs. — 
Request for British interference. — Resolution of the Cape 
parliament in favour of annexing the territory as far north 
as Walfish Bay. — Mission of Mr. Palgrave to the country. — 
Report of Mr. Palgrave. — Request of the Herero chiefs for 
the appointment of a British official to be their head. — 
Different attitude of the Hottentot captains. — Second mission 
of Mr. Palgrave to Hereroland. — Arrangement with Kamaherero 
regarding British officials. — Condition of things in the Cape 
Colony. — View of the secretary of state. — Proclamation of 
British sovereignty over Walnsh Bay and a small extent of 
territory around it. — Annexation of this territory to the Cape 
Colony. — Position of Jan Jonker Afrikaner. — Expedition for the 
relief of the emigrant farmers. — Examination of the coast 
from Cape Frio to Walnsh Bay. — Condition of the emigrant 
farmers. — Appointment of a British resident at Okahandja. 
■ — Recruitment of Berg Damaras for service in the Cape 
Colony. — Outbreak of war again between the Hereros and the 
Hottentots. — Massacre of Hottentots. — Recall of the British 
resident. — Defeat of the Hottentots at Barmen. — Despatch of 
volunteers to protect Walfish Bay. — Purchase of territory by a 
German merchant from a Hottentot captain. — Communications 
between the Prussian and British governments. — Action of 
the Cape government. — Final mission of Mr. Palgrave. — 
Proclamation of a German protectorate over the coast 
from Cape Frio to the Orange river, excepting Walfish 
Bay. — Dispute regarding the guano islands. — Subsequent 
extension of the German protectorate far inland 10 



Contents, vii 



CHAPTER LXXXIX. 

THE PORTUGUESE POSSESSIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA DURING THE NINETEENTH 

CENTURY. 

Condition of Portugal and of Scuth-Eastern Africa. — Cession by a 
Bantu chief of a tract of land north of the Espirito Santo. — 
Whale fishing in Delagoa Bay. — Survey of the coast by 
Captain Owen. — His dealings with chiefs at Delagoa Bay. — 
Description of the people living there. — Advantages of 
Delagoa Bay. — New names given to rivers. — Captain Owen's 
report upon Mozambique and Sofala. — His account of the 
slave trade. — Visit of Commodore bourse to Delagoa Bay. — 
Dealings of the Portuguese with the Bantu tribes there. — 
Destruction of a Portuguese force.— Grant of a monopoly 
of the commerce at the bay to a whaling compan}\ — Ravages 
of hordes of Bantu fleeing from Tshaka. — Career of Swangen- 
daba and the Angoni. — Great battle on the Sabi river. — 
Terrible destruction of life caused by the Matshangana under 
Manikusa. — Destruction of the fort at Delagoa Bay and 
murder of the entire garrison. — Destruction of Inhambane, 
Sofala, and Sena. — Reoccupation of Sena on condition of 
payment of tribute to Manikusa. — Temporary separation of 
the government of the Rivers from Mozambique. — Havoc 
created among the Bantu. — Reoccupation of the Portuguese 
stations. — Census of Lourenco Marques in 1878. — Account of the 
prazoB south of the Zambesi — Occupation of Tshiloane and 
Santa Carolina. — Particulars concerning the slave trade. — 
Laws regarding commerce. — Creation of a council for the 
province. — Reoccupation of Zumbo. — Progress of geographical 
knowledge. — Journeys across the continent 127 



CHAPTER XC. 

THE PORTUGUESE POSSESSIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA DURING THE NINETEENTH 

century (continued). 

Effect upon the importance of Delagoa Bay of the occupation of 
the interior by Europeans. — Declaration of British sovereignty 
over the islands Inyaka and Elephant. — Account of the civil 
war in the Matshangana tribe. — Conduct of the chief Umzila 
towards the Portuguese, — Conclusion of a treaty between the 



viii Contents. 

Portuguese and the South African Republic. — Submission to 
arbitration of Great Britain's claim to the southern and 
eastern shores of Delagoa Bay. — Adverse decision of the 
president of the French republic. — Exploration of the Lim- 
popo river from the j miction of the Shashi to the sea. — 
Construction of a railway from Lourenco Marques to the 
interior. — Present condition of Lourenco Marques. — Founda- 
tion of the town of Beira. — Particulars concerning the dispute 
between Great Britain and Portugal as to the possession of 
the interior. — Occupation of Rhodesia by the British South 
Africa Chartered Company. — Dealings with the chief Umtasa. 
— Services performed by Gouveia. — Occurrences between 
British and Portuguese officials at Umtasa' s kraal. — Defeat 
of Portuguese volunteers by British police. — Treaty between 
Great Britain and Portugal fixing a boundary and providing 
commercial facilities. — Construction of a railway from Beira 
inland. — Description of Beira. — Account of the Mozambique 
Company. — Insurrection of Nyaude and his son Bonga. — 
Description of Tete. — Successful war with Gungunyana. — 
Condition of the oountry at present 146 



SYNOPTICAL INDEX 169 

CHART. 
XV. PORTUGUESE SOUTH AFRICA Facing page 166 



HISTOEY OF SOUTH AFRICA 

SINCE SEPTEMBER 1795. 
CHAPTEE LXXXIV. 

THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC. 

Commencement of Gold Mining at the Tati and Eersteling. 

Since the first exploration by Europeans of the vast 
territory afterwards known as the South African Eepublic, 
its mineral wealth was commonly supposed by casual visitors 
to be not only varied, but very great, though not much had 
yet been done towards ascertaining whether such a supposi- 
tion was correct or not. The white men who took possession 
of as much of the land as they needed looked for abundance 
of good grass and water, aud hardly bestowed a thought upon 
anything that might be found beneath the surface of the 
soil. No civilised people in the world were less disposed 
by inclination and habits for mining industry, or more 
ignorant of the method of carrying it on. 

In course of time, however, the necessity of obtaining 
lead for casting into balls induced a few of them to make 
use of that metal, which was accidentally discovered, 
though it never was worked to an} 7 noticeable extent, and 
indeed the difficulty and cost of transport would have 
prevented its exploitation on a large scale if the expense 
of extracting and smelting it had been even less than it 
was reported to be. 

vol. v, I B 



2 History of the South African Republic. [1867 

Beds of coal of fairly good quality and accessible 
without trouble existed in the south-eastern districts, and 
where wood was scarce it was used for fuel in the farmers' 
kitchens, but as there were no manufactures of any kind 
in the country and no towns to create a demand for it, very 
little attention was devoted to this mineral. It has been 
widely different of late years, and since the discovery of 
the Witwatersrand gold fields and the construction of 
railroads in the country, the coal mines have been opened 
up and very largely made use of. 

In some localities common salt was plentiful and easily 
obtained, as it was a very simple matter to sweep it into 
heaps in the natural pans and fill bags with it. Where it 
was mixed with earth or sand, it could be purified by 
putting it in water, allowing the impurities to settle and 
then drawing the water off and placing it where it would 
evaporate by the action of the sun. Under such circum- 
stances the collection of salt for local use only cannot be 
considered as a mining industry. 

Silver, copper, cobalt, and saltpetre were reported to 
have been found in various localities, and as regards copper 
there was no doubt about its existence, as specimens were 
obtained from Bantu who had collected and smelted it, but 
nothing had yet been done to prove whether any or all of 
these minerals could be procured with profit. 

Iron existed in vast quantities, and was smelted by the 
blacks for their own wants, small clans often being in 
possession of five or six hundred kilogrammes of it. One 
mountain in the district of Lydenburg was composed of 
nearly pure iron ore, and affected the magnetic needle at 
a distance of ten miles or sixteen kilometres. The farmers 
often used iron that had been wrought by the blacks into 
small articles such as hoes, axes, and assagai heads; but 
they never extracted it for themselves. What was needed 
in the construction of waggons was imported in bars from 
Europe, and owing to he long land carriage was very 
expensive. 



2867] Discovery of Goldfields. 3 

The ancient gold miners had penetrated the territory 
south of the Limpopo, as there are indications that at some 
remote period pits were sunk and excavations on a small 
scale were made along outcropping reefs in the district of 
Lydenburg, but in 1867 gold mining was an unknown 
industry. The earliest emigrant farmers discouraged any 
attempt to search for the precious metal systematically. Rest 
and peace were what they desired, and so they wished to 
avoid the turmoil and strife which they believed would 
inevitably follow the advent of a mining population. 

There was thus before 1859 no inducement held out by 
the government to prospect for metals in any part of the 
country. On the 21st of September of that year the volksraad 
resolved to permit mining by individuals and companies, 
under such precautions as the executive council might con- 
sider necessary in the interests of the state. The intention 
was to allow a search for such metals as were indispensable 
for home use, and their extraction from the ore ; but even 
this was not encouraged. The resolution had no reference 
to prospecting for gold. 

Seven years later, on the 31st of October 1866, a mining 
ordinance was passed. It allowed the formation of companies 
to extract and smelt ores under certain conditions, which 
were to be agreed to in writing when the companies were 
registered. They were to render to the government correct 
statements on oath of all ores taken from public ground, and 
were to pay on the appraised value of such ores, if lead or 
iron ten shillings, if tin twenty shillings, if copper thirty 
shillings, for every hundred pounds sterling. Should precious 
metals be discovered, information was to be given to the 
government, that proper regulations might be made. 

In 1865 Mr. Henry Hartley, son of a British settler in 
Albany, and recently an elephant hunter in the territory 
between the Zambesi and the Limpopo, noticed some of the 
ancient workings there, and being without any knowledge of 
gold mining, practical or theoretical, after his return to the 
colony with the ivory and skins he had collected invited a 



4 History of the South African Republic. [1867 

German geologist named Carl Mauch to accompany him on 
his next hunting expedition, in order to ascertain what metals 
were to be had there and whether they were in such 
quantities as to pay for extracting them. Mr. Mauch 
accepted the invitation, and examined some large tracts of 
country. In December 1867 he arrived at Pretoria from 
Matabeleland, and reported that he had discovered rich and 
extensive goldfields along the Tati river, a tributary of a 
stream that flows into the Limpopo from the north. In his 
travels with Mr. Hartley he had seen ancient workings and 
the ruins of great stone buildings, and was fired with 
enthusiasm when he spoke or wrote of his wonderful dis- 
coveries. His glowing accounts of the country he bad visited 
attracted attention not only in England and Germany, but 
throughout the civilised world, and immediately adventurers 
turned their eyes towards South Africa as a promising field 
to make fortunes in. 

The time was particularly favourable for visiting Matabele- 
land. The old chief Moselekatse had lo.ng since become 
accustomed to receive European travellers and hunters in a 
friendly manner, provided they carried out his views of 
proper etiquette and made him liberal presents. Through 
their coming to his country he liad become possessed of 
waggons, which he could make use of, and a large collection 
of valuable articles, which pleased him for an hour, but 
were of no real service to him. 

After the defeat of the Matabele on the Marikwa by the 
emigrant farmers under Hendrik Potgieter and Pieter Uys in 
November 1837 the tribe fled to the north, and did not halt 
long or erect huts until it was far beyond the Matopo moun- 
tains. The division that was in advance, or the vanguard, 
reached the Zambesi, and desired to cross it and continue their 
journey beyond. They collected a great number of canoes, and 
ordered the owners to paddle them. These people did so, 
apparently with- willingness, and conveyed the soldiers to an 
island in the river as night was setting in. Before they were 
aware that there was another broad stream to be crossed, 



1 867] Account of the Matabele. 5 

the paddlers disappeared with the canoes. Some of the 
Matabele soldiers tried to swim to the bank, but were 
drowned, others died of hunger, and others when exhausted 
were killed by the Makololo. The whole force perished. 

At this time one of Moselekatse's sons conspired to establish 
himself as an independent chief, but his design was discovered 
before he could retire to a distance with his adherents, as 
had been his intention, and he and they paid for their 
treason with their lives. 

After these events Moselekatse turned back, and he 
settled then in the territory bordering on the Matopos. 

In 1857 the reverend Robert Moffat, of Kuruman, had 
paid him a visit, and obtained his consent to the establishment 
of a mission in the country. The London society then 
appointed the reverend Messrs. Thomas and Sykes to 
commence the work, and on the 28th of October 1859 they, 
accompanied by the reverend John Smith Moffat, son of the 
old missionary, reached Bulawayo. Moselekatse gave them 
ground for a station at a place called Inyati, on the head 
waters of one of the streams which flow northward to the 
Zambesi, and there in December they established themselves. 
Probably the teaching of the missionaries had some effect 
indirectly on the thoughts of the Matabele, though no 
professed converts to Christianity were made, and the old 
system of government — a pure military despotism — remained 
unchanged. 

The tribe had lost some of its fierceness by an admixture 
of blood with the people it had conquered. Just as Betshuana 
boys and girls had been incorporated in it when Moselekatse 
lived south of the Limpopo, so Makalanga boys and girls had 
been adopted since that time, and the blood of these feebler 
people had leavened the greater part of the community. 
Whole regiments were composed of Makalanga, of course 
with Zulu officers, and these, though ready to perform any 
act of treachery, perfidy, or cruelty, were far less brave in 
the field than the men who had come up from the coast and 
lwept the inland inhabitants away before them. 



6 History of the South Afi'ican Republic. [1869 

In October 1868 Moselekatse died. His legitimate heir, the 
only son of his great wife, had disappeared many years 
before, and it was not certain whether he had been killed 
by his father's order, or whether he had fled to some other 
country and was still alive. Under these circumstances the 
induna Nombati was appointed regent until the missing heir, 
Kuruman by name, could be found, or some other arrange- 
ment could be made. Nombati was now very old and feeble 
in bod\ T , though his intellect was still perfectly clear. It 
was he who had visited the reverend Robert Moffat in the 
Batlapin country, and been deeply impressed by the kindness 
as well as the ability of that eminent missionary. It was 
he who afterwards went to Capetown as the representative 
of his chief, and affixed a mark to a document which was 
held by many white men in England to be an engagement 
binding on the British government as well as on the 
Matabele people. In Capetown and when returning home 
through the colony he had been treated in the most friendly 
manner, so that a good impression of Europeans had been 
left on his mind. Of their valour and skill in war he could 
have no doubt after the encounters of his tribe with the 
emigrant farmers and its decisive defeat on the Marikwa. 
Nombati had therefore for many years been a professed 
friend of Europeans, and was the recognised advocate of the 
hunters and traders in the country when they wished to 
obtain favours from the chief. 

Confidential messengers were sent out in all directions to 
search for Kuruman, and in Natal a man was found who 
claimed to be the individual looked for. He afterwards 
denied this, but subsequently stated that he had done so 
through fear of being assassinated, and asserted that he was 
in real truth the legitimate heir of Moselekatse. Upon 
being closely examined, however, the account that he gave 
of himself was such that most of the indunas and old people 
came to the conclusion that he was not Kuruman, but a 
sun of Moselekatse of much lower rank. Nombati was 
decidedly of this opiuion. A man now came forward who 



1870] Account of the Matabele. 7 

asserted that he was the executioner of Kuruman, by order 
of Moselekatse, and who gave details as to the manner of 
his death. 

As their future chief the majority of the indunas then 
selected Lobengula, a son of Moselekatse by an inferior 
wife, but who had been adopted by the great wife by 
command of his father, and who was therefore regarded as 
chosen by Moselekatse to be his successor. This young man 
possessed a large amount of intelligence, and was of a com- 
paratively mild disposition, being good - natured and averse 
to cruelty, though as ruler of a tribe of marauders he was 
afterwards obliged by his position to sanction the frequent 
raids of his army upon any clans within its reach. For 
some time past he had dressed as a European and had 
travelled about the country with a white man, living in a 
wacfsfon, which kind of existence was so much to his likinor 
that he never abandoned it, though after his installation as 
chief he discarded European attire. It was with much 
reluctance that he accepted the post, and only gave his 
consent when Nombati decided against the individual who 
claimed to be Kuruman. Like Nombati, he professed to be 
a friend of Europeans, and in later years he proved that he 
was really well disposed towards them. On the 24th of 
January 1870 he was invested with the chieftainship of 
the tribe with the usual ceremonies. 

These included a war-dance by nine or ten thousand 
soldiers, plumed and attired with capes of ostrich feathers 
on their shoulders, bands of otter skin over their foreheads, 
brushes of the tails of oxen encircling their arms and legs, 
and kilts of wild-cat skins. A chant in praise of the chisf 
and defying his rival was described by several Europeans 
who were present as most impressive, the chorus being 
accompanied by the striking of spear-shafts upon the shields 
and the stamping of the warriors' feet in perfect time. To 
this succeeded the sacrifice of a large number of oxen to the 
spirits of the dead chiefs, especially the spirit of Moselekatse, 
whose body lay entombed close by in the Matopo hills. 



8 History of the South African Republic. [1870 

A section of the Matabele, however, declared in favour of 
the claimant from Natal. This party included the Sokindaba 
regiment, the most famous of all the veteran warrior bands, 
so that civil war was unavoidable. The issue was decided 
in one stubbornly contested battle, in which Lobengula's 
forces won a complete victory, and secured for their leader 
undisputed authority over the tribe. The character of the 
new chief is shown by the fact that instead of utterly 
exterminating the defeated foe, as his father would have 
done, he drafted all who survived the battle into some of 
the regiments that had fought on his side. His rival lived 
for some years after this event at Shoshong and in the 
South African Republic, but was never again in a position 
to dispute his right to the Matabele chieftainship. 

The armies of Moselekatse had ravaged the territory now 
known as Mashonaland as well as the district in which the 
tribe resided. A large proportion of the Makalanga and 
other people living there had been exterminated, and the 
remainder had been reduced to a condition of extreme 
poverty and misery. They lived among the rocks on the 
mountains, and as they could not cultivate the ground to 
any extent or keep herds of cattle for fear of attracting 
the attention of their masters, they eked out a miserable 
existence hardly better than that of the Bushmen whom 
their ancestors had supplanted, as was shown by the rock 
paintings and drippings in many parts of the country. Of 
late, however, they were not butchered quite as ruthlessly 
as in former years, and after Lobengula's accession raids 
upon them were much less frequent than before. 

This was the condition of Matabeleland at the time and 
just after the announcement of Mauch's discovery at the 
Tati. Small parties of gold seekers were at once fitted out 
in different parts of South Africa, and made their way as 
best they could to the place where they hoped fortunes 
awaited them. The first to reach the Tati consisted of nine 
men from Potchefstroom, under Captain Black, who cleared 
out an old shaft 10*67 metres or thirty-five feet deep, thus 



1869] Gold Mining at the Tati. 9 

opening up an ancient mine. Next to arrive was a party of 
four men from Waterberg. On the 22nd of June 1868, 
when the first party had been working seven weeks, they 
were visited by Dr. H. Exton, who reported that the 
thirteen diggers had only obtained about eighteen grammes 
or half an ounce of gold to that date. 

The territory between the Matopo range and the Limpopo 
was then almost uninhabited, as its former occupants had 
fled into the Transvaal Republic to be free from 
Moselekatse's stabbing assagais, and now formed portions 
of the tribes under Ma-gad u, Sekukuni, and other chiefs. 
Not far south of the Matopo there lived an Englishman, Mr. 
John Lee, on a farm given to him by Moselekatse, with 
whom be was a favourite, and who frequently acted by his 
advice in dealing with white men. 

The parties of diggers, as they arrived in succession, 
scattered about along the Tati river, and gave new names 
to the localities where they pitched their tents. In 1869 
they were joined by a number of experienced miners, who 
with some others, one hundred and eighty-five in all, had 
been induced to migrate to South Africa by the exaggerated 
reports that reached Australia. On their arrival in Natal, in 
February and April 1869, instead of finding rich alluvial gold- 
fields within easy reach, as they had anticipated, they learned 
that a journey of over fourteen hundred kilometres or nine 
hundred miles was before them, and that nothing positive 
was known of the condition of the locality where the reefs 
had been found. The spirited people of Natal, however, 
came to their aid in a liberal manner. Some were employed 
to search for gold in that colony, where a few grains were 
found in one or two places, though nowhere a sufficient 
quantity to encourage a continuation of work. Thirty-four 
of them were equipped by a company in Natal, and sent to 
the Tati to prove its capabilities. They selected a place 
about forty-eight kilometres or thirty miles higher up the 
river than the other diggers, where they thought the 
prospects were better, 



io History of the South African Republic. [1869 

In a short time these men examined the country in their 
neighbourhood without finding sufficient to satisfy their 
desires, and then individuals among them formed little 
associations and went much farther inland in search of 
either alluvial gold or rich quartz reefs. They examined 
several of the ancient workings, and observed that the 
method employed for extracting quartz from the outcrops 
of reefs had been by kindling large fires and then throwing 
water on the heated rock. They came to the conclusion 
that the former miners, whoever they were, had been quite 
as skilful in prospecting as themselves, and that the richest 
reefs had been taken out until water was reached and 
crushed long before. They did not succeed in discovering 
alluvial gold away from the banks of the Tati. 

In England the London and Limpopo Mining Company 
was formed in 1868. On the 27th of April 1869 its principal 
managers, Sir John Swinburne and Captain Arthur Lionel 
Levert, reached the Tati with a steam engine, and soon 
afterwards commenced work. At this time more than a 
hundred European diggers in little parties were scattered 
along the river, and two or three times that number of 
blacks were employed by them, all raising quartz from pits 
or searching for alluvial gold. Some of the quartz was rich, 
but the appliances for crushing it were so crude that the gold 
produced did not yield a fair return for the labour employed, 
especially as provisions, owing to the long land carriage, 
cost nearly twice as much as in Pretoria or Potchefstroom. 
Only the merest traces of alluvial gold were found, and 
after a short time the diggers became disheartened and 
moved away to the diamond fields that were then being 
opened up on the banks of the Vaal. Some simply 
abandoned their claims, others before leaving disposed of 
the rights they had obtained in the territory to the London 
and Limpopo Mining Company, which was thus left in sole 
occupation of the reefs at the Tati. 

lb was conclusively proved that it would be unprofitable 
to dig for alluvial gold in that part of South Africa, and 



1869] Unsuccessful Mining Companies. 11 

whether quartz crushing with proper machinery would pay 
remained to be tested. The stamping apparatus of the 
London and Limpopo Mining Company was almost useless, 
but specimens of rock sent to England for examination were 
so rich that it could not be doubted that with effective 
appliances large profits would be obtained. The company 
therefore continued working, though for some time on a very 
small scale. It had obtained from Nombati, when regent, 
verbal permission to set up machinery and extract metals, 
and Lobengula confirmed these privileges. In 1872 Captain 
Levert obtained from the chief a written concession giving 
full and exclusive mining rights to the company over the 
large tract of land between the Matopo range and the 
Shashi river, since known as the Tati district, and when 
this was acquired operations could be more safely extended, 
though considerable time was still needed to get out and 
erect suitable crushing machine^. 

Another association formed in England in 1868 termed 
itself the South African Goldfields Exploration Company. 
It sent out the celebrated traveller and artist Thomas Baines 
and a Swedish mineralogist named C. J. Nelson to inspect 
the country and obtain mining concessions. Messrs. Baines 
and Nelson reached Port Natal on the 16th of February 
1869, and as soon as they could procure a conveyance set 
out for the interior. Messrs. Hartley and Mauch had dis- 
covered in 1866 what they believed to be rich goldfields 
south of the Zambesi river and west of a stream that flows 
into it opposite Zumbo, and it was to this region that 
Messrs. Baines and Nelson directed their attention. A 
party of eleven adventurous colonists of Natal had formed 
themselves into the Durban Gold Mining Company, and 
had endeavoured to reach the same ground some time 
previously, but at Inyati they had been attacked by fever, 
of which four of them died, and the other seven were so 
debilitated that they were obliged to return to the coast. 

Having obtained permission from Nombati, Mr. Baines 
Inspected that part of the country, and was then granted by 



12 History of the South African Republic. 

Lobengula a verbal concession to carry on mining operations 
in it. The company was not satisfied with this, however, 
and Mr. Eaines, after proceeding to the coast and sending 
his report to England, was obliged to return to Bulawayo, 
where on the 29th of August 1871 he obtained a concession 
in writing from the chief. But nothing came of it, for the 
company failed to raise the necessary capital, and no 
mining operations were undertaken in that locality. Mr. 
Nelson entered the service of the London and Limpopo 
Mining Company at Tati, and Mr. Baincs, after supporting 
himself for some years as an artist, died of dysentery at 
Durban on the 8th of May 1875. 

In 1869 Mr. Edward Button, an enterprising Natal 
colonist, with some experienced associates explored the 
country along the eastern mountains in the Transvaal 
Republic, and discovered gold in small quantities in various 
places. In 1870 he continued these explorations with the 
same result. In the winter of 1871 he prospected in the 
district of Zoutpansberg, and on the 8th of September of 
that year he exhibited to the volksraad specimens of rich 
gold-bearing quartz which he had discovered fourteen 
kilometres or nine miles south - east of Marabastad. Having 
obtained the privileges he desired, he proceeded to England, and 
in 1872 formed there the Transvaal Gold Mining Company, 
with a capital of £50,000, with the object of working the 
mine at Eersteling, as his ground in the Zoutpansberg 
district was called. With machinery for quartz crushing 
h8 returned to South Africa, and at a little later date the 
opening of the mine was commenced. There, as at the Tati, 
alluvial gold was diligently sought for, and small quantities 
were obtained ; but it was found that it would not pay 
the cost of collecting it. 

The government of the republic and a considerable 
majority of the farmers hold at this time favourable views 
with regard to gold mining, regarding it as a likely means 
of relieving the financial condition of the state, which was 
as low as it possibly could be. On the 14th of June 1870 



1868] Account of the Bamangwato. 13 

the volksraad resolved that five per cent of the value of gold 
and two and a half per cent of the value of silver obtained 
by miners should be paid into the public treasury. Next, 
the whole country, excepting only cultivated ground and 
homesteads, was thrown open to prospectors on payment of 
twenty shillings for a license, and when claims were selected 
and worked a fee of ten shillings monthly. Mr. Button was 
appointed gold commissioner, and was empowered, with a 
committee elected by the diggers, to draw up byelaws 
or rules regulating mining matters for the approval of the 
volksraad. 

That a new condition of things was created by Mr. 
Mauch's report to the volksraad in December 1867 was at 
once apparent. President Pretorius, being desirous that any 
mining community which might spring up in close proximity 
to occupied farms should be subject to the laws of the 
republic, sent messengers to Moselekatse and Matsheng to 
endeavour to induce those chiefs to admit that they were 
subject to control by the emigrant farmers. Matsheng was 
chief of the Bamangwato, and resided at Shoshong, a place 
situated on the road to Matabeleland commonly used, because 
the routes farther eastward passed through districts infested 
by the tsetse. 

The Bamangwato, though long a distinct tribe, belonged to 
the Bakwena group, its founder, Mangwato by name, having 
separated from the main stem five generations of chiefs 
before. These five generations, however, correspond in time 
to fourteen generations in the Bahurutsi or main stem, to 
twelve generations in the modern Bakwena, an important 
branch, and to eight generations in the Bangwaketse, another 
large branch, so that each chief's life must have been a very 
long one. The line of descent is Mangwato — brother of 
Mohurutsi and Ngwaketse and son of Malope brother of 
Kwena, — Mathibe, Khama, Khari, Matsheng. 

The Bamangwato tribe had been partly destroyed, and the 
remnant was dispersed in war with the Barozwe, when its 
chief, Khari by name, was killed. After a time Sekhomi, an 



14 History of the South African Republic. [186S 

inferior son of Khari, collected the scattered people together 
and settled with them at Shoshong. It was not a desirable 
place of residence, for the supply of water was so scanty 
that very little vegetable food could be grown, but the 
mountains afforded shelter and means of defence against 
ordinary enemies. Here they were attacked by the Makololo 
under Sebetoane, on their way to the Zambesi, and were 
again dispersed, when Sekhomi was made a prisoner. He 
was not put to death, however, and after the Makololo moved 
on he made his escape and once more collected the remnant 
of the tribe together and reoccupied Shoshong. 

Some years after EChari's death his great widow gave 
birth to a son, named Matsheng, who was regarded by the 
Bamangwato as their legitimate chief. This boy was made 
captive by the Matabele, and was compelled to serve as a 
carrier in Moselekatse's army, from which position he rose 
in time to be a soldier. But the Bamangwato never forgot 
him, and on their entreaty the reverend Robert Moffat, of 
Kuruman, the recognised friend of all the Betshuana, used 
his influence with Moselekatse, and Matsheng was set free. 
He returned to Shoshong after twenty years' absence, and 
was joyfully received by the people as their chief. 

But he had been trained as a Matabele soldier, and 
strove to govern after the Matabele pattern. The Bamang- 
wato soon found that they had a tyrant at their head, and 
that the slightest offence cost a man his life. There were 
no more public meetings in the kotla to discuss matters, 
according to Setshuana custom, the hereditary counsellors of 
the tribe were forced to keep silence, and were replaced by 
men appointed by the chief to carry out his orders and do 
nothing more. Devotion to their legitimate chiefs is not so 
strong among the interior tribes as among those of the 
eastern coast. As long as their head is a member of the 
ruling family, they are in most cases satisfied, and so a 
party of the Bamangwato, after a fair trial of Matsheng, 
in 1859 with the assistance of the Bakwena chief Setsheli 
rose against his tyranny, compelled him to retire, and raised 



i868] Accottnt of the Bamangwato. 15 

Sekhomi again to be their chief. The rejected despot with 
a few adherents took refuge with Setsheli, who for political 
reasons was always glad to give shelter to exiles of note. 

Fortune, however, favoured him once more. Khama, the 
eldest son cf Sekhomi, embraced Christianity, and refused to 
conform to the ancient customs of his people, which so 
irritated his father that war was made upon him and he 
and his adherents were driven away from Shoshong. After 
a time he returned, when Sekhomi, rinding the people well 
disposed towards his son, who was an exceedingly able man, 
in his animosity sent an invitation to Matsheng to return 
and put Khama to death. In May 1866 Matsheng reached 
Shoshong, and for the second time became chief of the 
Bamangwato. He refused to cause Khama to be murdered, 
and Sekhomi, who then realised the dangerous position in 
which he had placed himself, fled to Setsheli and was taken 
under that schemer's protection. Matsheng had not learnt 
moderation during his exile, but for more than six years 
the Bamangwato submitted to his tyranny. Then there 
was another revolution, and on the 1st of September 1872 
he was finally driven from Shoshong by Khama with the 
aid of Setsheli, when the individual who professed to be 
Kuruman was also obliged to leave that place. Ngare, 
Matsheng's son of highest rank, who might have proved a 
formidable rival of Khama, was banished from the 
Bamangwato territory, and further strife was thus 
prevented. 

Such was Matsheng, chief of the Bamangwato, when the 
messengers of President Pretorius arrived at Shoshong. He 
could not be induced to comply with their desires, and 
stated that he was absolutely independent, though he 
admitted that Moselekatse was a greater and more powerful 
man. Some English traders and hunters who were there 
at the time, however, represented to him so forcibly what 
the results of an inrush of gold diggers might be, that he 
resolved on their advice to petition the British government 
for protection. The reverend John Mackenzie, who had long 



i6 History of the South African Republic. [1868 

been residing as a missionary at Shoshong, accordingly wrote 
a letter for him to that effect to the high commissioner 
Sir Philip Wodehouse, but the imperial authorities were 
indisposed to take any action in the matter. 

With the old ruler of the Matabele, then too feeble to 
move and very near his end, the messengers met with no 
better success ; it is doubtful indeed whether they even 
ventured to state their object in plain words. 

Without waiting for reports from his messengers, on the 
29th of April 1868 the president, with the concurrence of 
the executive council, issued a proclamation in which the 
boundaries of the republic were extended on the west to a 
straight line from Lake Ngami to the northern point of 
Langeberg, and on the east were made to include one mile 
(16 kilometre) on each side of the rivers Pongolo and 
Maputa down to the sea. On the north a great extent of 
country was added to the republic, but not the district 
occupied by Mosclekatse. 

As soon as this proclamation reached Capetown, Sir Philip 
Wodehouse wrote objecting to the inclusion in the republic 
of so much territory previously occupied by independent 
Bantu tribes ; and Chevalier Duprat, consul - general for 
Portugal in South Africa, wrote that a portion of the land 
annexed on the east coast had been since 1546 in possession 
of the kingdom he represented. 

It is purely a matter of opinion what were the rightful 
boundaries of the republic at this time, for wherever a line 
might be laid down parties would be found not only to dis- 
pute it, but to bring weighty arguments against it. All 
that can be done is to give the facts on which the different 
views rested. 

The boundaries were left undefined by the convention of 
1852, but there are means of concluding fairly what the 
British commissioners understood them to be, at least on 
the west. Messrs. Hogge and Owen had before them the 
declaration of Commandant - General Potgieter and the 
volksraad of his party claiming the country as far as the 



1 868] Undefined Boundaries. 17 

falls of the Orange river, that is nearly the whole of 
Betshuanaland as well as the present Transvaal provinces. 
That extent of country was claimed by the emigrant farmers 
as having been taken from Moselekatse, and there is no 
question that all of the tribes previously occupying that 
region, the Batlapin excepted, had been broken up by the 
Matabele. The soldiers of Moselekatse did not indeed 
traverse the Kalahari desert as far westward as the 
meridian running through the falls of the Orange, but the 
terror of their name extended that far, and there was no 
compact tribe left east of it. The declaration of Potgieter, 
therefore, was not unreasonable from the point of view of 
the emigrant farmers. 

A copy of the document in which the declaration is made 
was filed by Messrs. Hogge and Owen with their other re- 
cords, and they never disputed it, or so much as attached a 
note or a memorandum to ifc to show that they regarded it 
unfavourably. On the 9th of June 1852 Major Hogge died, 
and excepting what has been stated in a preceding volume 
there is no further evidence than the above as to what his 
views were. Mr. Owen, however, who was in most matters 
in full accord with Major Hogge, w r as of opinion that the 
very best thing England could do would be to withdraw all 
intercourse with the interior of South Africa, where, in his 
opinion, neither glory nor profit of any kind was to be had. 
The hunters would soon kill all the game, he believed, and 
then if the farmers and the blacks chose to quarrel about 
any number of hundred square miles of desert, let them do 
it to their hearts' content : Englishmen could be much 
better employed than backing up either side. 

In the evening of Tuesday, the 22nd of June 1852, a 
public dinner was given in Bloemfontein in honour of Com- 
mandant - General Andries Pretorius, who had arrived on a 
visit during the preceding day. Among the guests were 
Assistant - Commissioner Owen, Mr. Louis Henry Meurant, 
and Commandant Pieter Scholtz. After a good many com- 
plimentary toasts had been drunk, and when everybody was 

vol. v, c 



18 History of the South African Republic. [1868 

in the best of humour, the recent convention happened to be 
spoken about. Mr. Pretorins asked Mr. Owen : " how about 
our lower line, after Vaal river ends ? " " Oh ! " replied Mr. 
Owen, " you may have the Orange down to the sea, if you 
like." Whether this remark was a result of the frequency 
with which the wine glasses had been emptied, or not, both 
parties remembered all about it two days afterwards. Com- 
mandant-General Pretorius had a very strong liking for the 
Orange down to the sea, and Mr. Owen was not the man 
to go back from his word. The following document was 
therefore drawn up and signed : 

" With reference to the article in the convention entered into by her 
Majesty's assistant commissioners Major Hogge and Mr. C M. Owen, 
and the commandant-general A. W. J. Pretorius, Esquire, and other 
delegates of the emigrants over the Vaal, dated at Sand River the 17th 
January 1852, concerning the line of Vaal river ; it is hereby further 
resolved by the above named gentlemen that the lower line shall be 
from where the Vaal river joins the Orange river, down along the said 
river to the sea, the British government having no authority north of the 
said Orange river as above named ; this agreement being subject to the 
approval of his Excellency the high commissioner. 
" Bloemfontein, 24th June 1852. 

" C. Mostyn Owen, Assistant-Commissioner, 
"A. W. J. Pretorius, Commandant-General, 
"P. E. Scholtz, Commandant. 
*' A 8 witness : L. H. Meurant." 

But the arrangement made under such convivial circum- 
stances never was submitted to the high commissioner, and 
consequently never had any legal force, though nineteen 
years later the document itself was produced as evidence at 
the Bloemhof arbitration 

The copy of Commandant-General Potgieter's declaration 
as to the territory belonging to the emigrant farmers ex- 
tending to the falls of the Orange was transferred by 
Assistant-Commissioner Owen among many other documents 
to Sir George Clerk, without any observation being made 
upon it. Sir George Clerk read over the packages of 
manuscript so received, commented upon most of the papers, 
but passed this one by without notice. The fair inference 



1 868] Undefined Boundaries. 19 

is that the special commissioner, like the assistant commis- 
sioners, had no objection to the republic fixing its western 
boundary wherever it chose. 

There was a man, however, who did object at this time 
to the exercise by the republican government of authority 
over the blacks on the border of the desert. That man was 
the reverend Dr. Livingstone. He persisted in claiming 
independence for the Bakwena under Setsheli, with whom 
he was stationed as a missionary. The lower road to the 
interior, opened by English hunters and traders, and passing 
through the London Society's station of Kuruman, he 
constantly wrote of as being outside the republic. He 
complained to Sir George Cathcart, her Majesty's high commis- 
sioner in South Africa, when Commandant-General Pretorius 
attempted to close this road so as to prevent the sale of 
munitions of war to the blacks. But he failed to induce the 
high commissioner to see the matter as he saw it. and the 
only conclusion one can arrive at is that Sir George Cathcart 
did not object to the indefinite extension of the republic 
westward. The policy of the imperial government was one 
of withdrawal. The emigrant farmers therefore could do 
what seemed to them best. 

At a little later date, however, a different view was ex- 
pressed in England. In reply to a request made by Sir 
George Grey for instructions as to the interpretation to be 
put upon the conventions of 1852 and 1854, the right 
honourable Henry Labouchere, then secretary of state for 
the colonies, wrote on the 5th of March 1857 : — 

"Her Majesty's Government cannot admit that the general declarations 
embodied in those conventions amount to a renunciation for all future time 
of the right to conclude treaties with the native tribes specified therein, 
under all supposable circumstances. They conceive that those declarations 
are to be taken, as regards the future, as amounting to no more than a 
general indication of the policy of Her Majesty's Government, namely, to 
avoid embarrassing these free states by the entertainment of any separate 
relations with the tribes within or closely bordering on their limits, of a 
nature to excite well-founded jealousy on their part. 

" With regard to the meaning of the geographical expression 'north of 
the Vaal river,' Her Majesty's Government understand it as used in its 



2o History of the South African Republic. [1868 

ordinary and positive sense, and not according to the very illegitimate 
extension of its meaning which you say is acted upon, viz. north of ' the 
latitude of ' the Vaal river." 

That this question of their western boundary had been 
under the notice of the British authorities in South Africa 
when the conventions of 1852 and 1854 were signed was 
unknown to the burghers of the South African Republic in 
1868 ; but they were of course aware that a claim had 
always been made to the territory as far west as it was 
habitable, based on the conquest of the Matabele. 

The opposite view, or that held by most people in Europe, 
was that the boundaries of the republic were — or ought to 
have been — the outer lines of its old field cornetcies. That 
view cut off all the Bantu clans that were not actually 
living among white people and all unoccupied ground 
beyond the outermost settled farm. Several maps were 
constructed on this principle. But if it was correct, how 
can waste lands be included in the map of any country ? 

A third view was that the boundaries should include 
the country — and no more — over which the government at 
Pretoria actually exercised jurisdiction with the consent of 
the inhabitants, white and black. But that implied that as 
soon as a clan became strong enough to resist, it was en- 
titled to independence. The government, as has been over 
and over again shown, recognised the plain fact that there 
were two classes of people, differing very greatly, living on 
the same ground and partly intermingled. One class had 
the instincts of civilisation, and was therefore entitled to 
be ruled according to the laws and methods of civilised 
lands. The othei class was composed of barbarians. Those 
who belonged to it were excluded from political association 
with the Europeans, but they had their own government left 
to them, except in matters in which white people also were 
concerned. In such cases the law of the higher race was 
supreme. In South Africa this seems very simple and 
natural ; but people in Europe find it difficult to comprehend 
and still more difficult to appreciate. North, west, and east, 



1S69] Undefined Botmdaries. 21 

the districts settled by white people were fringed with 
clans ruled by their own chiefs, over whom the government 
at Pretoria claimed supremacy. None of these clans could 
have been there at all, many of them could not have been 
in existence even, if it had not been for the presence of 
Europeans in the country. Were they to be regarded as 
independent whenever they chose to declare themselves free 
of control ? 

Then there was a fourth view. Amongj the clans on the 
border of the districts occupied by Europeans were several 
that during the years of civil strife had been left entirely 
to themselves. Ought not these to be considered inde- 
pendent, and the ground they occupied to be regarded as 
no longer within the domain of the republic ? According to 
this view, cessation of interference of every kind for a 
period of five or six years is equivalent to renunciation of 
sovereignty over people like the Bantu clans. Whether this 
is correct or not, the resumption of authority in such cases 
is generally attended with considerable difficulty, and always 
meets with resistance of some kind. 

The objections raised by Sir Philip Wodehouse and 
Chevalier Duprat to the proclamation by President Pretorius 
of the 29th of April 1868 caused the government to recede 
to a great extent from the claims it had made. The 
question of the western boundary will form the subject of 
a future chapter, the boundary on the east was arranged 
without difficulty. 

After some correspondence with the Portuguese consul- 
general concerning this subject and the advantage of a 
treaty of commerce, on the 8th of June 1869 the volksraad 
approved of the negotiations as far as they had been con- 
ducted, and appointed a commission to conclude a treaty. 
The commissioners chosen were President M. W. Pretorius, 
Messrs. Heinrich Julius Ueckermann, Joseph Johannes Fourie, 
and John Robert Lys, members of the volksraad, Mr. 
Marthinus Jacobus Viljoen, member of the executive council, 
Commandant - General S. J. Paul Kruger, and Bernard 



22 History of the South African Republic. [1871 

Cornells Ernest Proes, LL.D., state secretary. On the other 
part, the consul-general Alfredo Duprat was fully empowered 
by his Majesty the king of Portugal and the Algarves to act 
on behalf of his government. 

The commissioners on both sides met at Pretoria, and on 
the 29th of July 1869 the treaty was drawn up and signed. 
It contained twenty-four clauses: providing for peace and 
friendship between the contracting powers ; freedom for the 
subjects or citizens of each to carry on trade in the dominions 
of the other, except in munitions of war and in slaves, on 
the same terms as the most favoured of any other nation ; 
complete protection of person and property, freedom of 
conscience, freedom from military service or taxes for 
military purposes, and full testamentary powers, of the 
subjects or citizens of each in the dominions of the other ; 
extradition of criminals ; liberty to appoint consuls and 
agents, who were to enjoy many privileges ; and other 
matters of a similar nature. The clauses relating to com- 
merce were to have force for six years, and were thereafter 
to be subject to a notice of twelve months before becoming 
void ; all the other clauses were to be binding on both 
parties in perpetuity. 

The boundary of the Portuguese dominions in South- 
Eastern Africa is defined in the treaty as the parallel of 
latitude of 26° 30' from the Indian ocean to the Lebombo 
mountains, thence along the highest ridge of the Lebombo 
to the centre of the lower poort of Komati where the river 
of that name passes through the range, thence in a straight 
line about north by east to Pokioenskop on the northern 
bank of the Olifants river where it passes through the 
mountains, thence in a direction about north - west by north 
to the nearest point of the mountains of Tshakundo on the 
Umvubu river, and thence in a straight line to the junction 
of the Pafuri and Limpopo rivers. 

The final ratification of this treaty took place at Pretoria 
on the 10th of July 1871. The delay was occasioned by the 
arrival at Potchefstroom in December 1869 of a Portuguese 



187 1] Dealings with Portugal. 23 

diplomatic commission, under the presidency of the baron 
Carlos Pedro Barahona e Costa, governor of Kilimane. This 
commission proposed several supplementary articles, which, 
however, were ultimately rejected by the Portuguese 
government. 

The diplomatic commission remained at Potchefstroom 
for several months. On the 8th of July 1870, as a mark 
of the friendship existing between the two countries, the 
governor of Kilimane was made an honorary citizen of the 
South African Republic. His residence at Potchefstroom 
was productive of an event marking the progress in liberal 
ideas that had been made in the republic since the adoption 
of the constitution. His Excellency forwarded to the volks- 
raad two memorials signed respectively by fifty - eight and 
eighty - one individuals, in favour of religious liberty for 
Roman Catholics, whereupon a resolution was adopted — 1st 
of June 1870 — permitting perfect freedom of worship to 
burghers and residents, and annulling the restrictive clauses 
of the constitution in that respect. Unlike the constitution 
of the Orange Free State, that of the South African Republic 
could be altered or amended at any time by a simple 
resolution of the volksraad. 



CHAPTEK LXXXV. 

EVENTS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC FROM 1870 

to 1872. 

The territory along the northern bank of the Vaal, in which 
diamonds were found, was claimed by the South African 
Republic, the Barolong chief Moroko, some clans ol the 
Batlapin, a horde of Koranas, and Mr. David Arnot for the 
Griqua captain Nicholas Waterboer. Of these claimants, the 
South African Republic, the Batlapin, and the Koranas were 
then in actual occupation. A few farmers were scattered 
over it ; there was a large kraal of Batlapin at Likatlong, 
where the waters of the Hart join those of the Vaal ; and 
between Likatlong and Hebron were several little kraals 
of Koranas. 

The Barolong claim was based on the fact that the 
territory in bygone years was partly occupied by the clan 
that since 1833 had been living under Moroko at Thaba 
Ntshu. Waterboer's pretensions rested on the alleged treaty 
with Mahiira already mentioned, on the fact that in the time 
of his father Griqua influence extended to this territory, that 
there were formerly Griqua outposts of the captains Cornelis 
Kok and Barend Barends* in the neighbourhood, that he 
considered those captains subjects of his father, and that 
Likatlong was a station of the London society in subordina- 
tion to the missionary at Griquatown. 

* Barend Barends never was a subject of Andries Waterboer, or in any 
way under the influence of that captain. After the defeat of his band 
by the Matabele in July 1831, as related in chapter xv, he wandered 
about for a time, and when in December 1833 the remnant of his 
clan, under Peter Davids, migrated from Boetsap to Lishuane, on the 
Caledon, he moved to Great Namaqualand. There he remained during 
1834 and 1835, and then returned to his former home, Boetsap, where 
he died. 

24 



Dealings with the Batlapin. 25 

The claim of the South African Republic was put forward 
at a later date as founded upon a treaty which it was 
asserted had been concluded with the Barolong clan of 
Montsiwa in December 1851, but when the controversy- 
first arose it was made to rest upon recent dealings with 
the Batlapin. After the war of 1858, in which Gasibone 
was killed, the Batlapin chief Mahura, to obtain peace, 
through his representatives entered into an agreement to 
pay all costs and damages ; but the civil strife in the 
republic which followed closely upon this event gave him 
an opportunity to escape from his engagement. When 
order was again restored, and a demand was made upon 
him, he referred the government of President Pretorius to 
his agent, Mr. David Arnot, of Colesberg. Mr. Arnot 
declined to comply with the demand, and in a letter to 
President Pretorius, dated on the 8th of August 1864, 
claimed for the Batlapin the whole country along the 
northern bank of the Yaal from a point opposite Platberg 
up to Makwasi Spruit, thence along the Makwasi mountains 
and round by the source of the Hart river to the source 
of the Molopo. This territory did not include the diamond- 
fields, which were farther westward. In all these contentions, 
it must be remembered, it was not the coloured clans that 
first fabricated extravagant claims, but European agents 
acting nominally on their behalf. 

For several years after 1864 subjects of greater im- 
portance than the debt of Mahura occupied the attention 
of the authorities at Pretoria, but towards the close of 1868 
an arrangement was made for a conference between a com- 
mission from the republic and the Batlapin and Korana 
chiefs, with the object of discussing and arranging matters 
in which they were all interested. It was agreed that the 
place for the conference should be the farm of Mr. Daniel 
Verwey, on the bank of the Vaal some distance below 
Bloemhof, and the date the 10th of February 1869. 

The commission of the South African Republic consisted 
of President Pretorius, Mr. W. Best, landdrost of Bloemhof, 



26 History of the South African Republic. [1869 

and Messrs. J. W. Viljoen, H. 0. W. Verrnaas, D. Verwey, 
and H. C. Weber. The chiefs did not arrive at the time 
agreed upon, but some of them sent messages that they 
were coming, and on the 19th of February, Botlasitsi, 
Mahura, Jantje, and Matlabane, with four Korana captains 
and seventy-two counsellors were assembled. The conference 
continued until the 26th. Both the Batlapin and the 
Koranas claimed the country along the northern bank of 
the Vaal above and below the junction of the Hart, and the 
arguments of each seemed of equal weight. Their govern- 
ment was in fact tribal, not territorial. The Koranas, how- 
ever, were few in number, and were not disposed to object 
to the supremacy of the white men. Mahura admitted his 
indebtedness on account of the war of 1858, and the 
president offered to accept fifteen hundred head of cattle in 
full payment, if he and the other captains would consent to 
the Hart river as the boundary. Jantje demurred to this, 
and promised to assist Mahura to meet his old engagement. 
Thereupon, on the 26th of February an agreement was drawn 
up and signed by the Batlapin captains, in which they 
undertook to deliver three thousand head of good cattle 
at Potchefstroom within two months, and promised to 
attend another conference after the delivery of the cattle, in 
order to fix a permanent boundary line between their 
territory and the republic. 

A fortnight before the expiration of the two months, 
Mr. Arnot, as agent for Mahura, wrote to the president, 
declining to pay the cattle, and proposing to refer all 
differences and disputes to the arbitration of her Majesty's 
high commissioner in South Africa. But a few days later 
Mr. Arnot ceased to be Mahura's advocate. The Batlapin 
were laying claim to the same ground that he asserted was 
Nicholas Waterboer's, and would not be satisfied with the 
territory to the eastward to which he desired to limit them, 
so that he abandoned their cause. He was succeeded by 
one Theodor Doms as chief adviser, agent, and representative 
of Mahura. 



1870] Dealings with the Batlapin. 2 7 

On the 26th of July Bonis wrote to Landdrost Best, of 
Bloemhof, announcing that the Batlapin had failed to collect 
the three thousand head of cattle, and on their behalf he 
offered as a settlement to agree to a boundary from Saltpan's 
Drift on the Vaal in a direct line to Mamusa on the Hart 
river, and thence up to the Zwartkopjes beyond the Schoon. 
spruit saltpan ; further to pay £10,000 in money in the 
course of eight or ten months, and as security to pass a 
mortgage bond on all the ground east of the Hart river. 
Mr. Best referred this proposal to the president and 
executive council, who declined it, but offered to accept 
fifteen hundred head of cattle if delivered before the 6th of 
September, and the line of the Hart river up to midway 
between Taung and Mamusa. Doms replied that lie desired 
to consult the chiefs, and requested to be supplied with 
copies of all documents relating to transactions with the 
Batlapin subsequent to 1857. A copy of the agreement 
of the 26th of February and some extracts from the minutes 
of the conference were sent to him ; but as the government 
of the republic declined to supply all that be asked for and 
thus practically reopen the matter, he began to complain 
that injustice was being done, and the negotiations came 
to an end. 

Then, as the chiefs had failed to keep their agreement, 
on the 12th of November 1869 President Pretorius, with the 
concurrence of the executive council, issued a proclamation 
extending the district of Bloemhof to the Hart river from its 
confluence with the Vaal upwards to the junction of its 
north-western affluent above the place called the Poort, and 
thence northward to the Zwartrand. 

Nothing further occurred in connection with these people 
until the 25th of August 1870, when the commission of the 
South African Kepublic — President Pretorius and Messrs. 
B. C. E. Proes and J. R. Lys — had a conference at Nooitge- 
dacht with the Barolong chief Moroko and the Batlapin 
chiefs Jantje and Mankoroane. Mahnra was then dead, and 
Mankoroane, though not of high birth, had succeeded as 



28 History of the South AfiHcan Republic. [1868 

head of his clan. Doms was with them as adviser and agent. 
At this conference, Moroko laid claim to the land east of the 
Hart as his by inheritance, and the others agreed with him. 
The Batlapin captains claimed the land west of the Hart 
down to Griquatown. All repudiated Nicholas Waterboer's 
pretensions. 

The Barolons: clan under Montsiwa was left in 1854 in 
the country of the Bangwaketse north of the Molopo, though 
the location south of that river assigned to it by officers of 
the republic in December 1851 was still regarded as its 
property. Montsiwa remained with the Bangwaketse, and 
his reserve, being almost unoccupied, attracted the attention 
of a few farmers. These settled at some of the best springs, 
where for several years they were undisturbed. At length 
Montsiwa addressed President Pretorius upon the subject, 
and as no steps were taken to remove the farmers, on the 
15th of August 1868 a letter was written in his name by 
the reverend Joseph Ludorf to the president and the members 
of the volksraad, which was the commencement of a long 
and acrimonious controversy. 

In this letter the right of the Barolong to the country 
occupied by their ancestors in the time of the chief Tao was 
made to rest upon an alliance alleged to have been entered 
into by Commandant-General Hendrik Potgieter in 1837 
with Tawane and Moroko, heads of refugee clans at Thaba 
Ntshu. It was asserted, as if it was a well-known fact, that 
when the emigrant farmers "decided to take the country 
from Moselekatse, they entered into a treaty with the 
Barolong chiefs Moroko and Tawane, with the express 
condition that if the Barolong would assist against the 
Matabele, their independent and perpetual right to the land 
of their forefathers would be guaranteed : namely Tawane's 
portion situated between the rivers Molopo and Hart, west 
to the Kalahari desert ; and Moroko's ground, as indicated 
by thousands of kraals of his former residences* east of the 

*From the walls of rough stones constructed by these people around their 
huts, usually about thirty-five or forty centimetres high, to strengthen 



1 868] Dealings with the Bare long. 29 

Hart river." It was further asserted that " depending on 
this treaty, the Barolong under Moroko and Tawane took 
up arms, and faithfully executed their part of the contract." 
Subsequent events were then made to fit in with this view 
of past transactions, and with a quotation from the bible 
the encroachment of the farmers was protested agamst, and 
the volksraad was requested to remove the intruders. 

Such a perversion of historical occurrences would never 
have entered the mind of a Morolong, if it had not been 
first put into shape by a European. It is true, any one of 
the little party of Barolong herdsmen that accompanied 
Maritz and Potgieter, and afterwards Potgieter and Uys, 
against Moselekatse, when relating the events of those 
expeditions to an assemblage of blacks, would probably re- 
present himself and his companions as the principal actors, 
and only casually mention the farmers. But he would never 
devise the conditions of a treaty which had no existence. 
However, when once suggested to him, he would readily 
grasp the importance of a statement such as the above, and 
would have no hesitation in affirming its truth, especially 
if his chief approved of it. Thus it happened that a 
cunningly-devised fiction came to be represented by the 
Barolong of Montsiwa and some of the other clans as a 
correct statement of their case, and is to the present day 
accepted by many persons as a faithful version of events. 

On the 28th of August 1868, a few days after the letter 
to the authorities of the South African Republic was written, 
one was addressed in the name of Montsiwa to Sir Philip 
Wodehouse, asking for protection. This was the beginning 
of the intercourse between the Tsili branch of the Barolong 
and the representative of the imperial government in this 
country Montsiwa was made to say : 

" May it please Your Excellency to permit the undersigned chief of the 
Barolong to take refuge under your protecting wings from the injustice of 
the Transvaal Republic, whose government has lately, by proclamation, 
included our country within the possessions of the said republic. 

them when the soil is unfavourable for supporting posts, the sites of 
their kraals can be determined for a long period after abandonment. 



30 History of the South African Republic. [iS68 

"Upwards of thirty years ago, when Commandant H. Potgieter first left 
the colony with his party, they found our tribe at Thaba Ntshu with 
Moroko. We then warned the emigrant Boers not to go near Moselekatse, 
for he would surely attack them. But they would not listen, and went on 
for ' Canaan.' After their party was almost destroyed on the banks of the 
Vaal river, the Barolong fetched the remainder back to Thaba Ntshu, where 
they during two years received every possible kindness and hospitality. By 
and by others came from the colony, and by force of persuasion we at last 
yielded to enter into an alliance with Commandant Potgieter to assist him 
in avenging himself on Moselekatse, on condition that if we succeeded to 
dislodge the Matabele we should have our fathers' country back and live 
under our own rule. Which was agreed to. 

" Leading the Boers on to the lion's den, we warred at our own expense, 
had our own horses, guns, ammunition, and victuals, and constantly refused 
to take any of the captured stock. We had one desire only, which was to 
have our old country where are the graves of our fathers. 

"Moselekatse was defeated. Soon after the Boers moved into the newly 
cleared territory, and the Barolong under the chief Tawane returned to 
their old grounds, whilst Moroko remained at Thaba Ntshu. 

" When Commandant A. Pretorius had lost the day at Port Natal 
and immigrated to the Transvaal country, H. Potgieter duly informed the 
new comers of the alliance that existed between the republican Boers and 
the Barolong, and the right of the latter to their own country. Potgieter 
went to Lydenburg, Pretorius and his party stayed in the south-western 
parts. 

" About 1850 one Boer after another took possession of the fountains and 
lands of the Barolong : when in 1851 the latter complained to Commandant 
A. Pretorius, he appointed a commission of some commandants and field- 
cornets, and a boundary line was agreed on between the republic and the 
Barolong. This line was to be the Hart river from where it enters the 
Vaal river up to the eye of Hart River, which is Eland's Fountain, from 
there with the waggon-road to the head fountain of the river Molopo, thence 
to a very large fountain called Pogosurmane, from there to the waggon- 
drift of the road from Lotlakana across the Molopo to Klein Mariko. 

" In 1853 by the most crying injustice the Boers attacked us, and after 
fighting a whole day they found out that there existed no grounds whatever 
for such bloodshed, calling themselves the blind commando they left. All the 
farmers of Mariko then fled, fearing we would retaliate. Several seasons 
passed, till at last the Boers made some overtures for a settlement. On 
coming to terms with Commandant Jan Viljoen and President M. 
Pretorius, the old boundary lines were agreed to on both sides. But 
knowing how little the promises of the Boers could be trusted, we would 
not go back to our old residence Lotlakana, but continued to sojourn with 
the Bangwaketse tribe, to keep somewhat out of the Boers' reach. 

" And now without the least provocation on our side (though the Boers 
have from time to time murdered some of my people and enslaved several 



1870] Dealings with the Barolong. 31 

small villages of our Balala), the Transvaal Republic deprives us. by the 
said proclamation, of our lands and liberty, against which we would protest 
in the strongest terms, and entreat Your Excellency, as Her Britannic 
Majesty's high commissioner, to protect us." 

In this letter the Hart river is affirmed to have been a 
boundary agreed upon in 1851 as separating an independent 
tribe of Barolong from the South African Republic. The 
statement was as far from being correct as was the picture 
of Ta wane's fugitive horde in 1837 "warring at their own 
expense, with their own horses, guns, and ammunition ; " but 
from the reverend Mr. Ludorf's standpoint it served to give 
an appearance of completeness and justice to Montsiwa's claim. 
Perhaps another adviser might have thought that an equally 
good claim to independence could be made out from the fact 
of its having been practically enjoyed since 1853 ; but in that 
case the reserve south of the Molopo would have been lost. 

The government of the republic found it difficult to deal 
with Montsiwa. Here was a chief to whom every possible 
consideration had been shown in former times, who had a 
location as large as he desired assigned to him, who had 
broken his engagements and gone into rebellion, who had his 
location restored to him but instead of occupying it had 
removed to another part of the country. Why should 
farmers be prevented from settling on ground thus aban- 
doned, and making use of it ? True, there were some little 
kraals of Barolong in the location, but there was ample 
space for them and the farmers too. And the whole country 
thereabouts belonged to the white man by right of conquest 
from Moselekatse, so that the farmers were not ejecting 
lawful owners. Viewing matters in this light, nothing was 
done to displace those whom the reverend Mr. Ludorf 
termed intruders. 

]n June 1870 Montsiwa's brother Molema, who was 
living on the Molopo, was called upon to pay taxes to the 
government. This he refused to do, and Montsiwa supported 
him in his refusal, on the ground of the independence of the 
Barolong by virtue of the alleged treaty with Commandant- 



3 2 History of the South African Republic. [1870 

General Potgieter. In July a protest was published in the 
name of Montsiwa, against any encroachment beyond the 
line of the Hart river. In September an interview between 
President Pretorius and Montsiwa took place by chance on 
the road as the president was returning home from the 
meeting at Nooitgedacht. He had there learned to his great 
surprise that Montsiwa claimed the Hart river as a boundary 
by a treaty made in December 1851. He had never before 
heard of such a treaty — none being in point of fact in 
existence ; — but he would have been overjoyed to meet the 
Barolong on this condition. He believed it would give a 
clear title to the diamond-fields north of the Vaal, and for 
that he was willing to renounce the claim of the republic to 
the barren territory farther westward. He therefore eagerly 
asked if Montsiwa would adhere to the treaty of 1851. 
Montsiwa replied that as far as he was concerned he would, 
but that the ground east of the Hart belonged to Moroko. 
It was then arranged to have a conference at the Molopo 
river between a commission from the South African Republic 
and as many chiefs as could be got together, to endeavour 
to come to some final settlement of the matter in dispute. 

The conference was held at the place appointed on the 
15th of November. There were present, on behalf of the 
republic, President Pretorius, Commandant- General S. J. 
Paul Kruger, and Messrs. T. F. Steyn, H. Greef, H. Beukes, 
J. Botha, M. Joubert, J. Snyman, and H. Coetsee. The 
chiefs who attended were Phoe, Montsiwa, Moroko, Molema, 
Matlabe. Bakhobi, and Izaak Matlabane, of the Barolong 
tribe, Mohilo, of the Bahurutsi at Marikwa, Gasiyitsiwe, of 
the Bangwaketse at Kanye, Andries Rei representing the 
Korana chief Massou, and others of less note. The reverend 
Mr. Ludorf was present also, and took a prominent part in 
the proceedings. 

Montsiwa claimed the country of Tao for the whole of 
the Barolong clans, by virtue of a treaty with Commandant- 
General Potgieter. He asserted that it was bounded by a 
line from the source of the Molopo to the source of the Hart, 



1870] Dealings with the Barolong. 33 

thence to the source of Schoonspruit, and thence along 
Schoonspruit to the Vaal. He alleged that a document 
acknowledging the right of the Barolong to the land west 
of that line had been drawn up by Potgieter, but was 
accidentally destroyed by fire at Thaba Ntshu. 

Commandant-General Kruger, as the member of the 
commission best acquainted with early transactions of the 
emigrant farmers, replied that he doubted the correctness 
of such an arrangement having been made. There was no 
document to that effect, and events that were known to have 
happened could not be reconciled with it. He would not 
take it upon himself, however, absolutely to deny it, as he 
had not sufficient information to do so. 

There was plenty of documentary evidence in Capetown 
to overthrow such a statement completely, but neither the 
commandant-general nor any member of the commission 
knew of its existence. In this, as on other similar occasions, 
the officers of the republic were dependent on their personal 
knowledge alone. 

During the remainder of the conference — which was 
closed on the 16th — the Barolong chiefs maintained an 
attitude of independence. They wanted the whole country 
that had belonged to Tao before the Korana invasion 
acknowledged to be theirs, and to be free of all control 
in it. Moroko, who would have resented — and with justice 
— any intrusion upon the district of Thaba Ntshu, which his 
clan had occupied for thirty-seven years, claimed the land 
between Schoonspruit and the Hart river as having been the 
home of his ancestors, and pointed to the remains of stone 
circles scattered over it as proofs of Barolong right. That 
the Barolong had been driven away by war, that the land 
had been absolutelv lost to them, and that it had been taken 
by the white people from Moselekatse, were arguments which 
did not approve themselves to his mind. The chiefs denied, 
indeed, that Moselekatse had ever built a kraal in the 
country they claimed. And it was correct that he had not ; 
although it was no less correct that military bands from his 

vol. v. D 



34 History of the South African Republic. [1870 

town of Mosega traversed it at will, and that if the im- 
poverished remnants of the Barolong clans had not taken 
care to get out of the way they would have been served as 
rats are served by terriers. 

Montsiwa further rested the case of his own particular 
clan upon the alleged treaty of December 1851, and claimed 
the country west of the Hart as acknowledged by it to be 
his. The commission of the South African Republic, having 
never seen this treaty, expressed doubt about it, and some of 
the members denied its existence. 

Upon this, the reverend Mr. Ludorf stated that to oblige 
the commission he had furnished the government secretary 
of the republic with a copy of the minutes taken by the 
Barolong themselves on the occasion when that treaty was 
made. In his report of this conference, sent to the high 
commissioner, he states that he added : " lb is a thousand 
pities that if ever you meant to keep faith with these people 
your government has not drawn up proper documents of 
such important transactions as treaties of peace, boundary 
lines, etc., and kept official records thereof ; this would have 
saved you the mortification of having to apply to the natives 
for proper information." It will presently be seen what value 
ousht to be attached to documents thus furnished. 

The draft of some clauses which it was proposed to add to 
the treaty between Portugal and the South African Republic, 
in which the boundary line of the last - named state was 
made to include the country far to the westward, was read ; 
but of course the Barolong ignored it. 

This conference proved that a friendly arrangement of 
territorial claims was impossible. The republic could not 
withdraw from ground occupied by its people for nearly a 
quarter of a century. And the Barolong clans, now strong 
in numbers and counselled by Europeans who felt intense 
hatred for the farmers, would not consent to occupy a 
position of vassalage such as they had gladly submitted to 
in their time of distress. They cannot be blamed for the 
attitude which they assumed. It was natural that they 



1870] Action of the High Commissioner. 35 

should wish to get all the ground they possibly could, and to 
be free of control and taxes. But it would be difficult to 
write too harshly of some of their European advisers : men 
who perverted truth, and taught the chiefs and people to 
base their pretensions on what was false ; whose letters are 
loathsome compounds of deceit and villainy, abuse of people 
more honest than themselves, quotations from holy scripture, 
and professions of devotion to the cause of philanthropy and 
"justice to the poor oppressed natives of South Africa." 

As no settlement could be made in a friendly manner, it 
was agreed on both sides to refer to a court of arbitration 
the questions of disputed territory and the claim of Montsiwa 
to independence. Accordingly, on the 18th of November a 
letter was addressed to Lieutenant-General Hay, her Majesty's 
high commissioner, requesting him to appoint two members 
of a court of arbitration. The letter bore the signatures of 
the Barolong captains Montsiwa, Bakhobi, Moroko, Matlabe, 
and Izaak Matlabane, of Gasiyitsiwe, chief of the Bangwaketse, 
and of Massou,* chief of the Koranas. The high commissioner 
was informed that Montsiwa would proceed to Capetown to 
confer with him and furnish particulars and documents 
concerning their claims. 

Lieutenant - General Hay had already opened a corre- 
spondence with President Pretorius on the subject of the 
conflicting claims to the territory along the northern bank 
of the Vaal, and had shown himself not altogether impartial. 
The question was undecided whether the various clans were 
trying to make aggressions upon the South African Republic 
or the South African Republic was trying to make aggres- 
sions upon them, when, on the 19th of September 1870, 
the high commissioner wrote to the president "desiring 
to urge upon him in very strong terms the necessity for 
abstaining from encroachment, without lawful and sufficient 

Massou was chief of the Taaibosch or principal clan of the Koranas. 
He was a very old man at this time, but lived till the 11th of June 1878. 
His successor in the chieftainship was his son, the well - known David 
Taaibosch. 



-( 



6 History of the South African Republic. [1870 



cause, upon the possessions of native tribes in friendly 
alliance with her Majesty's government." When or how 
the tribes came to be in alliance with the British government 
his Excellency did not explain. 

On the 5th of December the volksraad resolved that the 
correspondence with the high commissioner should be con- 
tinued, and that if necessary the republic should submit its 
claims to arbitration and defend them on the grounds of 
the convention of January 1852, rights of conquest, negotia- 
tions with chiefs, and occupation during years. The members 
particularly desired that an impartial court should decide 
whether the high commissioner had a right to interfere in 
questions north of the Vaal not injuriously affecting British 
subjects. A standing committee of three members of the 
volksraad was appointed to assist the president, the state 
attorney, and the executive council in conducting matters 
connected with the territorial disputes. 

A few days before this resolution was adopted Lieutenant- 
General Hay took a very decided step in reference to the 
ownership of the diamond-fields. From the eastern districts 
of the Cape Colony it was computed that fully one-fifth of 
the young and able men had by that time gone to seek 
their fortunes as diggers. In a region which so shortly 
before was little better than a desert, machinery for the 
enforcement of law and order was, of course, wanting ; and 
those who remained at home but invested money in fitting 
out parties of miners became apprehensive that property 
might be unsafe. Under the peculiar circumstances which 
had so suddenly and unexpectedly arisen, they maintained 
that it was a necessity for the Cape Colony, as the strongest 
power in South Africa, to take possession of the diamond- 
fields. Several memorials to that effect were sent to 
Lieutenant-General Hay. The first of these in date as well 
as importance was signed by the honourable R. Godlonton 
and the honourable D. H. Kennelly, members of the 
legislative council of the Cape Colony, and by about five 
hundred others. 



1870] Appointment of a Special Magistrate . 37 

Following closely on these memorials came a petition from 
Nicholas Waterboer to her Majesty the queen, dated the 25th 
of August 1870, requesting that he and his people might be 
received as British subjects and the territory which he 
claimed be incorporated with the British dominions. He 
had been induoed to make this proposal by a prospect of 
an annuity for life that would put him in a position in- 
finitely better than that of captain of a little horde of 
semi-barbarians. 

Lieutenant-General Hay had no power to annex a metre 
of ground, but he practically substituted the British 
authorities in South Africa for Mr. Arnot and his client 
Nicholas Waterboer in the dispute concerning the ownership 
of the diamond-fields. On the 30th of November 1870 he 
issued to an old colonial civil servant — Mr. John Campbell 
— a commission under the Cape of Good Hope Punishment 
Act, empowering that officer to act as special magistrate 
in accordance with its provisions in all the territory claimed 
by Mr. Arnot for Waterboer. On the 13th of December 
Mr. Campbell arrived at Klipdrift — now Barkly West, — when 
President Parker immediately resigned, and the new diamond- 
field republic came to an end. Along the northern bank of 
the Vaal a large number of diggers — probably a majority 
of them — welcomed the special magistrate, and without 
hesitation submitted to his authority. 

But the power of a special magistrate under the Cape of 
Good Hope Punishment Act is very limited. Mr. Campbell 
could cause a British subject to be arrested and sent to the 
Cape Colony for trial, but he could not try him where the 
crime was committed. As an attempt to obviate this difficulty, 
on the 1st of February 1871 a commission was obtained 
from the captain Nicholas Waterboer. This, however, did 
not much improve Mr. Campbell's position. At the best, 
Nicholas Waterboer was only a claimant to the territory in 
which Klipdrift was situated, and of all those who asserted 
that they were the legitimate owners, he was the one who 
in general opinion had the least right. His entire clan 



3& History of the South African Republic. [1870 

was too small to occupy more than one little village, and 
his residence was a hundred and forty-five kilometres 
distant in a direct line. No one could ascertain that he had 
ever exercised jurisdiction within a radius of fifty miles or 
eight}^ kilometres of Klipdrift, or that any of his people 
were living outside of his district of Griquatown. The 
Batlapin and Koranas who had their kraals along the river 
repudiated the pretensions made in his name. The mission- 
aries of the London Society, who were in a position to 
know all the details of the history of his clan, denied that 
he had any right to the ground in which the diamond-fields 
were situated. They had kept silence when his claim to a 
large portion of the districts of Boshof and Jacobsdal in the 
Orange Free State was announced, but as soon as it was 
known that Mr. Arnot was asserting his right to land above 
the junction of the Hart and the Vaal also, they gave their 
testimony against him. The reverend Robert Moffat, the old 
and well-known missionary of Kuruman, wrote to the effect 
that he could make out as good a title for himself as for 
Waterboer. His son, the reverend John Smith Moffat, sent 
a letter to Jantje, the chief at Likatlong, which was 
immediately forwarded to the high commissioner, to the 
effect that the territory could be proved beyond question 
to belong to the Batlapin. 

There were indeed people who favoured the pretensions of 
the Griqua captain, but they brought forward no evidence 
beyond mere assertions in support of their views. That 
section of the newspaper press, both in South Africa and in 
England, that under every variety of circumstance was 
antagonistic to the emigrant farmers, took Waterboer's side 
without investigation of the matter, simply because both the 
republics were opposed to him. Some of the articles in 
these papers were exceedingly ludicrous when read on the 
banks of the Vaal, as for instance denunciations of the 
rapacity of the Boers of the Free State and the South 
African Bepublic, who were represented as trying to defraud 
"the hereditary paramount chief of all the Griqnas" of 



1 871] Reference to Arbitration, 39 

his diamond-fields. But such advocacy, though tending to 
create false impressions at a distance, had no other effect 
than producing merriment in the mining camps. The general 
opinion there of white men and black was so decidedly 
opposed to the supposition of Waterboer's having any 
rights in the neighbourhood, that Mr. Campbell thought it 
prudent to keep his commission as much as possible in 
the background. 

Shortly after his assumption of duty as high commis- 
sioner, Sir Henry Barkly proceeded on a visit to the Lesuto 
and the diamond-fields. He arrived at Klipdrift on the 26th 
of February 1871, and was received with dutiful respect as 
her Majesty's representative. President Pretorius was there 
to meet him, and so were Waterboer and the Barolong and 
Batlapin chiefs. Mr. Arnot was present as adviser of 
Waterboer, and the reverend Joseph Ludorf as adviser of 
Phoe, Montsiwa, and Moroko. Mr. Theodor Doms came 
forward as the mouthpiece of the Batlapin captains, but 
they disowned him, as they stated he had been selling land 
in their names without authority to do so, and they selected 
the reverend Mr. Ludorf as their adviser and a^ent. 

All of the captains, through their agents, laid statements 
before his Excellenc} 7- , and all professed to be willing to 
submit their claims to a court of arbitration. Sir Henry 
Barkly thereupon caused deeds of submission to be drawn 
up, and on the 1st of March one of these was signed by 
President Pretorius and Captain Nicholas Waterboer, and 
another by President Pretorius, the Barolong chiefs Montsiwa, 
Moroko, Phoe, and four others of less note, and the Batlapin 
chiefs Botlasitsi, Jantje, Matlabane, and Mankoroane. 

At the same time an agreement was concluded between 
Sir Henry Barkly and President Pretorius, providing for 
the government of the diamond-fields on the northern bank 
of the Vaal until the decision of the court of arbitration 
should be made known. Mr. Campbell, special magistrate 
at Klipdrift, was to have authority over all British subjects, 
and was to receive the fees for digging-licenses paid by 



40 History of the Sotttk African Republic. [187 1 

them. In the same way Mr. J. A. de Villiers, who some 
months previously had been stationed as landdrost at 
Hebron, was to have authority over all citizens of the 
South African Republic, and was to receive their license- 
money. The revenue collected on both sides was to be 
held in trust until the decision of the arbitrators should be 
given, when it was to be transferred to whichever claimant 
should be pronounced the rightful owner of the land. 

It was agreed that the judges of the arbitration court 
should be Mr. Anthony Alexander O'Reilly, landdrost of 
Wakkerstroom, on behalf of the South African Republic, and 
Mr. John Campbell on behalf of all the other parties to 
the dispute. In case of the judges disagreeing, Lieutenant- 
Governor Keate, of Natal, was empowered to give a final 
decision. Sir Henry Barkly instructed Mr. Maximilian Jack- 
son, the officer in command of a detachment of colonial police 
that accompanied him to the diamond-fields, to act as special 
magistrate while Mr. Campbell was otherwise employed. 

On the 4th of April 1871 the court of arbitration was 
opened at the village of Bloemhof. To conduct the case, 
President Pretorius and the state attorney Frederick Klein 
appeared for the South African Republic, Mr. David Arnot 
and Attorney D. C. Grant for Waterboer, Attorney Grant and 
Mr. Edwards for the Batlapin chief Mankoroane, the reverend 
Joseph Ludorf for the Barolong chiefs Phoe, Montsiwa, and 
Moroko, and the Batlapin chief Botlasitsi, and Mr. Carl 
Mathey for the Bangwaketse chief Gasiyitsiwe and the 
Batlapin chief Matlabane. 

From the 5th of April to the 19th of June the arbitration 
court listened to evidence, documentary and oral, that fills 
three hundred and ninety-two pages of a bluebook. 

The South African Republic went into court utterly un- 
prepared to conduct its case properly. It is almost beyond 
belief that no study was made of the early history of the 
emigrant farmers, that Commandant-General Potgieter's corre- 
spondence was not sought for, that numerous letters which 
are in existence from men who took part in events between 



1 871] Tke Bloemhof Arbitration. 41 

1836 and 1854 were never once referred to, that the policy- 
carried out by Sir Harry Smith was ignored as completely 
as even Mr. Arnot himself could have desired. But if this is 
nearly incredible, what can be said of the following ? 

Nothing could have been more opposed to the claims of 
the republic, if properly represented, than a treaty such as 
the reverend Mr. Ludorf asserted was made with Montsiwa 
in December 1851. If genuine, such a treaty would have 
established Montsiwa's right to independence and to all the 
land west of the Hart river. It would not have affected the 
claim to the country east of the Hart in the slightest degree, 
as Montsiwa put forward no pretensions there. The whole 
of the evidence of the farmers was opposed to such an agree- 
ment having been made. Can it be believed that Messrs. 
Pretorius and Klein obtained a copy of the alleged treaty from 
the reverend Mr. Ludorf — a man whose denunciations of the 
farmers were generally known, — and put it in as part of their 
case, to show that one of the chiefs admitted their ownership 
of the diamond-fields along the Vaal. They alleged that it 
would have greater weight as having been obtained from 
their opponents. And after all, it turned out to be spurious. 
The so-called treaty was nothing more than an extract from 
certain papers which professed to be minutes of the meeting 
of the 30th of December 1851, taken down by the reverend 
Mr. Ludorf himself. No white man, except Ludorf, had ever 
put pen to it. The names which professed to be signatures of 
individuals at the foot of the document were placed there 
without the slightest authority. So much could be gathered 
from the evidence. And then the writer of the document 
was examined, and made the following statement : * 

" I acknowledge the document now exhibited to me to be the same 1 
lent to Mr. Forssman, and it is in my handwriting, and is in the same state 
as when I lent it. I cannot account at this moment for the discrepancy 
of the word "Get" (i.e. geteekend or signed) being before the name of 
A. Stander, and then the cross against the names of Motsegane and 
Montsiwa, and which I think must be an error. There is also the N.B. 
after the signatures, which differs from the copy I got from Montsiwa, 

* Evidence of reverend Joseph Ludorf. Page 170 of the Bloemhof bluebook. 



1 , > I ; 

:> 



42 History of the South African Republic. [1871 

bufc corresponds with the document printed with the correspondence 
between the governor and the Transvaal. I admit there must be an error 
somewhere, which I cannot account for. I cannot say how long ago 
I made this copy, but it must be years ago. I am unable to state 
when I made this copy. I cannot swear that the document was made 
within the last five or six years." 

After this an expressive remark follows in the proceedings 
of the court of arbitration: 

"The commissioners, on examining the water-mark of the paper of 
this document, found it to be 1868." 

The agents on the opposite side put in a great number of 
short extracts from printed books. Messrs. Pretorius and 
Klein must have been unaware that such books were in 
existence, or at any rate they must have been unacquainted 
with their contents, for there is not one of the volumes of 
any value which could not be used with far greater effect on 
the side of the republic. 

Nearly all the evidence given by Waterboer's witnesses, 
except that of his brother-in-law, might have been admitted 
at once, if Messrs. Pretorius and Klein had known the history 
of Sir Harry Smith's administration and had produced a few 
of that governor's proclamations and letters. The evidence 
of Waterboer's brother-in-law could have been invalidated 
by the production of documents easily obtained. 

The fiction of an alliance between the early emigrant 
farmers and the refugee chiefs Tawane and Moroko, with 
the condition that the whole country over which Tao 
exercised influence before the Korana invasion should be 
given up to the Barolong to be held by them as an inde- 
pendent people, pressed into prominence by the reverend 
Mr. Ludorf, was not rebutted with that overwhelming 
documentary evidence that could easily have been obtained. 
Oral evidence, both European and black, indeed, was brought 
forward to refute it, even to show the absurdity of the 
supposition ; but that evidence which no judge, however 
partial, could refuse to accept as conclusive, was left out 
entirely. In this most important matter to the South 



• • • • „* « 



... • • » 



187 1] The Keate Award, 43 

African Republic, Messrs. Pretorius and Klein were satisfied 
to allow a decision to be given by the judges according as 
they might attach more credibility to one set of witnesses 
than to another. 

In short, instead of getting up their case as they ought 
to have done, the representatives of the South African 
Republic went into court depending upon a general feeling 
among the farmers north of the Vaal that their claims were 
just, and upon the evidence of witnesses who knew nothing 
except from personal experience. 

The agents for the claimants on the other side acted 
very differently. They knew exactly what to withhold, as 
well as what to bring forward. Overwhelming evidence was 
produced as to what Sir George Napier and Sir Peregrine 
Maitland had done and enacted, but great cave was taken 
to avoid Sir Harry Smith. From the evidence given at 
Bloemhof, documentary and oral, it could never be gathered 
that the policy of the imperial government in creating 
large Bantu and Griqua states in South Africa had been 
reversed. 

From the be<nnniner it was anticipated that the decision 
would not rest with Messrs. Campbell and O'Reilly as judges. 
They would see that order was preserved, that each side 
should have an opportunity to bring forward all the evidence 
it chose to produce, and that the evidence was faithfully 
put on record. But it was never supposed that they would 
agree in pronouncing judgment. The real arbiter was the 
final referee, Lieutenant-Governor Keate, of Natal. He had 
decided in favour of the South African Republic in the 
question of the disputed boundary with the Orange Free 
State, and therefore, as the high commissioner's action made 
arbitration by some one a necessity, President Pretorius was 
willing to leave this matter also in his hands. The judges 
disagreed, as was foreseen, and on the 17th of October 1871 
Lieutenant-Governor Keate signed at Maritzburg the docu- 
ment known ever since as the Keate award. It was entirely 
adverse to the South African Republic. It gave to Nicholas 



44 History of the South African Republic, [187 1 

Waterboer the northern and north-eastern lines which Mr. 
Arnot claimed for him, and gave the Barolong and Batlapin 
all the territory between the boundaries so assigned to 
Waterboer and a line sweeping round from the source of the 
Molopo past the source of the Hart to Makwasi Spruit and 
down Makwasi Spruit to the Vaal. 

A great deal of blame has been cast upon Lieutenant- 
Governor Keate in connection with this award, but if the 
matter be carefully considered, this will be found to be 
undeserved. It is easy for those who know something of 
South African history of the early years of the nineteenth 
century to point out errors of judgment in the document ; 
but Mr. Keate could not be supposed to have any acquaint- 
ance with events that occurred in the interior of the country 
before his arrival at Natal. There was not a volume in 
existence to which he could refer for accurate information 
upon the South African Republic, or the Barolong, or the 
Griquas, or even the Cape Colony. To get any knowledge 
concerning the occurrences of bygone years it would have 
been necessary for him to examine vast quantities of 
documents scattered throughout the country, and for that 
he had no time. The most that he could do would be to 
look through ten or a dozen bluebooks, with the chance after 
all of finding very little to the purpose in them. He was 
a trained barrister, and he had a right to expect that 
the parties in the case would produce all the evidence in 
their favour that they could. It was not his duty to hunt 
up old letters and records to favour either one side or the 
other, on the contrary he would have been greatly to 
blame had he done so. It was for him to give a decision 
upon the evidence placed before him, and not to go beyond 
that evidence in the least respect. 

He was, and ought to have been, like a judge in some 
distant country who had never heard more of the contending 
parties than that there were such people living somewhere, 
and to whom the Bloemhof papers might be sent with a 
request for a decision upon the various claims. Such a man 



1 871] The Keate Award. 45 

would be compelled to reject some of the evidence, for much 
of it is conflicting. To enable him to decide as to the 
credibility of the witnesses, he would refer to the documentary 
evidence. If he had no reason to suppose that this was 
garbled, and he found it generally leaning to one side, he 
would give the preference to the witnesses on that side. 
And this is just what Lieutenant-Governor Keate did. He 
rejected the evidence of a few blacks and of all the Europeans 
except the agents for the Griquas and the Barolong, and he 
accepted the evidence of the Griquas and as much of that 
of the Barolong and the Batlapin as did not conflict with 
it, because the documents put in by Mr. Arnot and which 
were before him seemed to favour that view. 

Very different is the duty of the historian. He too must 
weigh evidence carefully when it is conflicting, but his 
investigations are not to be limited to any set of papers. 
He must do what Lieutenant-Governor Keate would not have 
been justified in doing: he must search diligently for every 
source of information from both sides ; he must not be 
satisfied with extracts which may be garbled, but must 
examine the entire documents or volumes from which they 
are taken ; he must go to the very origin of every dispute, 
and trace it to its ending. Hence comes the apparent 
anomaly that a judgment like the Keate award must be 
shown to be subversive of rightful claims, while the man 
who pronounced it can be regarded as perfectly blameless. 

The award was received by the people of the South 
African Republic with consternation. It cut off from the 
jurisdiction of their government not only the territory 
occupied by the clans of the Barolong and the Batlapin, 
and the vast region bordering on the desert, to which their 
rights were really open to dispute, but the whole district 
of Bloemhof, part of the district of Potchefstroom, and part 
of the district of Marico,* all containing farms occupied by 
the earliest European settlers. 

*In October 1871 the volksraad resolved that landdrosts should be 
stationed at the villages of Zeerust and Middelburg, thus creating new 



46 History of the South African Republic, [1871 

Public meetings were held, at which those speakers who 
advised resistance to the dismemberment of the republic 
were most applauded. An outburst of indignation against 
the government followed. A commission of three members 
of the volksraad had been appointed in December 1870 to 
assist the president, the executive council, and the state 
attorney in dealing with territorial disputes, but the presi- 
dent had signed the deeds of submission to the court of 
arbitration at Bloemhof without consulting his colleagues. 
One of the chief objects that the volksraad had in view in 
consenting to arbitration was to have it decided whether 
her Majesty's high commissioner was justified under the 
convention of 1852 in interfering in matters north of the 
Vaal, and this had not been brought forward at Bloemhof 
nor been referred to in any manner by the tribunal there. 
The populace made the most of these omissions, and 
declared that they had no longer any confidence in the 
government. 

The volksraad was in session when, on the 16 th of 
November 1871, the award reached Pretoria. Two letters 
from President Pretorius to Sir Henry Barkly were first 
brought on for consideration. One of these letters was 
dated on the 22nd of July. In it the president stated that 
he had learned from a report of the debates in the house of 
commons that instructions had been issued by her Majesty 
to accede to the request of Waterboer and the Griquas to 
become British subjects ; that by this proceeding confidence 
in an impartial decision had been weakened ; and British 
officers could no longer be looked upon as arbitrators, but as 
parties in the case. Further, he protested against the re- 
ception of the Griquas as a breach of the convention of 

districts out of portions of older ones. The districts were proclaimed 
by Acting-President Erasmus on the 24th of February 1872. Middelburg, 
on the eastern side of the state, had previously been part of Lydenburg. 
Marico, as the new district was termed of which Zecrust was the seat of 
magistracy, was proclaimed with boundaries including two long-settled 
fieldcornetcies, one of which was almost entirely cut off by the Keate 
award. 



1871] First Effects of the Award. 47 

January 1852, and requested that the claim of England to 
act thus in disregard of the convention might be referred 
for decision to another power. This letter was not objected 
to. But the other, which was dated on the 10th of Novem- 
ber, and in which the president stated that on receipt of 
the award he would gladly comply with it, was disapproved 
by the volksraad. 

Such a hostile feeling towards the executive was now 
shown by the members that the principal officers thought it 
prudent to resign their situations. The state secretary Proes, 
a well-educated and able, but erratic man, though he had 
little or nothing to do with the arbitration, was the first to 
retire. The reverend Mr. Swart was immediately elected in 
his stead. The state attorney Klein then sent his resigna- 
tion to the president, and received an honourable discharge. 
Mr. Pretorius next laid down his office, when the volksraad 
directed Mr. Daniel Jacobus Erasmus, the oldest unofficial 
member of the executive council, to act as president until 
an election could be held. 

Meantime the reverend Mr. Ludorf was doing all that was 
possible still further to irritate the European inhabitants of 
the country north of the Vaal. Sir Henry Barkly had in 
vain both privately and officially cautioned him to act with 
prudence. His enmity towards the farmers seemed to have 
no bounds, or unexpected success in obtaining a triumph for 
his clients had disordered his mind. On the 28th of October, 
before Mr. Keate's decision reached Pretoria, Sir Henry 
Barkly proclaimed in the Government Gazette of the Cape 
Colony the boundary fixed by the award between the South 
African Republic and the Bangwaketse, Barolong, and 
Batlapin tribes. Thereupon Mr. Ludorf drew up a constitu- 
tion for a Betshuana state which he proposed to bring into 
existence, and in the name of a number of chiefs issued a 
pompous proclamation. On the first trustworthy information 
reaching them that her Majesty's high commissioner in 
South Africa acknowledged their independence of the 
republic, the chiefs began to show those symptoms of jealousy 



48 History of the South African Republic. [1871 

of each other which soon thereafter led to feuds and warfare 
after the manner of barbarians, yet Mr. Ludorf's project of 
a constitution was for a single government with a re- 
presentative assembly. In his proclamation, a copy of which 
he forwarded to the government at Pretoria, he styled 
himself " commissioner and representative of the combined 
Barolong, Bangwaketse, and Batlapin." One clause of this 
document was worded as follows: 

" And we do further proclaim and make known that all white persons 
who have settled or may hereafter settle within the limits of our territory 
shall be bound to conform to law and order, but will at the same 
time enjoy all civil rights, protection, freedom of religion, press, etc., etc. 
General affairs of state to rest in the hands of the great council of com- 
bined chiefs, district affairs in those of the local chief and his heemraden, 
the administration of justice to be entrusted to one or more civil commis- 
sioners. There will be two courts of appeal, namely the high court, consisting 
of the chief and heemraden in each district, and in the last instance the 
great council of combined chiefs. Legislative functions are vested in the 
national assembly, in which the white inhabitants in our territory will 
have the right of being represented. Everyone, without exception, shall 
be bound in case of hostilities to render his aid, and at once to conform 
to martial law. Command will be taken of the forces by the fieldcornets, 
district commandants, and commander-in-chief, each under fixed orders 
and rules. State revenues are obtained from the following sources : 
shop-keepers', traders', and hunters' licenses, transfer and registry dues, 
poll tax, summonses and appeal costs, fines, taxes to be levied on 
subjects, tolls, etc." 

Probably this was designed purposely to annoy the 
Europeans, for Mr. Ludorf could not have seriously believed 
that the farmers who had been cut off from the republic by 
the award would submit to such a government as that which 
he proposed, or thai their friends on the other side of the 
line would abandon them, in case the chiefs attempted to 
enforce their authority. 

But whatever effect it was intended to produce, it was the 
cause of prompt action being taken by the volksraad. On 
the 24th of November that body instructed the acting pre- 
sident how to proceed in the matter, and on the following 
day Mr. Erasmus published a proclamation and a protest 
against the Keate award. In these documents he announced 



1871] First Effects of the Award. 49 

that as the late president Preforms had neither authority nor 
right to sign the acts of submission singly and without the 
concurrence of his colleagues, the whole proceedings in con- 
nection with the arbitration were regarded as invalid, and the 
award would not be acknowledged as binding. Further, he 
announced that he would take steps to assure the inviola- 
bility of the territory of the republic, and to protect the 
rights of property within it. 

On the 2nd of December a communication covering copies 
of these documents was forwarded to the high commissioner. 
Sir Henry Barkly replied that he had nothing to do with 
the dispute between the executive and the legislature of the 
republic, that he adhered to the proceedings of the arbitra- 
tion, and intended to abide by and maintain the award. 
And Earl Kimberley, then secretary of state for the colonies, 
approved of this reply. 

But in point of fact the award never was enforced. There 
was only one way in which the boundary laid down by Mr. 
Keate could be maintained, and that was by Great Britain 
assuming direct control in the territory west of it and keep- 
ing a strong military or police force there. This step the 
imperial government was unwilling to take. The South 
African Republic therefore continued to embrace the field- 
cornetcies that were occupied by the farmers, and a landdrost 
remained in the village of Bloemhof and held a court there 
as before. 

Beyond the parts occupied by farmers, disorder soon 
reigned supreme. On the 13th of January 1872 the reverend 
J. D. M. Ludorf * died at Likatlong, and the chiefs were then 
left to their own guidance. That his influence was per- 
nicious is indisputable, but he managed to keep the clans 
from open war. After his death they quarrelled with each 

* He came to South Africa as a working printer for the French 
evangelical mission society, but after a time joined the Wesleyan body 
and was ordained as a clergyman. He was a man of considerable ability, 
but was intensely vain and ambitious, and when he had an end in view 
was utterly regardless of the means by which he attained it. 

VOL. V. E 



50 History of the South African Republic. [1871 

other, and European vagabonds of almost every nationality 
went among them fomenting jealousy and strife. The 
government at Pretoria considered it no part of its duty to 
do anything for the protection of people whom the high 
commissioner had declared independent, and when it was 
pointed out that mischief-makers and unprincipled ruffians 
were crossing over from the republic, retorted that a much 
larger number of the same class went there from the 
British possessions, without any hindrance or check on their 
movements. 

The chief political desire of the largest party among the 
burghers, now that they were reeling under the tremendous 
blow of the Keate award, was to obtain as president a man 
competent to meet the British authorities in South Africa 
on a footing of equality in controversy. All other qualifica- 
tions were to be subservient to this one of cleverness in 
combating an opponent by argument. To get such a man 
as they wanted it was necessary to look beyond their own 
state, and according to the constitution it was required that 
the president should be an elector of five years' standing 
and a member of the Dutch Reformed church. 

To meet this difficulty, on the 6th of November 1871 an 
act was passed by the volksraad amending the constitution. 
It provided that the president should be chosen by a 
majority of the burghers entitled to vote. He was to hold 
office for five years, unless he should resign sooner or be 
dismissed for lawful reasons by the volksraad. He was 
required to be above thirty years of age, to be a member 
of a Protestant church, and never to have been convicted 
of a dishonourable offence ; but it was not necessary that he 
should be a burgher of the republic at the time of his 
election. Any one with the foregoing qualifications, who 
should receive requisitions signed by at least one hundred 
qualified voters and published in the Staats Courant one 
month before the election, was to be eligible. Every burgher 
over twenty-one years of age resident in the country for 
twelve months, or having purchased burgher rights, was to be 



1872] Strong Political Views. 51 

entitled to a vote in the election for a president. The voting 
was to be by ballot papers. 

There was a strong party in favour of the election of 
President Brand, of the Orange Free State, to be president 
of the South African Republic also. The programme of the 
leaders of this party was the close union of the two republics, 
under one constitution if possible, and, if that could not be 
effected, under one president, leaving to each state its own 
constitution. Union, it was observed, would have been 
brought about years previously had it not been for Sir 
George Grey's explicit declaration that in such a case Great 
Britain would not regard the conventions as binding any 
longer. But of what value, after all, they contended, were 
these conventions ? Great Britain violated them at will. 
She would not permit a third party to interpret them, but 
whenever it pleased a hostile high commissioner to interfere 
in matters north of the Orange, he was allowed to do so 
despite of the plain meaning of their clauses. As things 
stood, the conventions practically were binding only on the 
republics. Better let them go, and do all that could be done 
to strengthen their own position. The most glaring viola- 
tions of the conventions were enumerated as 

1. The stoppage of supplies of ammunition to the Orange 
Free State. 

2. The interference on behalf of the Basuto of Moshesh. 

3. The appointment of a special magistrate and stationing 
police on the Vaal. 

4. Interference between the South African Republic and 
nominally the Griqua captain Waterboer, with the design 
of acquiring the territory in which the diamond-fields were 
situated. 

5. Interference between the South African Republic and 
various Bantu tribes. 

6. The dismemberment of the Orange Free State, and 
the appropriation of a portion of its territory. 

7. The open and undisguised sale of guns and ammunition 
to blacks at the diamond - fields which had recently been 



52 History of the South African Republic. [1872 

annexed to the British dominions, although the acting 
president Erasmus had brought this matter to the notice of 
the high commissioner, and had protested against* it not only 
as forbidden by the conventions, but as dangerous in the 
highest degree to the peace and quietness of the whole of 
South Africa. 

This party proposed then to let the conventions be con- 
sidered as annulled, to push on with the waggon-road which 
was being constructed between Lydenburg and Delagoa Bay 
so as to secure communication with the outer world through 
a port that was not under the English flag, to establish a 
gunpowder manufactory in the country, to be careful to do 
nothing to give Great Britain an opportunity to attack them 
with any show of justice, but to maintain their rights, and 
if attacked to defend themselves to the very best of their 
ability. Military conquest might be prevented, they said, 
but even that would not put them in a much worse position 
than they were in already by striving to keep faith with the 
imperial authorities. 

Requisitions embodying these views in language more or 
less guarded were sent to President Brand with over a 
thousand signatures attached to them. But that prudent 
statesman dreaded the growth of such opinions as detrimental 
to the best interests of South Africa, and declined to allow 
himself to be put in nomination. Officially he replied that 
constitutional questions prevented him from accepting the 
requisitions, but privately he communicated his true reasons. 
His was the part of the peacemaker. He visited the princi- 
pal men who wished him to be the head of both republics, 
and discussed the matter with them. 

He pointed out that England would certainly regard the 
union of the two states under such circumstances as a menace, 
and that the large number of English people in South Africa 
could not be expected to join against their mother country, 
although many of them might disapprove of the conduct of 
the imperial authorities. It was impossible, he said, for any 
section of the European inhabitants to stand alone. In face 



1872] Views of President Brand. 53 

of the enormously rapid increase of the blacks which was 
taking place on every side, peace, friendship, the uttermost 
good will, ought to exist between white people in the country, 
no matter what nationality their ancestors were of. He had 
strong hope, also, that justice would ultimately be done to 
the republics by the imperial government, for he believed 
that it was not from an inclination to be harsh and 
oppressive, but from ignorance of facts, that so many errors 
had been committed. It was an exemplification of the common 
proverb cc onbekend maakfc onbemind" — what is unknown 
is unloved. But hundreds of intelligent Englishmen were 
now visiting the distant interior, the recently discovered 
gold-fields in Zoutpansberg were attracting them and 
would continue to do so, and through them the truth con- 
cerning the republics — which was not believed in England 
when it came from South Africans — would certainly become 
known and recognised. Only have patience, he said, and all 
would come right. 

It cannot be stated with accuracy what number, but it is 
certain that a large proportion — probably over two-thirds — 
of the burghers of the Orange Free State were at this time 
in full sympathy with the party in the South African Re- 
public that President Brand was endeavouring to pacify. 
He succeeded, owing to his great personal influence and the 
confidence everywhere felt in his integrity and devotion to 
the welfare of the whole community. 

Having failed to secure President Brand as the head of 
their state, the burghers of the South African Republic 
looked around for some one else with the requisite qualifica- 
tions. There was a clergj^man of the Dutch Reformed 
church — the reverend Thomas Francois Burgers — stationed at 
Hanover in the Cape Colony, who had in recent years been 
prominently before the public. Accused of holding heretical 
views, in 1864 he had been condemned and suspended from 
the ministry- by an ecclesiastical tribunal ; but as he held his 
appointment from the colonial government, he brought his 
case before a court of law, and won it. From the supreme 



54 History of the South African Republic. [1872 

court of the Cape Colony, an appeal was made by his oppo- 
nents to the privy council of England, and in 1865 judgment 
was given in his favour. In 1866 he gained a case which he 
brought in the supreme court of the colony against the 
presbytery of Graaff-Reinet for depriving him of his seat. 
Mr. Burgers was a member of one of the oldest families in 
South Africa, and had a strong feeling of sympathy with 
his countrymen. He had received a good education in 
Europe. A patriot, a fluent speaker in both Dutch and 
English, and possessed of unbounded energy, he seemed in all 
respects but one to be the man that was needed. His 
creed was not in unison with that of nineteen-twentieths of 
the people of the republic, and in the interior of South 
Africa this meant a great deal. Five years later it was the 
cause of hundreds of men fearing to go into battle with him 
as their leader. But now in the anxiety of the burghers to 
get a clever man as their president, this was overlooked. 
It was not yet known that he was fond of forming large 
visionary plans, and trying to carry them into effect without 
sufficient means. 

Only one other candidate — Mr. W. Robinson — was put 
forward. At the election three thousand three hundred and 
fifty-two votes were given, of which two thousand nine 
hundred and sixty-four were for Mr. Burgers, and on the 1st 
of July 1872 he took the oath of office as president of the 
South African Republic. 

The volksraad was carried away by his power of oratory 
and the belief in his great ability, so that whatever he 
proposed was adopted. The financial condition of the republic 
was deplorable. He asked to be authorised to raise a loan 
of £60,000 on security of the revenue and two million six 
hundred thousand acres of vacant land already surveyed, 
and consent was given. Then he desired to construct a 
railway towards Delagoa Bay. This was something far in 
advance of the views of the people, and there was no com- 
merce nor likelihood of any that would cover its working 
expenses, still on the 31st of July the volksraad empowered 



1872] First Acts of President Burgers. 55 

him to offer five hundred farms of three thousand morgen 
each to any company that would construct the first section 
of one hundred and ninety-two kilometres or a hundred and 
twenty miles from Klipstapel to the Portuguese boundary. 
A commencement had already been made with the con- 
struction of a waggon road from Lydenburg to Lourenco 
Marques, the Portuguese government having undertaken to 
complete the portion of it below the Lebombo mountains, 
but the work was carried on in a very feeble manner, which 
should have been an indication that a scheme so much larger 
was not then practical. 

Mr. Burgers termed himself an ardent federalist, and spoke 
of his intense desire to see a united South Africa, but what 
he meant by federation, or how he proposed to bring it about, 
he did not explain. He was at the head of the most 
conservative and as far as money goes the poorest community 
in South Africa, and within a month of his assuming office 
he was proposing measures suitable to a state of ten times 
its population and wealth. But all looked well at the 
moment, for no one foresaw the disasters that were impending. 



CHAPTEE LXXXVI. 

HISTOEY OF BASUTOLAND TO THE CLOSE OF 1872. 

The final ratification of the second convention of Aliwal 
North on the 3rd of May 1870, after more than two 
years' delay, during which the word anarclry fitly describes 
the condition of Basutoland, placed the British authorities in 
a position to take measures for the establishment of a 
settled government. If Moshesh's heir had possessed his 
father's ability this would have been a much more difficult 
task than it now proved to be, for some means would 
have been devised to prevent the loss of authority. 

When Moshesh spoke of his wish to come with his 
people under the broad folds of the flag of England, he cer- 
tainly did not mean that he desired an English officer to fill 
his place, or that English laws and customs should supersede 
the laws and customs of the Basuto. What he wished for was 
protection against opponents, with fully liberty to govern 
his people as he liked. He wished to stand in the same 
relationship to the queen that Molitsane or Morosi stood in 
towards him. Molitsane did as he pleased with regard to 
everything connected with the immediate government of the 
Bataung clan, he could inflict the punishment of death upon 
offenders, he could even carry on war as long as he did not 
involve the other sections of the tribe in it, and yet he was 
a subject of Moshesh. In a tribal council he would have 
regarded it as casting him off if he had not been summoned 
to attend, in all ceremonies he gave the first place to 
Moshesh, when Moshesh needed assistance of any kind he was 
bound to render it, if Moshesh made war or peace he was 
included. Such a system was known in Europe in olden 

. ?6 



1870] History of Basuto land, 57 

times, and it is a stage in the course of society from every 
little community being independent of all others to the 
formation of the great nations that exist to-day. 

Nothing was further from Moshesh's mind than to sink 
out of sight like a Griqua captain, and his heir naturally was 
of the same feeling, but he was wanting in the ability that 
would have made it possible to frustrate the efforts of the 
British officials to secure a share of power. 

The Bataung stragglers north of the Caledon had already 
been driven across that river by a Free State patrol, and 
the Basuto began to realise that the land there was irre- 
coverably lost to them. Before the wars of Tshaka it 
had been occupied by Bakwena tribes, whose descendants 
many of them were, and for a generation it had been ruled 
by Moshesh, so that it is no wonder they felt deep grief 
when it was theirs no more. Towards the close of 1869 a 
good many farms in it, as well as the villages of Ladybrand 
and Ficksburg, had been occupied. It is the most fertile 
portion of the province, and ever since its conquest has 
been regarded as the granary of the state. 

The first step taken was the transfer of Molapo from 
the Free State, in order to secure a uniform system of 
government in the country. Mr. Bowker ascertained that he 
was still hankering after the incorporation of his district 
with Natal, but he expressed his desire to become a British 
subject, and addressed a letter to the volksraad requesting 
to be released from his allegiance. 

While the arrangements for his transfer were being 
made, the chief to whom the Basuto owe their existence as a 
tribe was dying on Thaba Bosigo. The weight of seventy- 
seven years, many of them years of unwonted anxiety and 
care for one of his race, had exhausted his physical strength ; 
but his mental faculties were not wholly decayed. Four 
months before his death he selected a beautiful kaross made 
of panther skins, and asked Mr. Bowker to send it in his 
name to the queen as a mark of his gratitude and desire 
that British protection should not be withdrawn from his 



58 History of Basutoland. [1870 

country. His power over his people had ceased. No one 
any longer went to him for orders, or asked his opinion on 
public matters. His sons Letsie, Molapo, and Masupha 
exercised control over their followers, without any reference 
to him. On the 11th of March 1870 he died. So nearly 
forgotten was the man who had once been the most promi- 
nent chief in South Africa, that hardly a colonial 
newspaper contained more than a brief notice of his death. 

But to the Basuto his decease transformed him from a 
helpless old man, for whom even his nearest relatives had no 
regard, to the highest object of their worship. From that 
moment Moshesh became to them a god whose favour could 
bring prosperity and whose displeasure was ruin and death. 
Thaba Bosigo, the mountain on which he had lived and 
where his remains were buried, was thenceforth and is still 
regarded by them with superstitious reverence. It is not 
only their great fortress that has never yet been taken by 
a foe : it is a holy place, guarded by the spirit of the chief 
who was the founder and preserver of their tribe. 

The black man of highest intellect in all South Africa 
had passed away. He was indeed a scheming and un- 
principled chief, who never respected his neighbours' rights 
or kept his own engagements. Yet Moshesh was a great 
man. Assuredly no European who lacked honesty and 
truthfulness should be so regarded ; but a man born and 
brought up as he was can be judged by a different standard. 
His vices were the vices of his race, all his own were his 
ability in creating order out of chaos, in organising a com- 
pact society out of conflicting elements, in directing military 
movements, in substituting mildness of government for 
savage ferocity, in devising and carrying out large and wise 
measures for his people's good, in dealings with white men 
even to the consummate tact with which he weighed and 
set off one section of Europeans against another. By English- 
men his plans of aggrandisement surely cannot be imputed 
to him as crimes, though the Sovereignty and the Free State 
were undoubtedly justified in opposing them. 



1870] Abilities of Moshesh. 59 

Compare what he was forty years earlier with the 
commanding position that he occupied towards the close of 
his life, and consider how few Europeans have done as 
much as he did. The son of a chief of no importance, with 
less than a hundred followers he commenced his career by 
most skilful and daring raids in quest of cattle, in which 
success gained him a reputation among the despoiled people 
in the valley of the Tlotsi. Then moving to the strong 
position of Butabute, where in 1823 and again in 1824 he 
was attacked by Ma Ntatisi and reduced to great distress, 
his military genius saved him, and by his retirement to 
Thaba Bosigo beyond the territory previously occupied by 
any section of the Bakwena, he secured a fortress which 
enabled him to rally many hundreds of warriors around him. 
The destruction of the Amahlubi under Umpangazita by the 
Amangwane near Lishuane on the Caledon in 1826 and the 
retirement of the last-named tribe over the Kathlamba in 
1827 gave him an opportunity that a man of ability could 
turn to account, and then he set about building up a strong 
tribe from the wretched fragments that remained of many 
of various names. This was Moshesh in 1827, and to-day 
the tribe that owes its existence to him is far the most 
important of all in Africa south of the Zambesi. 

His disregard of truth was the weakest point in his 
character, yet in this respect, though he must be condemned, 
there is something that ought to be said in his defence. 
Every black man knows what truth is. In giving the 
particulars of an event to his chief he uses language that 
conveys the idea of the circumstance in its exact reality, and 
that will not bear two constructions. He knows that this 
is his duty, and he acts to the very best of his ability upon 
that knowledge. But he feels no obligation to do this to 
a man of another tribe, and least of all to a man of a 
different race. His companions would regard him as a fool 
if he told the truth, when there was anything to be gained 
by falsehood. In this view of things Moshesh was brought 
up. If an undertaking, whether by word of mouth or in 



60 History of Basutoland. [1870 

writing, served its purpose for the time, by enabling him 
to overcome any pressing difficulty, that was enough 
for him in the opinion of his own people and of all the 
other tribes. 

None of his sons could be compared with him in intellect 
or in disposition for improvement. And this is perhaps the 
most discouraging feature in connection with the Bantu of 
South Africa. Individuals here and there rise high above 
the mass of their fellows, but there is no certainty that 
their children will be more advanced than ordinary 
barbarians. Four of Moshesh's sons — Masupha or David, 
Nehemiah, George, and Tsekelo — were educated in colonial 
schools, but lacked the ability to turn their advantages to 
good account. 

No other South African chief, not even Khama, of the 
Bamangwato, can be placed on the same level as Moshesh. 
Moroko, of the Barolong, Kama, of the Gunukwebes, 
Makaula, of the Bacas, and perhaps a few others, possessed 
more of the European virtues ; but in everything else they 
were far beneath him. 

His son Letsie succeeded to the title of paramount chief 
of the Basuto tribe, but it was only British authority that 
prevented Molapo, Masupha, and some others from declaring 
their independence of him. In reality he was great chief 
only in name, and never did, or was capable of doing, any- 
thing of note. On the 20th of November 1891 he died, and 
was succeeded by his son Lerothodi, a much abler man, 
though inferior to his grandfather in every respect. 

On the 11th of April 1870, a month after the death of 
Moshesh, the arrangements were completed for the transfer 
of Molapo. On that day a meeting took place at Leribe, at 
which Messrs. J. W. Lotz, F. P. Schnehage, and G. Vergottini, 
as representatives of the volksraad, released the chief from 
allegiance to the Free State; and Mr. Bowker, as high 
commissioner's agent, received him as a British subject. 
Molapo had previously withdrawn all his people from the 
country north and west of the Caledon, and he now expressed 



1870] Attitude of Morosi. 61 

himself perfectly satisfied with the boundary assigned to the 
Lesuto by the second convention of Aliwal North. 

In the session of 1870 the Cape parliament showed itself 
as little inclined as in 1869 to take upon the colony the 
enforcement of order in the Lesuto. On the 3rd of May a 
resolution was carried in the house of assembly that it was 
expedient that the frontier armed and mounted police 
then serving in Basutoland should be withdrawn and 
stationed within the colonial boundary as early as would 
be safe and prudent. This resolution was communicated 
to the governor by respectful address, but he took no 
action upon it. 

In May 1870 Sir Philip Wodehouse drew up a series of 
regulations for the government of the Basuto, which were, 
however, not to be put in force until considered expedient by 
Mr. Bowker. At the same time he appointed Mr. Bowker, 
high commissioner's agent, magistrate of the central and 
northern districts of the Lesuto, and Mr. John Austen, 
previously superintendent of the Wittebergen reserve, magis- 
trate of the southern district. Instructions were issued to 
proceed with the collection of the hut-tax, and until it 
should be known whether the Basuto would keep their 
engagement to pay this tax all further arrangements for the 
government of the tribe were left in abeyance. 

It had not } r et been decided whether the Baputi were to 
be considered British subjects, and whether the district which 
they occupied south of the Orange was to be regarded as 
part of the Lesuto, or not. Sir Philip Wodehouse had been 
requested by Morosi to take him over, but had declined to 
do so without further consideration. To ascertain if he was 
still of the same mind, in June 1870 he was requested to 
meet Messrs. Bowker and Austen at the police camp at 
Pathlala Drift. There Morosi declared that he had been for 
years a subject of the late chief Moshesh, and that he 
desired to follow his example. He had acted, he said, the 
part of a dog lingering behind at a kraal and gnawing 
bones after his master had left, and now he wished to follow 



62 History of Basutoland. [1870 

up the trail of his master. He and his people were then 
formally received as British subjects. 

Political agitators were keeping the people in such a dis- 
turbed state that Mr. Bowker was obliged to ask for 
authority to deal summarily with them. In reply he was 
informed that he could order such persons to leave the 
country, and if they did not go he could expel them or 
imprison them pending the high commissioner's decision in 
each case. When it became known that he possessed such 
power, these mischief makers desisted from acting as openly 
as before, but Mr. Bowker was aware that their intrigues 
were still continued. The most dangerous of these agitators 
were the petty chiefs who had been partly educated in the 
Cape Colony, and who were rilled with extravagant ideas 
of their own importance, but who were really incompetent 
to fill any position of trust. 

For several months after Sir Philip Wodehouse's de- 
parture from South Africa there were hardly any occur- 
rences worth noting in connection with the Basuto. The 
attention of people throughout South Africa was directed 
to the development of the recently discovered diamond- 
fields and the disputes concerning the ownership of the 
ground along the lower Vaal. Neither government officers 
nor private individuals had time to bestow upon the question 
of the settlement of a tribe of whose name all were weary. 
General Hay, the temporary administrator of the government 
of the Cape Colony, left everything to be arranged by the 
coming high commissioner. Mr. Bowker, having succeeded 
Sir Walter Currie as commandant of the frontier armed and 
mounted police, appointed Inspector Surmon to act as his 
deputy in the Lesuto, and was never afterwards able to be 
at Maseru except for a brief visit. 

The Basuto at this time were in possession of a large 
number of firearms, but since the cessation of hostilities 
they had not been able to obtain as much ammunition as 
they desired to have. The government wished to divert 
their attention to peaceful pursuits, and with this object 



1870] Regulations for the government. 53 

endeavoured to prevent munitions of war from reaching 
them. But contraband traders could not be kept out of 
the field. One of these men came up from Natal with a 
number of rifles, which were evidently intended for sale, 
though no proof could be obtained to that effect. Mr. 
Bowker took temporary possession of the weapons, and then 
wrote asking for instructions. In reply he was authorised 
to confiscate such importations. Still, the profit on illicit 
transactions in munitions of war was so great that 
unscrupulous men could not be deterred from engaging 
in them. 

In August Messrs. Austen and Surmon set about the 
collection of the hut-tax. The chiefs were promised ten per 
cent of the amounts paid in, as an inducement to exert 
their authority and influence with the people. The result 
was the receipt of rather over £3,700. A small portion was 
paid in money, but most of it was paid in grain, horned 
cattle, and goats, which were sent to the Cape Colony and 
sold. 

This being considered satisfactory, the chiefs and leading 
men in the country were called together at Thaba Bosigo on 
the 22nd of December, when the regulations drawn up by 
Sir Philip Wodehouse were laid before them, and discussion 
was invited. Everyone present expressed satisfaction at 
having been saved from ruin by their adoption as British 
subjects, but with regard to their prospective government 
they were less pleased. Molapo and some of the minor 
chiefs were still clamouring in disappointment that Great 
Britain had not forcibly restored to them the whole of the 
land ceded to the Free State by the treaty of Thaba Bosigo. 
Tsekelo, recently returned from Europe, had stirred up their 
disaffection anew. He had informed them of interviews 
which he had with powerful men who wished them to get 
back all they had lost. He had told them that the settle- 
ment effected by Sir Philip Wodehouse was condemned in 
England, and that the coming governor would undo all that 
the late one had done. Mr. Buchanan's emissaries also 



64 History of Basutoland. [1870 

were busy fomenting seditious feelings, though he himself 
remained in Natal, by whose government he was earnestly 
advised to abstain from further interference in Basuto 
affairs. The dissatisfaction regarding the question of 
regaining the whole of the lost territory was, however, 
rebuked by Letsie, who expressed himself contented with 
the country left to the tribe. 

Much greater concern was expressed when the regulations 
were read, and it was discovered that the chiefs were 
ignored in them except as tax collectors and census framers. 
Their judicial authority, they observed, was only incident- 
ally referred to, in order that it might be set aside by the 
white magistrates. That they would relinquish the outward 
and visible sign of rank and power was not reasonable to 
expect, and certainly they had no intention of doing so in 
reality, whatever they might profess in words. Molapo, 
Masupha, and the minor chiefs spoke openly against the 
acceptance of the regulations, on the ground of their 
ignoring the chiefs and placing women in a position which, 
according to Basuto ideas, could only be rilled by men. 
Finally, however, Letsie stopped further discussion by de- 
claring himself satisfied, and adding that the people must 
accept the regulations and pay the hut-tax. 

A little later in the day an address to Mr. Bowker was 
drawn up in writing and signed by the chiefs. In it they 
expressed their thanks for having been received as British 
subjects, and declared that the laws read over were reason- 
able. But they stated that " they were sorry not to see 
mentioned the rights and the authority left to the chiefs, 
who were the captains of the queen." 

At this meeting cattle were collected to be sent, according 
to traditional custom, with messengers announcing the death 
of Moshesh to the chiefs of tribes with whom he had inter- 
course in his lifetime. By some oversight no messengers 
were sent to Ketshwayo on this occasion, which omission of 
courtesy led some time afterwards to a panic grounded on 
fear of a Zulu invasion. 



1 871] Arrangements by Sir Henry Barkly. 65 

On the 31st of December 1870 Sir Henry Barkly assumed 
duty as high commissioner and governor of the Cape Colony. 
As soon as his arrival in South Africa was known, the 
Basuto chiefs sent him a letter of welcome. They had been 
persuaded by Tsekelo and Mr. Buchanan that Sir Philip 
Wodehouse had been recalled owing to their representations 
in England, and that the new governor would most likely 
favour them much more than the late one had done. The 
chiefs were therefore anxious to know what Sir Henry 
Barkly's views and intentions were. He did not keep them 
long in suspense. Within ten weeks of his arrival in Cape- 
town he was on his way to the Lesuto, and on the 16th of 
March 1871 he had a meeting with Letsie at Maseru. The 
governor was accompanied by Messrs. J. H. Bowker and 
C. D. Griffith. Lieutenant-Governor Keate, of Natal, by 
previous arrangement met him in the Lesuto. 

Sir Henry Barkly announced that he intended to increase 
the staff of European officers in the territory and to annex 
it to the Cape Colony, to which Letsie replied that he would 
be satisfied with anything and everything that the queen's 
government might do. 

The other chiefs were equally loyal in words. Molapo 
asked about the ground he had lost, and was told that the 
Caledon was the fixed boundary and no other must be 
thought of. He said that he was satisfied, as the governor 
knew what was best for them ; but as soon as he was 
beyond the hearing of Europeans he burst out into passion- 
ate utterances against Sir Henry Barkly and Sir Philip 
Wodehouse alike. 

Upon the death of Moshesb, Masupha had removed from 
his residence on the Putiatsana to Thaba Bosigo, against 
the orders of the high commissioner's agent. He was the 
ablest of Moshesh's sons, and recognised the advantage to 
himself which the occupation of the sacred and impregnable 
mountain would give. He had obstructed the collection of 
hut-tax, and had put himself in opposition to all authority. 
Nevertheless, with a large armed following he met the 

vol v. F 



66 History of BastUoland. [1871 

governor and escorted him through the Berea district, de- 
claring himself a thoroughly loyal and obedient subject. 
Sir Henry Barkly told him that he could not be recognised 
as the head of a portion of the tribe nor receive any com- 
mission upon the receipt of hut-tax until he removed from 
Thaba Bosigo and took up his residence in the Berea dis- 
trict, over which he was appointed chief. He promised to 
comply with the governor's wishes, but went straight back 
to Thaba Bosigo. 

Nehemiah, George, and Sophonia had just before been 
announcing as their views that the chiefs should collect the 
revenue, pay the magistrates, and dispose of the surplus as 
they should see fit, that the laws should be made by the 
Basuto chiefs and headmen sitting in council at Thaba 
Bosigo, and that the chiefs, advised by the magistrates, 
should have the administration of affairs. These sons of 
Moshesh were now, if their professions to the governor could 
be trusted, the most humble and dutiful subjects, contented 
to abide by whatever the queen's representative should 
please to consider good for them. 

Sir Henry Barkly, deceived by these protestations of 
loyalty, returned to Capetown convinced that the chiefs 
were sincere, and that there would be no difficulty in 
governing the tribe. The country, in his opinion, was cap- 
able of supporting many times the number of inhabitants 
then in it. On the 27th of April he opened the Cape 
parliament with a speech in which he stated his intention 
to introduce a bill to annex Basutoland to the Cape Colony, 
and informed the members that the hut-tax was generally 
paid, that the amount collected had left a considerable 
balance &fter defraying expenses, and that the revenue was 
adequate for purposes of government, including police. 

The imperial government had never intended that the 
Lesuto should be a direct dependency of the crown. When 
permission was given to Sir Philip Wodehouse to take over 
the people, it was on condition that the legislature of Natal 
should previously express its consent to their incorporation 



187 1 ] Annexation to the Cape Colony. 67 

with that colony. He had not adhered to his instructions, 
and the secretary of state had then permitted him to have 
his own way for a time, provided he did not put the home 
government to any expense. This difficulty he had got over 
by employing none but members of the frontier armed and 
mounted police, with an officer of that force as his agent in 
the territory, though in direct opposition to the wishes of 
the Cape parliament. But this was an arrangement which 
was not intended by any one to be permanent. 

On the 17th of October 1870, before Sir Henry Barkly 
left England, he was instructed by the secretary of state to 
discuss the question with Sir Philip Wodehouse, and 
received directions in writing that "Basutoland should be 
annexed as soon as possible either to Natal or to the Cape 
Colony." An alternative was indeed mentioned in another 
paragraph, in which the secretary wrote : " You will 
endeavour to secure either that this territory is annexed to 
one of the neighbouring colonies, or that a revenue is raised 
from it sufficient to enable you as high commissioner to 
conduct its government without external assistance." But 
the views of the imperial government were decidedly against 
the last of these courses, if annexation could be brought 
about. 

On the 3rd of May the governor's secretary brought an 
annexation bill to the legislative council, where it was 
received and read for the first time. It then dropped out 
of sight for two months, until the 3rd of July, when it was 
referred to a select committee of eight members. The com- 
mittee consulted Messrs. J. X. Merriman and J. H. Bowker, 
as well as the colonial secretary and the attorney-general, 
all of whom were in favour of annexation to the Cape 
Colony rather than to Natal. Mr. Bowker stated that 
Masupha and a few of the petty chiefs were opposed to 
European government, but the power of the tribe was 
completely broken and its influence was gone. 

On the 1st of August the select committee brought up a 
report. Basutoland, they affirmed, offered a wide field of 



68 'History of Basutoland. [1871 

profitable commercial enterprise, which it would be sound 
policy to secure ; the country having already been declared 
British territory, it would be undesirable for the colony, 
being geographically connected with it, not to obtain legis- 
lative control over the people ; and with reference to the 
financial aspect of the question, it did not appear that 
annexation was likely to entail any additional burden on 
the colon v. 

The actual revenue received from the date of the assump- 
tion of British authority to the 31st of May 1871 was 
£4yT53. This was made up of hut-tax £3,721, trading 
licenses £961, fines £63, and fees for registration of marriages 
£8. The hut-tax was one year's collection only, the other 
items were receipts of rather more than three years. A 
large increase in all might reasonably be expected. The 
expenditure proposed by Sir Henry Barkly was: chief 
magistrate and governor's agent £800 and £100 for house 
rent, two magistrates at £400 and £50 for house rent, two 
assistant magistrates at £200, one European clerk at £125, 
and three Basuto clerks at £50 each per annum. Stationery 
£75. Total £2,550. With the balance of the revenue he 
proposed to provide a police force. Nothing was allowed 
in these estimates for public works, buildings, education, or 
postal communication. 

The legislative council in committee adopted the report 
by a majority of eleven to six, but after a warm discussion 
the second reading of the annexation bill was only carried 
by ten votes against eight. On the following day — 2nd of 
August — it passed its third reading in the council, and on 
the 5th it was brought up in the house of assembly and 
read for the first time. The session was then drawing to a 
close, and business was being hurried through. On the 9th 
the bill was read for the second time. On the 10th the 
house of assembly went into committee, and after a very 
brief discussion the bill was read the third time without a 
division. On the day following, the 11th of August, 
parliament was prorogued. 



187 1] Claim to Part of Nomansland. 69 

By this act the Lesuto was annexed to the Cape. Colony, 
but was not made subject to colonial law. The duty of 
legislating for the territory, that is of making, repealing, 
amending, and altering laws and regulations, was vested in 
the governor. All legislative enactments were to be laid 
before parliament within fourteen days of the opening of 
the session following their promulgation, and were to remain 
in force unless they should be repealed, altered, or varied 
by act of parliament during that session. No act of parlia- 
ment was to apply to the territory unless so declared in 
express terms in the act itself or in a proclamation by the 
governor. 

On the 16th of August a great meeting of the Basuto 
people took place at Maseru. A message from the governor 
was read to Letsie, informing him that no change whatever 
was effected in the position of the Basuto by the annexation 
of the country, except giving them the full privileges of 
British subjects in the Cape Colony. Letsie, Masupha, 
Nehemiah, George, Tsekelo, Makotoko for Molapo, and 
others, using the most loyal language, agreed to what had 
been done. No one raised a dissentient voice. 

A little later — 11th of September — Letsie caused a letter 
to be written to the governor expressing his satisfaction that 
his country had been united to the Cape Colony, and asking 
that the upper districts of Nomansland should be declared 
part of the Lesuto. He claimed them, he said, as having 
been presented by the Pondo chief Faku to his father 
Moshesh. This was not the first time that Letsie advanced 
pretensions to the ownership of the best part of Nomans- 
land, and in previous chapters it has been recorded how 
persistently Nehemiah schemed to obtain the recognition 
by Sir George Grey and Sir Philip Wodehouse of his occu- 
pation of that territory. Sir Philip Wodehouse had located 
the clans of Makwai, Lebenya, Lehana, and Zibi in it; but 
without proclaiming it British soil. The restrictions placed 
by the secretary of state in 1864 upon the extension of the 
British dominions in South Africa were still in force regard- 



7o History of Basutoland. [187 1 

ing the whole country east of the Indwe and the Kei. 
Letsie's claim could not therefore be recognised, even had 
the high commissioner been disposed to admit the validity 
of Faku's cession. 

The Lesuto was now divided into four districts, named 
Leribe, Berea, Thaba Bosigo, and Kornet Spruit. Over the 
whole Mr. Charles Duncan Griffith had already been placed, 
with the titles of chief magistrate and governor's agent. 
On the 2nd of August he assumed the duties, when he 
found the only questions causing general interest were the 
refusal of Masupha to leave Thaba Bosigo, though Letsie 
professed to endorse the order of the governor that he 
should do so, and Mr. Buchanan's efforts to obtain the cattle 
promised by Moshesh to defray the cost of his mission to 
Europe, but which no one was disposed to contribute. 

A slight difficulty had arisen through four Basuto, who 
were armed with guns and were travelling through the Free 
State with a pass signed by Mr. David Arnot, having their 
weapons taken from them when they reached Bloemfontein ; 
but it was surmounted by Mr. Griffith, acting under in- 
structions from the high commissioner, making an unofficial 
request to the landdrost of that town to restore the confiscated 
articles. 

On the 15 th of July the reverend Mr. Jousse wrote to 
the governor on behalf of Masupha, asking that he might 
remain on Thaba Bosigo, as Letsie had no intention of going 
to live there. On the 2nd of September the governor 
directed the chief magistrate to inform Masupha that he 
must move as soon as he conveniently could to the Berea 
district, but this intimation was not to be followed by 
any active steps unless Letsie should apply for assistance. 
Masupha therefore remained master of the stronghold. As 
for Mr. Buchanan, he continued to write inflammatory letters 
to the chiefs, and did his utmost to keep alive a spirit of 
disaffection. On the 2nd of September the high commis- 
sioner directed Lieutenant-Governor Keate to inform him 
that if he sent messengers again into the Lesuto they would 



i8 7 i] Appointment of Officials. 71 

be prosecuted for stirring up sedition, but that he could 
bring his claim against the Basuto chiefs for compensation 
for the expenses he had incurred in his visit to England 
before the proper law courts, if he chose to do so. 

At Leribe Major Charles Harland Bell was appointed 
magistrate, and assumed duty on the 13th of May. He was 
received by Molapo in a very cordial manner, and at a 
meeting which was held to introduce him, Jonathan and 
Joel, Molapo's sons, Selebalo, Molapo's half-brother, and 
Mapetshuane, son of Poshuli and cousin of Molapo, who 
were the leading men of the district, expressed their 
pleasure in welcoming him. 

In the district of Berea, Inspector William Henry Surmon, 
of the frontier armed and mounted police, was appointed to 
act as magistrate. 

The governor's agent was also required to perform the 
duties of magistrate of the district of Thaba Bosigo. He 
resided at Maseru, and had as assistant magistrate and 
interpreter Mr. Emile Rolland, son of one of the first 
missionaries of the Paris evangelical society, who was 
thoroughly acquainted with the language and customs of 
the Basuto. He was also authorised to provide himself with 
a clerk, and on the 11th of November Mr. H. E. Richard 
Bright arrived and assumed that duty. 

In the district of Kornet Spruit Mr. John Austen 
remained as magistrate. 

The sub-magistrates had jurisdiction in civil cases of any 
amount, but their decisions were subject to review by the 
chief magistrate. They had jurisdiction in all criminal cases, 
except when persons were charged with crimes punishable 
by death under the colonial law. All sentences of over a 
month's imprisonment, or a fine of £5, or twelve lashes, 
were subject to the review of the chief magistrate, upon 
application of the person convicted. Persons charged with 
offences punishable by death under the colonial law were 
tried by a court of three magistrates, of whom the chief 
magistrate was to be one, and he was to preside. If they 



72 History of Basutoland. [187 1 

were not unanimous in finding the prisoner guilty, he was 
discharged ; if they differed as to the sentence, their 
proposals were submitted to the governor for his decision. 
No sentence of death could be carried out except upon the 
warrant of the governor. 

All trials were to take place in open court, the evidence 
was to be recorded, and a return of all cases tried in the 
inferior courts was to be sent to the chief magistrate at the 
end of every month. 

Each district was placed under the superintendence of one 
of the principal chiefs, who was to be consulted by the 
governor's agent in distributing the ground among the 
people. The chief was required to use his influence in 
collecting the hut tax, and was allowed a percentage of the 
receipts. He could try any civil or any petty criminal case 
occurring in his district, but had no assistance given to him 
to enforce his decisions, and his having tried a case did not 
prevent a suitor from bringing it afterwards before the 
magistrate.* 

The hut-tax was fixed at ten shillings a year for each 
hut occupied by a family or a single man. When two or 
more wives of a man occupied the same hut, ten shillings 
was to be paid for each of them. This tax was made 
payable, either in money, or stock, or produce of the land, 
on the 1st of June in each year. Anyone neglecting to pay 
it was liable to have his property seized, or to be ejected. 
The headmen were responsible for the payment of the tax 
in their villages. 

The sale of spirituous liquors was prohibited under a 
penalty of £10 for the first offence, and in addition to this 
fine the trading license was to be forfeited on a second 
conviction. All spirits found in such cases were to be 
destroyed. No firearms or ammunition could be sold with- 

* Though this was the law, in practice the chiefs continued to try 
nearly all cases, except such as were brought by a member of one clan 
against a member of another ; and public opinion was so greatly in 
their favour that they had no difficulty in causing their decisions to be 
carried out. 



1 871] Regulations for Courts of Law. 73 

out the sanction in writing of the magistrate of the district, 
under a penalty not exceeding a fine of £500 or seven 
years' imprisonment with hard labour. Licenses to trade in 
other goods were to be paid for at the rate of £10 per 
annum or £1 per mensem for each shop or waggon. 

Before the law all men were declared equal. The crimes 
punishable by death were murder and arson with intent 
to kill.* Infanticide was made punishable by imprisonment, 
and rape by flogging not exceeding fifty lashes, or confisca- 
tion of property, or both.t Forcible seizure of property, 
except by order of a magistrate in course of law, was 
declared to be theft. Forcibly compelling any one to be 
circumcised, or circumcising any one without the consent of 
parents or guardians, was declared to be assault. J Practising 
or pretending to practise witchcraft, or falsely accusing any 
one of doing so, was declared to be roguery. All other acts 
against person or property which were punishable by the 
colonial law were declared punishable in the Lesuto, due 
allowance being made for circumstances. 

Punishments were to be inflicted either by fines, or 
imprisonment,** or flogging ; but no female was to be flogged. 

* Under Bantu law murder and arson when committed by common 
people were usually punished by a fine of ten head of cattle. Culpable 
homicide was punished by a fine of four or five head of cattle. The 
degree of punishment depended upon the rank of the offender and upon 
that of his victim. Death was inflicted for acts of treason against the 
chief and for being pronounced by a witchfinder guilty of having caused 
any great calamity. A man caught in the act of stealing cattle at night 
could be killed with impunity. A notorious thief whose conduct was 
likely to get his tribe into difficulty was usually put to death by order 
of his chief. 

t Under Bantu law these crimes were very leniently dealt with. The 
first was hardly noticed at all. 

+ Moshesh and Letsie at one time were indifferent as to circumcision. 
Some of Letsie's sons were not circumcised. He would not punish those 
who practised it, but he said that he saw no advantage in it. Molitsane 
suppressed circumcision in the Bataung clan. The Zulus and Natal tribes 
have been uncircumcised since the practice was abolished by Tshaka. 

** This is a method of punishment unknown to Bantu law. It necessi- 
tated the erection of prisons. On the 2nd of September authority was 



74 History of Bastitoland* [1871 

Hardened criminals and those who had not sufficient property 
to pay fines were to be flogged, not exceeding thirty-six 
lashes. 

No woman could be compelled to marry a man against 
her will. Marriage by a minister of the Christian religion 
was declared to be as binding as if performed according to 
the custom of the country. No marriage, however per- 
formed, was to be considered valid unless within twenty 
days thereafter the parties to it declared their consent before 
a magistrate, and caused it to be registered. A registration 
fee of two shillings and sixpence was made payable. In 
every marriage contract the cattle to be transferred to the 
woman's family were to be registered, or no action at law 
could thereafter be entertained concerning them* Either 
survivor of a marriage was to be entitled to the custody of 
the children until the males were eighteen and the females 
sixteen years of age. In all cases where marriages were 
not registered, the woman was to be entitled to the custody 
of the children. A widow was to be free to marry again, 
but in this case the custody of the children was to be trans- 
ferred to some relative of the deceased husband to be selected 
by the magistrate. 

These regulations were to come in force on the 1st of 
December 1871. They had been laid before the Basuto 
chiefs and leading men at the meeting on the 22nd of 
December 1870, and Letsie had agreed to them, but some of 
the clauses were very objectionable to the great body of 
the people. In particular, the tribe was not prepared for 
such a revolution in the position of women. The veneering 
of civilisation in even that section of the people which was 
under missionary influence was very thin, and the families 

issued by the governor to build prisons and to employ at each seat of 
magistracy one chief constable at £36, one constable at £18, and two at 
£12 each per annum. 

* This was not to affect marriages contracted before the 1st of December 
1871, all cases in connection with which were to be decided according to 
the old customs. 



1 87 1 J Resumption of Mission Work. 75 

to whom the guardianship of children by women seemed 
reasonable could not be reckoned by hundreds. 

It had been a common practice for young men who were 
nominally Christians to get married by missionaries in 
churches, and afterwards to abandon these wives and take 
others according to Bantu custom. Their treatment of the 
cast-off women was regarded by the tribe as a mere joke, for 
in the eyes of the people they had not the status of wives.* 
Naturally fathers soon came to object to marriages in church, 
and required their daughters to take husbands according to 
the ancient custom, which provided some security against 
desertion or gross ill - treatment of married women. Thus 
public opinion, even in the small section of the people under 
missionary influence, was at this time in favour of the old 
system, under which a woman was throughout life a ward 
under protection. The nine-tenths of the people whose social 
views were not affected by missionary teaching had of course 
but one opinion. Thus these clauses in the regulations only 
caused irritation, without serving any good purpose. 

With the establishment of British authority in the Lesuto 
the French missionaries returned to their labours. The ter- 
ritory retaken by Sir Philip Wodehouse from the Free State 
contained all their lost stations except four. At once they 
set about reorganising their work, establishing new church 
centres and opening new schools. Prior to this date the 
children in their schools had received instruction in no other 
language than their own. Though there were more than 
three thousand individuals in the country who could read 
Sesuto, Mr. Bowker was unable to obtain a single black 
interpreter, the few petty chiefs who understood English 
being considered untrustworthy by him. From this time 

* One of the leading missionaries in the Lesuto wrote to the government 
about these marriages, which, as ho said, were considered jokes. The 
remedy which he suggested was to make the wife in such a case entitled 
to a divorce. A layman may be pardoned for preferring to such a remedy 
the Bantu system when applied to people holding Bantu opinions regarding 
women and their status in society. Sir Henry Barkly declined to facilitate 
divorces. 



j6 History of Basutoland. [1872 

forward the youths in the higher classes have been taught 
English also. In 1868 a training school for teachers was 
established at Morija. The government would have assisted 
with grants of money if there had been any revenue that 
could be applied to such a purpose, but before the close of 
1871 state aid could not be given, and then it was only in 
the form of outfits for schools. In this year an establish- 
ment for training girls in the practice of such industries as 
are commonly engaged in by European females of the work- 
ing class was opened by the reverend Mr. Jousse, and met a 
pressing need, as without such training young women could 
not become fitting wives for those males who were making 
progress towards civilisation. 

On the 3rd of November 1871 the act of parliament by 
which the Lesuto was annexed to the Cape Colony was 
ratified by the queen in council, and the existence of the 
territory as a separate dependency of the crown was thus 
ended. 

Weekly postal communication with other parts of the 
world was established from the 1st of January 1872 by 
means of runners from the seats of magistracy to Aliwal 
North on the southern bank of the Orange river. 

Early in January 1872 a difficulty arose concerning the 
custom of letsima, or the enforced labour of the people in 
the gardens of the chiefs. Masupha had called out a number 
of men for this purpose, when one Motube, who was supposed 
to have been instigated by a European to resist, declined to 
appear. For this refusal Masupha caused him to be severely 
beaten, and he then appealed to the governor's agent for 
protection and redress. Mr. Griffith investigated the case, 
and sentenced the man who had assaulted the complainant 
to pay a fine, but neither he nor Masupha, under whose 
orders he had acted, would abide by the judgment. There 
were no means of enforcing the sentence, so Mr. Griffith 
applied to Letsie to carry it out, and that chief, pleased at 
his power being thus recognised, obliged Masupha to pay the 
fine. 



1872] Suppression of Letsima. jj 

On the 30th of January 1872 the governor's agent issued 
a circular to the magistrates, directing them to suppress the 
custom of letsima or enforced labour, but to recognise the 
custom of maboela, or the setting apart by the chiefs about 
the end of December of tracts of pasture land for winter 
use. after which all cattle trespassing thereon were liable to 
be impounded. This custom had also caused some discussion, 
and th/3 people as well as the chiefs were opposed to its 
abolition. 

It was found impossible, however, to suppress the system 
of compulsory labour for the benefit of the chiefs. On the 
17th of February Major Bell reported that Molapo was 
threatening to enforce it, and that British rule was pre- 
carious in the district of Leribe. He added that he thought 
" the magistrate's authority should have the support of 
something more than it rested on, namely the prestige of 
the government." To this report the colonial secretary 
replied that the governor could not furnish any stronger 
force of the frontier armed and mounted police than the 
seventeen men then in the territory. But on the 11th of 
October, as the condition of the finances seemed to warrant 
it and the need for a constabular}' of some kind was pressing, 
the governor's agent was authorised to raise a Basuto police 
force to consist of one inspector, two sub - inspectors, four 
sergeants, four corporals, and one hundred privates. By a 
careful selection of the men and judicious management this 
puny force was made of some service, but it could never be 
thoroughly relied upon to support the magistrates on all 
occasions. 

Masupha still continued heedless of the governor's wishes 
that he should remove to the district assigned to him, but 
consented to change his residence from the top of Thaba 
Bosigo to a place near that mountain. As he could easily 
regain the stronghold upon any alarm being given, the move- 
ment did not affect his position in any way. Fortunately for 
the European authorities, a violent feud broke out between 
him and Jonathan, son of Molapo, concerning the ownership 



j8 History of Basutoland. [1872 

of some ground on the southern bank of the Putiatsana, so 
that he was to some extent kept in awe by the knowledge 
that a considerable force could at any time be raised against 
him. He chafed, however, at any interference by Europeans 
with his authority over his people, and was known more 
than once to cause men who offended him to be put to 
death. This he could do without fear of the governor's 
agent, who had no means of controlling or punishing him for 
such acts, that were regarded by all the other chiefs as 
perfectly legitimate on his part. 

Mr. Buchanan was still fomenting discontent with the 
existing order of things. At his instigation, on the 25th of 
February Letsie, Molapo, Masupha, and a number of the 
minor chiefs forwarded to Sir Henry Barkly a petition for 
representation in the Cape parliament. A more absurd 
request could not have been made. The governor directed 
Mr. Griffith to explain to the chiefs what the effect of repre- 
sentation would be, that colonial law in that case would 
entirely supersede Bantu law, so that the measure was 
inexpedient and undesirable. Thereupon the chiefs stated 
that they had affixed their marks to the petition in ignorance, 
that they desired to withdraw it, and were quite willing to 
be guided by the governor's advice. Mr. Griffith was also 
directed to warn Mr. Buchanan against further agitation, and 
to acquaint him that if this warning had no effect, the 
colonial law against Kaffir emissaries would be put in force. 
He had not yet received paj^ment from the Basuto of the 
expense he had incurred in his visit to England, so Mr. 
Griffith induced the chiefs to collect cattle by a tribal sub- 
scription to settle his claim and then to cease intercourse 
with him. 

On the 19th of August a commission was appointed by the 
governor, in accordance with a resolution of the house of 
assembly, tc enquire into and report upon the laws and 
customs of the Basuto and on the operation of the regula- 
tions established for their government. This commission did 
not enter very deeply into the matter, but took such evidence 



1872] 



Revenue and Expenditure. 



79 



as was at hand, and on the 30th of December sent in a 
report, which was printed as a pamphlet and made to serve 
the purpose of a handbook for the European officials in the 
territory. 

There was much less difficulty in collecting taxes than in 
exercising judicial authority, as the jealousy of the chiefs was 
not aroused by it. They did not yet comprehend that the 
money so raised might be used to undermine their power, 
and they were allowed to deduct a large commission before 
transferring the balance, so that they acted as tax gatherers 
with perfect good will. The actual revenue for the year 
that ended on the 31st of May 1872 was 



Jtillt/-UclX ... ... ... ... 

Licenses ... 

Fines, fees, &c. 

Grain passes 

Fees for marriage registration 
Fees for transfer of licenses ,,. 



£5,296 16 5 

527 

73 17 4 

13 9 3 

10 

6 

£5,927 3 



The expenditure during the same period was 



Salaries and allowances 
Works and buildings 
Transport 
Education 

Collection of hut-tax 
Miscellaneous ... 



• • 1 


£4,095 


6 11 


• • 1 


500 








• ■ « 


168 


4 


6 


• • 1 


66 








, , 


34 11 





«•< 


6 10 


3 




£4,870 12 


8 



In 1872 the Paris evangelical society employed fifteen 
European missionaries and sixty-five Basuto catechists and 
schoolmasters in the territory. It occupied nine centres, 
with forty-five outstations, and had two thousand two 
hemdred and twenty-nine church members and two thousand 
and forty-six children attending its schools. In this year 
and in this mission, which had done so much not only for 



80 History of Bastdoland. [1872 

the elevation but for the preservation of the Basuto, the 
beginning of that pernicious revolt against European 
guidance, now known as the Ethiopian movement, took place. 
At the station of Hermon one hundred and fifty-eight 
individuals, previously church members, renounced the 
control of the missionaries, and declared their intention 
to conform to no other church regulations than those made 
by themselves. The feeling of nationality was at the bottom 
of this movement. Its tendency was to produce a form of 
Christianity that would embody also the leading principles 
of the Bantu religion, and thus be acceptable to the great 
body of the people. It would be in fact a compromise 
between the Christianity of the French missionaries and 
ancestral worship mixed with fetishism, in which the moral 
precepts of the one faith could be made to fit in with the 
veneration of spirits, polygamy, the use of charms, and the 
power to deal in witchcraft of the other. After a time 
these people were induced to return to the church, but the 
desire for independence was not eradicated, it was merely 
dormant. Many years later it spread to numerous Bantu 
mission stations in South Africa, and it threatens incal- 
culable harm to the cause of progress in civilisation. In 
1872 it attracted very little attention, except among the 
members of the French Mission. 

Other religious denominations were labouring in Basuto- 
land at this time, but their operations were small compared 
with those of the French evangelical mission. The Boman 
catholic church was, however, extending its work rapidly, 
and the English episcopal church was endeavouring to obtain 
a firm foothold in the country. It is open to doubt whether 
this multiplication of religious bodies did not tend upon 
the whole to retard rather than to promote tbe advancement 
of the Basuto towards European ways of thinking, for it 
caused much confusion among them, and observant black 
men were often heard to remark at public meetings that it 
would be time enough for them to attend to the exhortations 
of the missionaries when these agreed among themselves. 



1872] Line of Progress of the Basuto. 81 

In other respects the Basuto showed a strong desire 
for improvement. They appreciated the value of all articles 
of European manufacture that tended to increase comfort in 
a simple manner of living, thus cutlery and crockery had 
come into general use. They had become expert horsemen, and 
every young man was ambitious to be the owner of a saddle 
and bridle. A breed of horses adapted to a mountainous 
country was being evolved, small, but strong and hardy, 
surefooted and capable of great endurance, needing neither 
grooming nor artificial food. These animals are now recog- 
nised as a distinct breed in South Africa, and under the 
name of Basuto ponies are highly valued by polo players 
and mountain climbers. 

Many other articles of European manufacture than those 
here named had also come into use by even the least pro- 
gressive of the Basuto people, the most highly prized of 
all being guns. To be the owner of a gun was to have 
a claim to regard as a man which nothing else could give. To 
obtain one a young Basuto was willing to go from home and 
work for strangers for many months, and a proud and 
envied man was he when he returned to his kraal with one 
on his shoulder. 

They were very willing to learn how to make things for 
themselves, and the chiefs encouraged them in this. At a 
little later date the leading chiefs expressed a desire for the 
establishment of schools in which mechanical instruction 
should be given, but that the white man's religion should not 
be taught in them. That clearly indicates their views : to 
adhere to their ancestral belief and customs, and to adopt 
only that which would make them stronger as a distinct 
people. 



vol. v. 



CHAPTEK LXXXVII. 

ACCOUNT OF THE MAKOLOLO TRIBE AND OF THE HERERO WAR 

OF INDEPENDENCE. 

Of the great military tribes that had devastated South 
Africa, one — the Makololo — had now ceased to exist. After 
the defeat of the Mantati horde by the Griquas at Lithako 
on the 26th of June 1823, the murderous host broke into 
fragments, one of which was under a young chief named 
Sebetoane', a Mokwena* by birth, who had raised himself by 
his ability from a humble position after his immediate 
retainers had been driven by Umpangazita from the banks 
of the Sand river. His followers were at that time 
termed the Bapatsa, but being joined by other sections of 
the shattered horde, principally Bafokeng and Bapiri, who 
were of the same family group — tbe Bakwena, — the united 
band took the name of Makololo, and commenced a career 
of conquest on its own account. 

Sebetoane first measured his strength with the Bangwaketse, 
whose principal kraal was then as now at Kanye, north of 
the Molopo. This tribe was at the summit of its fame and 
power, its able and warlike chief Makaba had made his name 
dreaded far and near, and by his defeat of the entire Mantati 
horde before its encounter with the Griquas, had apparently 
placed himself beyond fear of another attack. His warrior* 
were well trained and armed, and placed unbounded con- 
fidence in their hitherto successful head. But Sebetoane' was 
more than his equal in strategy, and managed to draw the 

* Sebetoane 1 and his original followers spoke the dialect of the Bakwena 
and claimed to belong to that group of tribes, but they certainly had a 
large admixture of Makalanga blood in their veins, though how it was 
acquired cannot now be ascertained. 

82 



Account of the Makololo tribe. 83 

Bangwaketse into an engagement in an unfavourable position, 
where they were defeated and a great number of their best 
men were slain. Among those who fell was their renowned 
chief, who died on the field of battle, as became a warrior 
of his reputation. 

Then Sebetoane withdrew, taking much spoil with him, 
and the Bangwaketse came together again and built a new 
kraal close by their old one. Their chief, Gasiyitsiwe by 
name, a grandson of Makaba, was a little boy, and two 
regents in succession governed the tribe during his minority. 
When the second of these was their head the Matabele 
occupied the territory to the eastward, and Moselekatse 
sent a small army against him. He made a very feeble 
resistance, for the spirit of the tribe was lost when Makaba 
died. His cattle were taken, many of his people fell under 
the stabbing assagai, and he with the survivors fled for their 
lives to the desert, where the remnants of the other 
Betshuana tribes were seeking shelter. There, half -starved 
and homeless, they were obliged to remain until the 
emigrant farmers drove Moselekatse away to the north. 
Then the Bangwaketse under Gasiyitsiwe returned to Kanye, 
but the tribe was now small and feeble, and it has never 
since recovered its former strength. 

Sebetoane^s followers were still more like a rabble than 
the disciplined body they afterwards became, but he was 
gradually introducing order among them. There was so 
little left to plunder in the south that his people were often 
reduced to great distress, and after wandering about for a 
few months subsequent to the battle near Kanye, he set 
his face towards the north. The nearest tribe in that 
direction was the Bakwena of recent times, that is the 
section of the widespread Bakwena family that still retained 
the ancient name. This tribe had recently undergone a 
revolution of an unusual kind. Its chief, Mokwasele by 
name, was a man of more depraved character even than an 
ordinary barbarian, and being as weak as he was dissolute 
had made himself so unpopular that some of his subjects 



84 Account of the Makololo tribe. 

conspired against him, put him to death, and raised one of 
his distant relatives to be their ruler, his son Setsheli being 
a young lad at the time. 

The legitimist party desired that their new head should 
act only as regent until Setsheli should grow up, but the 
other section would not consent to this arrangement, so a 
division of the tribe would probably have taken place, with 
civil war as its result, if the Makololo had not just then 
arrived in the neighbourhood. The legitimists sent mes^ 
sengers secretly to Sebetoane to appeal to him as a 
Mokwena himself to aid them in raising Setsheli to the 
chieftainship which was his by right of birth. Sebetoane' 
consented, and a definite plan was arranged. The Makololo 
surrounded the Bakwena kraal at midnight, entered it at 
dawn, and with the assistance of the legitimists overcame 
and put to death the new chief and his partisans. Setsheli 
was proclaimed chief, and Sebetoane withdrew without 
plundering or further molesting the people. 

The Bakwena tribe suffered terribly from the Matabele. 
Its cattle were captured, its kraals were pillaged and burnt, 
and much the larger number of its men, women, and children 
were killed. Some of its boys and girls were incorporated 
in Moselekatse's bands, and a miserable remnant with the 
chief barely escaped extermination by taking refuge in the 
desert. There many died of thirst and starvation, and when 
at length relief came by the arrival of the emigrant farmers 
and the flight of the Matabele, only a small band was left 
of the once lanre tribe. 

The Makololo continued their journey northward, and 
next attacked the Bamangwato, who were not in a condition 
to offer much resistance. Khari, the most renowned of all 
their chiefs before the present ruler Khama, had recently 
fallen in battle with a Baroswi clan that he was endeavour- 
ing to subdue, and with him so many men were killed that 
the tribe was reduced to helplessness. Sekhomi, a son of 
Khari, but not by the great wife, then became chief. He 
was very young, and consequently without experience, so 



Accottnt of the Makololo tribe. 85 

that when the Makololo arrived he and his people were 
practically at their mercy. They helped themselves to the 
cattle and the best of the girls and boys, and then left, 
taking Sekhomi a prisoner with them. Some months later 
he was either liberated or permitted to escape, and the 
scattered Bamangwato gathered again around him and built 
a kraal at Shoshong, in a strong but otherwise not very 
good position among their hills. 

Thence to the Zambesi the Makololo cut their way 
through the tribes that were found on their line of march. 
The carnage must have been great, but it is impossible now 
to ascertain more than the general outlines of the events 
that took place. Like all other Bantu conquerors, Sebetoane' 
spared boys and girls of the people he otherwise destroyed, 
and incorporated them in his own tribe, though in a servile 
condition. His warriors were now under strict discipline, 
and the rabble with which he set out had become a veritable 
army. The Baroswi, broken up into little independent 
parties, could offer no resistance worth mentioning, and 
the Makololo, after bringing them under subjection, crossed 
the Zambesi with the help of Batonga boatmen whom they 
impressed, and went down its bank to the principal settle- 
ments of those people, which were very numerous below the 
great fall. The Batonga tried to resist, but were defeated 
and slaughtered in great numbers, and vast herds of cattle 
fell into the hands of the victors. Then the Makololo settled 
in a large and fertile valley north of the great river. 

Here the tribe prospered greatly, and was able to maintain 
its position as the ruling people in that part of the interior of 
the continent. Its exactions from its subjects were very heavy, 
but none of the conquered tribes or clans dared to resist 
the will or disobey the commands of Sebetoane. So great 
was his power and influence that the subject people, though 
vastly outnumbering the band that accompanied him to the 
north, were obliged to learn the dialect that he spoke, so 
that many years later, after the Makololo had disappeared 
from the face of the earth, the French missionaries who 



86 Account of the Makololo tribe. 

established themselves with the Barotsi found that nearly 
every member of that great tribe was conversant with 
Sesuto. This was of such advantage to them, owing to 
their having a perfect knowledge of that dialect themselves 
and to the bible and much religious literature having 
already been printed in it, that they could only regard the 
Makololo conquest as designed by God to open the way 
for Christian teaching in one of the most benighted regions 
in Africa. 

When the Matabele fled to the north from the emigrant 
farmers, Moselekatse sent an army against the Makololo, 
that captured many of their cattle. These they succeeded in 
recovering, and they managed to force the Matabele soldiers 
to retreat, but Sebetoane' realised that in the open country 
where he was then living he would be unable to withstand 
a second attack, which would probably be made by a much 
more powerful force than the one he had driven away. It 
thus became necessary to seek another home, and the locality 
was indicated by a man who professed to have intercourse 
with the spirit world and whose words were regarded by 
the chief and his people as inspired. This man, Tlapane by 
name, warned Sebetoane against moving eastward, the 
direction which the chief was inclined to favour, and pointed 
to the south-west as the course he should take. He added 
that the people there should be spared, as they would be 
Sebetoane's future subjects. 

Accordingly search was made for a locality that could easily 
be defended, and one was found among the swamps 
bordering on the Tshobe river. To it the chief and his 
principal warriors at once removed with their women and 
children. They retained control over their subjects north 
of the Zambesi, and a few Makololo still remained there, 
but from this time forward the seat of government was on 
the Tshobe, south of the great river, and the principal 
military bands were stationed there. The inhabitants to a 
great distance around were brought under subjection, but 
Sebetoane respected their lives and usually tbeir property, 



Account of the Makololo tribe. 87 

and they were treated with such kindness that they 
speedily became attached to their new master. These people, 
who lived on swampy ground and under a burning sun, 
were much blacker in colour than the original Makololo. 
They consumed great quantities of fish, which abounded in 
the rivers and lakelets of the country. 

In 1849 the reverend Dr. Livingstone with Messrs. Oswell 
and Murray explored the country northward from Kolobeng, 
then the residence of the Bakwena chief Setsheli, as far as 
Lake Ngami, which they reached on the 1st of August of 
that year. There they were informed of the wide extent 
of Sebetoane's power, and they were desirous of visiting 
him, but were then unable to proceed farther. In 1850 
another attempt was made from Kolobeng, as a base, but 
was unsuccessful, as fever attacked so many of the party 
at the lake that they were obliged to return. 

In 1851, however, Dr. Livingstone and Mr. Oswell reached 
Sebetoane's residence, and were received in a friendly 
manner by the chief and his people. The country along the 
Tshobe river, where the principal kraals were situated, was 
so unhealthy that Europeans could not remain there long, 
and Dr. Livingstone, who had his family with him, thought 
it imprudent then to look for a better site where a mission 
might be established. On a short excursion the Zambesi 
was discovered, in the centre of the continent, and much 
information concerning the other rivers of that region was 
gathered. 

Sebetoane' died while Dr. Livingstone and Mr. Oswell 
were at his residence, which was called Linyanti. The 
missionary had been with him long enough to acquire his 
confidence, and had consequently come to be regarded by 
the people with the greatest respect. Coming from 
Kolobeng and having resided for a long time with Setsheli, 
whom Sebetoane' had raised to the chieftainship of the 
Bakwena, were circumstances in his favour. His attachment 
to the people with whom he had been living, and of whom 
he spoke in terms of praise, made him seem to the Makololo 



88 Account of the Makololo tribe. 

almost as if he was a Mokwena himself. His position being 
thus assured, he resolved to proceed to Capetown, to send 
his family to England, and to return to the Tshobe to 
explore the country and ascertain whether a healthier site 
than Liny an ti could not be found, to which the principal 
section of the tribe could be removed, and where mission- 
aries might settle and endeavour to christianise and improve 
the people. 

Sebetoane' had no son by his great wife, and desired that 
his daughter Mamotshisane, who was a woman of vigour, 
should succeed him as head of the tribe. For some years 
before his death he caused her to be treated as a great chief, 
she was addressed and spoken of as a man, her principal 
male favourite was termed her wife, and she was even 
encouraged to select whatever young men she chose as 
companions, just as a chief selects young women. But 
Mamotshisane disliked this kind of life, and soon after her 
father died she gave the chieftainship to her half brother 
Sekeletu, who was then a lad of only sixteen or seventeen 
years of age. Thereupon dissensions broke out in the tribe, 
but with the death in 1853 of the principal agitator, Mpepe 
by name, who was made prisoner and stabbed with an 
assagai, these ceased, and Sekeletu became the undisputed 
ruler of the Makololo. 

On the 23rd of May 1853 Dr. Livingstone arrived at 
Linyanti again. Sekeletu had caused most of the men who 
had been his father's favourites to be put to death, as he 
was jealous of their influence, and his right to the chieftain- 
ship was doubtful on account of his mother having been a 
mere concubine. His disposition was weak, and he possessed 
none of his father's abilities. He was therefore glad to 
place himself under the guidance of the strong-minded white 
man, who bore such love for him and his people as to leave 
wife and children and home, and travel for months through 
the desert to visit and benefit them. There were two main 
objects in the missionary's view. One was the search for 
a healthy district, the other the opening a road to either the 



Journeys of Dr. Livingstone. 89 

western or the eastern coast, along which ivory and other 
produce might be transported and needful supplies of 
European goods be brought more easily than from the 
distant shore of the Cape Colony. Accompanied by the chief, 
he explored the country in canoes for a considerable distance 
along the great waterways, but without finding as healthy 
a site as he was in search of for a mission station. The 
other design was then followed up. Sekeletu was capable 
of appreciating the advantages of trade, and so Dr. 
Livingstone was furnished with carriers and ivory and food, 
which enabled him to make his celebrated journey from 
Linyanti to St. Paul de Loanda and back, 11th of November 
1853 to 1st of September 1855. 

It was evident that a road so long and so difficult as this 
had proved could be of little use, and thus the energetic 
explorer was hardly back at Linyanti when he began making 
preparations for a journey to the eastern shore. Supplies 
of such things as he most needed had been sent up by 
waggon from Kuruman, and were found by him carefully 
preserved by the Makololo. Allowing himself only two 
months rest, on the 3rd of November 1855 he left Linyanti 
with a large party of carriers, furnished as before by 
Sekeletu, and on the 12th of July 1856 reached the village 
of Kilimane. He was the first European that ever crossed 
the African continent north of the Cape Colony, and it is 
from his connection with the Makololo and the assistance 
which they gave him that the name of the tribe has become 
widely known. 

Leaving his Makololo attendants under the care of the 
Portuguese officials at Tete, Dr. Livingstone proceeded to 
England to report what he had done and to obtain assistance 
in establishing missions in the interior of the country. He 
promised to return and conduct the men back to their own 
country, and they had such confidence in him that they 
made no objection to his leaving them for a time. 

Linyanti was in such a fever-stricken locality that the 
Bapatsa who cut their way from the Sand river to the 



90 Account of the Makololo tribe. 

Zambesi, and who had been bred in a healthy land, had 
almost died out, and the tribe now consisted largely of 
incorporated captives. Dr. Livingstone had obtained a 
promise from Sekeletu that he would return to the much 
healthier site north of the Zambesi where his father had 
once resided, and the London Society, relying upon his 
keeping his engagement, resolved to send out missionaries to 
occupy the new field far in the interior of the continent. 

For this purpose the reverend Holloway Helmore, who had 
been engaged in evangelistic work at Likatlong, on the Vaal 
river, for seventeen years, was selected as leader, and the 
reverend Messrs. John Mackenzie and Roger Price, two 
young men fresh from home, were appointed his associates 
in the work. It was arranged that the mission party should 
proceed by the road along the eastern border of the Kalahari 
to Linyanti, where Dr. Livingstone would meet them, 
introduce them to the chief, and persuade him to move 
without delay. 

In July 1859 Messrs. Helmore and Price left Kuruman 
in waggons drawn by oxen, and commenced the long journey 
northward. They were accompanied by their wives, four 
children of Mr. Helmore, one child of Mr. Price, and a number 
of Betshuana assistants and servants. Mr. Mackenzie was 
to follow in 1860 with supplies for the mission party. The 
journey was one of much suffering from want of water, but 
in February 1860 Linyanti was reached without any loss of 
life. Here disaster awaited them such as is seldom experienced 
even by the most devoted of those courageous men and women 
who hazard everything in the attempt to carry the gospel to 
the heathen in the dark places of the earth. 

Dr. Livingstone had not arrived, and they found the 
Makololo very unfriendly and suspicious of the conduct of 
white men, on account of never having heard what had 
become of their countrymen who had accompanied him to the 
eastern coast in 1855. On being informed that those men 
had been left at Tete while the doctor visited England, and 
might be expected back very soon, they would not believe it. 



Sufferings of a Missionary party, 91 

Sekeletu was reported to be away hunting, though in fact he 
was at home. On the third day after their arrival the chief 
visited their encampment with a large retinue, and made them 
a present of a quantity of millet beer, which Mr. Price and 
the black people of the country afterwards believed to have 
been poisoned. He had previously sent them an ox for 
slaughter, however, and as the blacks believed that this also 
was poisoned, it is not quite certain whether the illness with 
which the whole party was shortly afterwards attacked was 
not in reality a natural malady, though Mr. Price affirmed 
that the symptoms were entirely unlike those of African 
fever. Be that as it may, the missionaries with their families 
and Betshuana servants were stricken with illness, while 
there was very little sickness of any kind among the Makololo 
at the time. 

Mr. and Mrs. Helmore, two of their children, Mr. Price's 
infant child, and three of the Betshuana died; and the 
survivors were so enfeebled that they could hardly move 
about. Mr. Price then resolved to leave Linyanti and return 
to the healthy country in the south, but when he was 
ready to set out — in June — Sekeletu took from him the two 
best waggons and nearly all his clothing and stores of every 
kind, leaving him very ill provided for the journey. The 
heartless chief also directed the Bushman guides to lead him 
into a place infested by the tsetse, so that nearly all his 
cattle perished. 

Soon after leaving Linyanti Mrs. Price died, and the 
sorely afflicted missionary, finding it hopeless to get much 
farther south, proceeded as best he could to the country of 
the Batawana on the margin of Lake Ngami, where he was 
kindly received by the chief Letshulatebe. While he was 
there, in August, Dr. Livingstone with his brother and Dr. 
Kirk reached the interior from Tete, and at the first 
Makololo outpost near the Victoria falls learned what had 
occurred, but it was then too late to make any further 
arrangements. He had been detained a long time exploring 
the Shire river and the lower Zambesi by the faulty con- 



92 Account of the Makololo tribe. 

struction of a small steamer he had brought from England, 
so that he could not reach Linyanti as soon as Mr. Helmore 
had anticipated. Only a few of the Makololo who left that 
place in November 1855 returned with him. Many had 
died, and others had formed new connections at Tete and 
its neighbourhood and preferred remaining where they were 
then living. 

In May 1860 Mr. Mackenzie left Kuruman with his wife 
and child for the purpose of conveying supplies and joining 
his associates, who he hoped were then settled with the 
Makololo in the comparatively healthy district north of 
the Zambesi. On the way he heard accounts of what had 
happened, but discredited them, and went on till he reached 
the Zous:a river. Meantime some Batawana informed Mr. 
Price that a white man was travelling slowly northward, 
and he immediately proceeded up the river in a canoe lent 
to him by Letshulatebe, arriving at the place of crossing 
just as Mr. Mackenzie was approaching it. His story was 
soon told, and the waggons were then turned in the 
direction of the lake, where Mr. Helmore's two little children 
had been left under the care of a wife of the friendly chief. 
From this place the survivors of the party returned to 
Southern Betshuanaland, and thus ended the attempt to 
establish a mission with the Makololo. 

Towards the close of 1863 Sekeletu, who was afflicted 
with leprosy and who was so weak a ruler that his people 
despised him, was strangled by assassins employed by his 
leading vassals. The conspirators then seized his cattle and 
other property, which they divided among themselves. Upon 
this a chieftain named Mpololo, who was a son of a sister of 
Sebetoane and who resided north of the Zambesi, raised a 
strong force and fell upon the rebels, whom he exterminated 
with every member of their families and all their adherents. 
Mpololo then became chief of the remainder of the tribe, but 
he was so ferocious as a ruler that a section of the people 
in utter despair attempted to resist him, and civil war broke 
out. 



Extinction of the Makololo. 93 

Many of the best warriors fell in this strife, others when 
defeated fled to distant tribes, some even to their old enemies 
the Matabele. One band that made its way to the Batawana 
fell into an ambush, when every man was put to death by 
Letshulatebe's order, only the women and children being 
spared and adopted. Then the subject tribes, that had long 
been suffering under the tyranny of the Makololo, seeing an 
opportunity to escape from thraldom, suddenly rose upon 
their conquerors. Among them were the Barotsi, who have 
since become in their turn a conquering and ruling people, 
and who were then led by Sepopa,* son of a chief that 
Sebetoane' had crushed. It was not merely a rebellion, it 
was a strife of extermination. When it was over the 
Makololo as a distinct tribe had disappeared from the face 
of the earth. The men had all fallen under the assagai or 
battleaxe, the young women and the children were among 
the spoil of the victors. This happened in 1865, and now 
the very name of the tribe that once caused such terror is 
almost forgotten in the land they ruled over. 

Another lar^e Bantu tribe residing in South Africa in a 

condition of independence of European control was the 

Ovaherero, with its offshoot the Ovambanderu commonly 

known to Europeans as the Cattle Damaras, who occupied 

the territory between the western coast north of Walrish 

Bav and the Kalahari desert. Between this tribe and the 

Hottentots south of the Swakop (or Zwachoub) river war 

had been carried on from the time of its entry into the 

country until 1840, sometimes one party, sometimes the other, 

getting the upper hand for a short time. Neither Ovaherero 

nor Hottentots, however, formed a solid body, and not 

unfrequently a Hottentot clan was found fighting on the 

Herero side and a Herero clan on the Hottentot side. 

* Sepopa was almost as cruel as Mpololo, or Mpororo as called by some 
of his subjects, had been. He was murdered by his own leading men 
early in 1877, and then two claimants quarrelled for the chieftainship of 
the resuscitated Barotsi tribe. The successful competitor was Robosi, 
who under his present name Lewanika is favourably known in England 
as well as in South Africa. 



94 Account of the Namaquas. 

In 1840 the Ovaherero and Ovambanderu, numbering 
together some eighty thousand souls all told, were thoroughly- 
beaten by the Hottentot captain Jonker Afrikaner and his 
allies, and were reduced to a state of servitude. There were 
in the same territory some thirty thousand Ghou Damup 
or Berg Damaras and about three thousand Bushmen, but 
these tried merely to keep out of the way of every one 
else, and took no part whatever in the general affairs of 
the country. Their actions are of little more importance to 
the historian, in fact, than those of the antelopes they 
hunted, though to the ethnologist the people themselves 
afford an interesting study. 

The Hottentots were not all descendants of the branch of 
their race that remained behind in Great Namaqualand when 
the main body crossed the Orange river and spread along 
the coast of the present Cape Colony, many of them were 
recent immigrants. The proclamation of the earl of Caledon 
on the 1st of November 1809, by which chieftainship was 
abolished and every one within the colony was made subject 
to the colonial laws, was resented by a few of the little 
bands that clung to their independence, and these moved 
north of the Orange to avoid its operation. Among them 
was a remnant of the Gei||Khauas, who claimed that their 
head was a lineal descendant of the chiefs who governed the 
whole Hottentot people before they crossed the Kunene and 
broke up into numerous tribes. This claim was admitted 
by some of the others who best preserved the traditions of 
their race, and who paid a certain amount of deference to 
the chief of the Gei||Khauas, though they did not consider 
themselves as in any way subject to his authority, t Amraal, 
chief of this clan, died at a very advanced age early in 1865, 
and was succeeded by his son Lambert, who was then an 
old man. A few years later he died, when his son Andries 
Lambert, who afterwards gained notoriety as a daring robber, 
became chief. These people lived at a place called Gobabis, 
in territory that had been occupied by the Ovambanderu 
before the conquest of that tribe by the Hottentots. 



Account of the Namaquas. 95 

Among the recent immigrants were also the followers of 
Jonker Afrikaner, son of the notorious freebooter, of whom 
an account has been given in previous chapters. This clan 
was much the strongest of all in a military point of view, 
though its numerical strength was less than that of^ several 
of the others, notably than that of an immigrant band under 
a man named Moses Witbooi. Jonker's residence was called 
Schmelen's Hope, but is now much better known by its 
Herero name Okahandja. It was situated in territory once 
occupied by Hereros, from whom it had been taken. There 
was a little band under a leader named Jacobus Izaak, and 
another under the captain David Christian. The last of 
these was the remnant of the Amaqua tribe, that at the 
close of the seventeenth century lived on the coast between 
the Berg river and the Olifants. At a later date it moved 
northward to the bank of the Orange, and at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century occupied the territory about 
Pella. In 1814 the reverend Mr. Schmelen induced the 
clan, then numbering about three hundred souls, to migrate 
with him farther to the north, and it was with them 
that he founded the mission station Bethany in Great 
Namaqualand. 

Altogether in 1860 there were five distinct clans of 
immigrant Hottentots in Great Namaqualand, numbering 
among them some seven thousand souls. There were also 
ten clans, independent of each other, of Hottentots properly 
termed Namaquas, who were descended from the band 
left behind when the remainder of their race moved over 
the Orange. These combined were supposed to number 
about twelve or thirteen thousand souls. 

All of these people had been under instruction by mis- 
sionaries, the Wesleyan and London societies having sent 
agents to labour among them in the early years of the 
century. These had been replaced by agents of the Rhenish 
society, and many of the people had become converts to 
Christianity. They had proved very intractable and self- 
willed, however, and were prone to engage in hostilities 



96 Missions of the Rhenish Society. 

under the flimsiest pretexts. From traders they had obtained 
an ample supply of firearms and ammunition, and as they 
were in possession of horses they were more than a match 
for ten times their number of Hereros. The temptation 
offered by the large herds of cattle owned by the last named 
people had been too great for the Hottentots to resist, and 
they had conquered the black tribes, deprived them of their 
property, and reduced them to a condition of abject servitude. 
If the Hereros had not been so numerous, and there had 
been no white men to give them counsel, in course of time 
they must have become like the Ghou Damup. At the 
beginning of the year 1863 the Hottentots were thus lords 
of the land and of the Bantu living on it, just as their 
ancestors at some former time had been, when the first 
black intruders came down from the north and were 
enslaved. 

Where it was possible among the Ovaherero also the 
Rhenish society had established missions, which were pro- 
ductive of much benefit to that people. Previously a purely 
pastoral tribe, they had been taught to make gardens and to 
grow corn. The beds of the Swakop and other periodical 
rivers are in some places of great width, and are perfectly 
flat. Only at long intervals is there running water in them, 
but it was found that on these flats there was generally 
moisture near the surface, and that gardens could be made 
there to great advantage. 

The principal station of the Rhenish society was named 
Otjimbingue. It was founded in 1844, at the junction of 
the Swakop with one of its northern tributaries, about one 
hundred and six miles or one hundred and seventy kilo- 
metres east - north - east of Walfish Bay. Prospectors for 
minerals made this place their centre, it was the depot of a 
trade in ivory and ostrich feathers worth £40,000 a year, and 
was the head-quarters of the European hunters in the country. 
The next station in importance had been Okahandja, 
Jonker Afrikaner's residence, about ninety kilometres 
farther to the north-east, but the chief had compelled the 



[863] The Hereto War of Independence. 97 

missionary to leave. There were ten others scattered 
about the country. 

In 1863 the Ovaherero and Ovambanderu attempted once 
more to resist their oppressors. On this occasion they were 
assisted by a section of the red nation that had become 
independent of the main branch of that tribe of Namaqua 
Hottentots, and that was then under a captain named 
Abraham Zwartbooi, whose kraal was at Rehoboth. Jonker 
Afrikaner was now dead, and his son Christian Afrikaner had 
succeeded him. 

The principal Herero chief, Kamaherero by name, and 
his people were reduced to the condition of herdsmen of 
Christian Afrikaner's cattle, but had managed to obtain some 
guns and ammunition, which provoked the wrath of their 
master. Whether they were in danger of losing their lives 
in a general massacre on this account, as they afterwards 
asserted and the Hottentots denied, is doubtful ; at any 
rate they suddenly fled with the cattle in their charge, 
and sought shelter at Otjimbingue. Thereupon Christian 
Afrikaner, with the assistance of the main branch of the 
clan called the red nation, then under the chief Cornelis 
Oasib, attacked Otjimbingue, 17th of June 1863. The 
Hereros defended themselves with courage, and after several 
hours hard fighting the Hottentots were beaten back, leaving 
some two hundred dead on the ground, among whom was 
their leader. This was the first encounter in what has since 
been known as the Herero war of independence. 

Christian was succeeded as head of his clan by his brother 
Jan Jonker Afrikaner, a much abler man, who set about 
procuring allies with the hope of maintaining the position 
that his father had filled. But the Bondelzwarts and other 
clans of Southern Namaqualand declined assistance,' and 
announced their intention of remaining neutral ; and even 
the northern clan under Abraham Zwartbooi, though a section 
of the red nation which was allied with him, not only 
refused its aid, but actually joined the Hereros against 
him. h 

VOL. V. 



» 

98 The Herero War of Independence. [1865 

Most of the European traders and hunters in the country 
resolved to preserve strict neutrality in the war, unless they 
were molested themselves, but a few of them allowed their 
sympathy with the party fighting for freedom to overcome 
the dictates of prudence. 

In March 1864 Mr. Frederick Green headed a band of 
fifteen hundred Hereros who attacked Jan Jonker's kraal, 
killed several of his people, including his wife and daughter, 
burned twenty-two of his waggons, and seized four thousand 
head of cattle and over a thousand kilogrammes of gun- 
powder. But they did not succeed in humbling their enemy, 
who speedily rallied and followed them up for some distance 
when they retired. 

In June 1864 the celebrated Swedish traveller and 
naturalist Mr. Charles John Andersson had one of his legs 
badly wounded in an engagement when leading a band of 
Hereros. 

The Ovaherero and Ovambanderu in former years had 
been broken up into many clans independent of each other. 
The stronger of these had preyed upon the weaker, according 
to the orthodox Bantu custom, and feuds had arisen, which 
tended to make matters worse. But now, when it was a 
question whether they should become free or remain slaves 
to the Hottentots, the missionaries were able to induce them 
all to unite in a loose manner, and they elected Kamaherero, 
captain of the largest clan, as their head, with the title of 
paramount chief. 

Having obtained assistance from every Hottentot clan 
in the northern part of Great Namaqualand except the one 
under Abraham Zwartbooi, and even pressed a number of 
Ghou Damup or Berg Damaras into his service, on the 3rd 
of September 1865 Jan Jonker attacked Otjimbingue again. 
His force was in three divisions, one of which was composed 
of horsemen, the other two of ox riders and men on foot. 
The Hereros were prepared for resistance, and met him with 
such determination that he was routed with the loss of all 
his pack oxen and what in a European army would be 



1867] The Herero War of Independence. 99 

termed commissariat stores. Only three Herero men were 
killed, but a good many were wounded, and eighty women 
that were cut off when trying to get to a place of safety 
were all put to death by the merciless Hottentots. These 
left on the ground between fifty and sixty dead or dying 
men, and they had many wounded whom they carried away 
with them. 

Most of the European prospectors, hunters, and traders 
had left the country, as they saw no prospect of a speedy 
return of peace, but the missionaries remained at their posts. 
They were now to surfer in common with all the others. 
The first of their stations that was broken up was the one 
at Gobabis, the kraal of the captain Lambert, son of old 
Amraal who had just died. The missionary family was 
driven from the place by the people they had been trying to 
improve, and property valued by the Rhenish society at 
£2,000 was plundered and destroyed. The next one to be 
attacked was Rehoboth, the residence of Abraham Zwartbooi, 
who was an ally of the Hereros. The mission at this place 
was under the care of the reverend Mr. Kleinschmidfc, a 
very able and zealous man, who had laboured there for a 
quarter of a century. It too was broken up, a number of 
women and children were barbarously burned to death, 
about £500 worth of mission property was carried off, and 
Mr. Kleinschmidt himself died froin the hardship he under- 
went after being driven away. Abraham Zwartbooi and 
his people were obliged to flee, bat they had a tract of land 
given to them by the Hereros much farther north, at a 
place named the Bokberg, where they settled and made a 
new home. In the following year, 1866, the stations Gibeon 
and Hoachanas were destroyed, many of the people residing 
there were killed, and mission property to the value of 
£500 was lost. The station New Barmen also was plundered, 
though not entirely broken up. 

On the 13th of December 1867 Otjimbingue was attacked 
once more by Jan Jonker's Hottentots. They surprised the 
place at early dawn, but the Hereros sprang from their 



ioo The Herero War of Independence. [1868 

mats and offered such a vigorous resistance that the 
attacking party could not obtain possession of the place, 
though they continued firing into it all day, and only 
retreated after nightfall. Their enemies accused them of 
using poisoned bullets, but this may not have been true. 
Thirty Hereros were killed, and as many more were 
wounded, some of whom died of their injuries. 

After retreating from Otjimbingue, the Hottentots divided 
into two bands, and fell upon the little posts named 
Anawood and Salem. These places they took possession of 
and plundered, but while those at Anawood were feasting 
on the spoil, utterly regardless of the danger they were in, 
during the night of the 21st they were surrounded by a 
Herero army. At dawn on the 22nd the Hereros opened 
fire on them, when they charged in a body through the 
ring and escaped. They were pursued for about sixteen 
kilometres or ten miles, and a good many were killed. 

Kamaherero, the principal chief, fearing another attack 
upon Otjimbingue, now abandoned that place, and retired 
with his people to Okahandja, from which locality Jan 
Jonker had been obliged to withdraw. Otjimbingue was for 
a time almost deserted, — in July 1868 there were only 
twenty or thirty persons, including children and the reverend 
Dr. C. H. Hahn, residing there, — but a few years later it 
was reoccupied and recovered its former importance. 

In May 1868 a petty captain named Jacob Bois, whose 
territory lay along the coast, and who had a following of 
only three or four hundred souls, attacked a party of white 
men — Messrs. William Coates Palgrave, Frederick Green, and 
Robert Lewis — with a number of servants, who were on 
their way from the interior to Walfish Bay. An English- 
man named Kennedy was killed, and the waggons with 
their contents and all the oxen were seized. Messrs. 
Palgrave, Green, and Lewis being well mounted, managed 
to save themselves by flight, and succeeded in reaching 
Sandwich Harbour, where they found a vessel which brought 
them to Capetown. 



1 868] The Herero War of Independence. 101 

On the 23rd of the same month Bois fell upon the 
Bhenish mission station Scheppmansdorp, close to Walfish 
Bay. The lives of the reverend J. F. S. Eggert and his 
family were spared, and they were permitted to make their 
way as best they could to Sandwich Harbour, but the station 
was plundered and the missionary's cattle were driven off. 
On the following morning the band made its appearance at 
Walfish Bay, where one white man was killed. The others 
saved their lives by going on board a schooner that was at 
anchor in the bay, and sailed in her to Capetown. A fishing 
establishment and the buildings in which goods and provisions 
were stored by the traders and missionaries before being sent 
inland were plundered and destroyed. The Hottentots tried 
to justify these acts of Jacob Bois and the destruction of 
the various stations on the ground that European traders 
were assisting the Hereros against them, and that the 
sympathy of the Rhenish missionaries was notoriously with 
their opponents, if indeed they did not furnish their enemies 
with material aid. 

Her Majesty's ship Petrel was at once sent up from 
Simon's Bay, but when she arrived in Walfish Bay not a 
soul was to be seen. The country to some distance beyond 
Scheppmansdorp was searched, without any one being found, 
so after remaining there three weeks the man - of - war 
returned to her station. 

The Cape government then sent Mr. Piers, postmaster-general 
of the colony, to Great Namaqualand, to endeavour to induce 
some of the other Hottentot communities to compel Jacob 
Bois to abstain from attacking and robbing Europeans again, 
as it was impossible to inflict any punishment upon him. 
All that Mr. Piers could do was to persuade the captain 
David Christian, of Bethany, to use his influence with his 
sub-chief Bois in favour of order, and with this meagre 
result of his mission, in December 1868 he returned to 
Capetown. 

In 1868 a party of mixed breeds from the Cape Colony, 
under the leadership of a man named Hermanus van Wyk, 



102 The Herero War of Independence, [1870 

migrated to Great JSTamaqualand, and in 1870 settled at 
Kehoboth with the consent of Abraham Zwartbooi, Kama- 
herero, and other chiefs. The influence of these people was 
exerted for the maintenance of peace and good order, so 
that the country benefited by their presence, though they 
were subjected to such losses by theft of their cattle that 
they could not advance in prosperity. 

In 1868 the Hereros were successful in several engage- 
ments, and their good fortune continued until a crowning 
victory was obtained in a battle fought at Omukaru, about 
ten kilometres from Okahandja. In this engagement the 
Hottentots put forth their whole strength, but were routed 
with a loss of over two hundred of their best men killed, 
while the Hereros who fell numbered only seventy. The 
Hottentots now abandoned all hope of success, and were 
ready to make peace on any terms. 

On the 27th of May 1870, through the agency of the 
Europeans in the country and some of the best disposed 
of the southern Hottentot captains, upon whom Sir Philip 
Wodehouse had exercised his influence, a meeting of the 
paramount chief Kamaherero, Aponda, chief of the 
Ovambanderu, and Jan Jonker Afrikaner took place at 
New Barmen, when a cessation of hostilities was agreed to 
and an assembly of all the chiefs on both sides was arranged 
to be held on the 23rd of September to conclude a formal 
treaty of peace and friendship. On that day there came 
together at Okahandja Abraham Zwartbooi, captain of the 
Namaqua clan at the Bokberg, and twenty - two chiefs of 
the Ovaherero and Ovambanderu on one side, and Jan 
Jonker, captain of the Afrikaner clan of Hottentots, on the 
other. Twenty heads of Herero clans were absent, and of 
the Hottentot chiefs who had taken a leading part in the 
war, Barnabas, who had succeeded Cornelis Oasib as captain 
of the red nation, Karel Hendrik, captain of the Veldschoen- 
dragers, and Andries Lambert, captain of the Gei||Khauas, 
did not put in an appearance. The three Hottentot chiefs 
David Christian, of Bethany, Jacobus Izaak, of Beersheba, 



1870] The Herero War of Independence. 103 

and David Witbooi, of Gibeon, who professed to be neutral, 
were present by invitation of both parties to confirm the 
peace that was to be made. 

A formal treaty was drawn up by the reverend Dr. C. H. 
Hahn, and after some discussion the terms were agreed to 
by those present. It provided for the maintenance of a 
sincere peace, the perfect independence of the Hereros, the 
security of the roads, the safety of travellers, and the 
liberation of all Herero dependents among the Namaquas. 
So humiliated was Jan Jonker that in a clause of the treaty 
he accepted as a loan from the Herero chiefs the place 
Windhoek for himself and his people to live on with a 
Ehenish missionary. The document was signed on the 23rd 
of September 1870 by the chiefs present, and was witnessed 
by three missionaries and the so-called neutral chiefs. It 
was accepted by the belligerent captains who were absent 
as binding also upon them, and so peace was restored to the 
country for a time. 



CHAPTER LXXXVIII. 

ANNEXATION OF WALFISH BAY TO THE CAPE COLONY AND 

ESTABLISHMENT OF A GERMAN PROTECTORATE IN 

SOUTH-WESTERN AFRICA. 

It soon became evident that the peace concluded in 1870 was 

not a final settlement of the relationship to each other of the 

different races in Great Namaqualand and Hereroland. Jan 

Jonker Afrikaner was smarting under the indignity of 

holding ground merely by permission of his former servant, 

and was doing everything in his power to bring about a 

coalition of all the Hottentot clans in order to renew 

hostilities. The great herds of cattle that the Hereros had 

once owned were no longer to be seen in the country. The 

waste of animal life by the Hottentots after they took 

possession of those herds had been enormous, and then the 

lung sickness had broken out and carried off a large 

proportion of what was left. Still the number that remained 

was considerable, and now that the Hereros had them again 

in possession they were beginning to increase, for they were 

carefully tended and a cow or a heifer was seldom 

slaughtered. The Hottentots were in such a state of 

poverty as to be almost reckless, and needed only a fair 

pretence to renew the war, in hope of improving their 

condition, which in the opinion of many of them could 

hardly be made worse by defeat. 

The half-breeds under Hermanus van Wyk at Rehoboth, 

being more industrious and more frugal than the other 

inhabitants, had acquired some property, and as they were 

living in amity with the Hereros and refused to enter into 

104 



1873] Migration of Farmers. X05 

Jan Jonker's schemes, the Hottentots were plundering them 
mercilessly in hope of driving them away. 

The Hereros were breaking up into a number of little 
clans again, independent of each other, and some of them 
hostile to the main branch. Apart from the tendency to 
disintegration common to all pastoral tribes, the conduct 
of Kamaherero had much to do with this. Without ability 
or prudence, he was striving to make himself a despot, and 
was treating the other chiefs in a contemptuous manner. 
He went so far as to order them all to put out their fires 
and light them again from his, an act of acknowledgement 
of their dependence upon him which many of them refused 
to perform. With the pastures of the whole country north 
of the Swakop at his disposal, he caused his cattle to be 
driven to Windhoek to feed, as if purposely to taunt Jan 
Jonker and provoke him to seize them and thus renew 
the war. 

In 1872 the missionaries, seeing the danger the country 
was in, induced Kamaherero and Aponda to attach their 
marks to a letter to Governor Sir Henry Barkly, asking for 
advice. They did not solicit British protection, but it was 
inferred that they would not object to the appointment of 
an English officer who would exercise a considerable amount 
of control over them. Nothing, however, was done by the 
high commissioner at this time in the matter. 

In the following year an event that would be regarded 
as extraordinary in any country except South Africa took 
place. A number of farmers in the South African Republic 
decided to migrate to some other locality, rather than 
remain in a land whose president did not hold orthodox 
religious views. With their families and effects the first or 
leading party of these strong willed people moved away 
in great waggons drawn by oxen, and crossed the northern 
part of the Kalahari into a country bordering on that 
occupied by the Hereros. The flocks and herds that were 
driven on with them dwindled in the desert from want of 
water and food, and so terrible were their own sufferings 



io6 Condition of Hereroland. [1874 

that their line of march was a line of graves of their dead. 
But still they went on, for when these men once resolve 
upon a course they do not swerve from it. 

And so the survivors reached the hunting grounds west 
of the desert, and found not indeed such a country as they 
cared to settle in permanently, but one in which they could 
rest for a time till their cattle should recover and their 
friends behind should join them, when they would resume 
their journey in search of a home. This they found at last 
in Portuguese territory far away in the north-west, but in 
the meantime they moved about for several years on the 
border of Hereroland. The only permanent inhabitants there 
previously were a few Bushmen, but Europeans, Hottentots, 
and Bantu alike used it occasionally for hunting in. 

The presence of the migrating farmers in their neighbour- 
hood and the report that many more were coming caused 
much alarm to the Herero chiefs. Accustomed themselves 
to disregard the rights of the weak, they looked upon it as 
only natural that men stronger than they were should 
select the best pastures and take possession by force. How 
were they to prevent this ? was the question which they 
asked themselves and requested their European friends to 
advise them how to answer. The only solution seemed to 
be to call in the aid of the Cape government, and so 
on the 21st of June 1874 a letter bearing the marks of 
Kamaherero and two other chiefs was sent to Sir Henry 
Barkly, begging for the interference of the British govern- 
ment. It was really the production, and expressed the 
views, of Messrs. S. A. Mumford and Frederick Green, though 
those gentlemen signed it merely as witnesses. At the 
same time letters and petitions were forwarded by various 
traders and travellers in the territory, complaining of the 
lawlessness of many of the people and asking for protection 
against violence. To make matters worse, coloured rovers 
of predatory habits were moving into Great Namaqualand 
from the country to the eastward, so that an intolerable 
condition of things was arising beyond the colonial border. 



1876] First Mission of Mr. Palgrave. 107 

It was therefore from force of circumstances, not from 
any wish to acquire comparatively valueless territory, and 
thereby to incur expense and increase responsibility, that Mr. 
Molteno's ministry proposed to establish British authority 
along the coast. In the session of 1875 a resolution was 
submitted by the government, and was adopted by parlia- 
ment, that it was desirable to extend the limits of the 
colony to Walfish Bay and such tract of country inland as 
might be deemed expedient and approved of by her Majesty, 
and that preliminary steps should be taken for placing the 
government in a position to bring in a bill for the 
annexation of the territory indicated to the Cape Colony. 

To carry this resolution into effect, it was necessary to 
obtain an unbiassed account of the condition of the country, 
the views of the various chiefs, the prospect of obtaining a 
revenue that would meet or partly meet the cost of adminis- 
tration, and any other information of value that could be 
gathered. For this purpose, on the 16th of March 1876 Mr. 
William Coates Palgrave was appointed a special commissioner, 
and on the 10th of April he left Capetown to carry out the 
duties with which he was entrusted. Landing at Walfish 
Bay on the 25th of April, he commenced a tour through the 
country that occupied his time until the end of the year, 
of which he sent in a long and interesting report. His 
description of Walfish Bay and the country around it which 
subsequently became British territory will show the graphic 
power of his pen : 

"Walfish Bay is formed by a low-lying promontory of sand, called 
Pelican Point, about seven miles (11*3 kilometres) in length, but of 
inconsiderable * breadth. The entrance to the bay is its northern 
extremity, an& its shape is nearly that of a horse shoe. Northerly winds 
are light in those latitudes, and as the bay is well sheltered from all 
other, it has the reputation of being very safe for every class of vessel, 
although those of large tonnage may not anchor within three-quarters of 
a mile (1,207 metres) of the beach at that part of the bay opposite to 
which the stores have been erected. 

" But a more dreary scene than the coast about Walfish Bay can 
scarcely be imagined. There are no adjacent mountains to relieve its 
monotonous character, and no vegetation to enliven it. Low sand dunes 



io8 Description of Walfish Bay. [1876 

form a sort of fringe to the coast and oppose to the transport of the 
country the greatest obstacle. Through these sand dunes no permanent 
way has ever been attempted, partly because they are ever shifting 
and partly because the only practicable road to the plain beyond is 
for nearly four miles (6 "4 kilometres) along the bed of the Kuisip, a 
periodical '^iver which, although seldom in flood, has at times the 
force of a mountain torrent, when it would destroy the best road 
which considering the circumstances of the country could have been 
made. 

"Another grievous obstacle to transport is the total absence of 
pasture and water in the immediate neighbourhood of the bay, though 
it must be explained that within a radius of ten miles (16 kilometres) 
some small patches of a short prickly grass are to be found here and 
there struggling with the wastes of sand, as well as a few reedy oases, 
the presence of these latter being usually indicative of water, which 
is however unfortunately brak and causes diarrhoea amongst the cattle 
unused to drinking it, whilst the sparsely scattered vegetation is not, 
either in quantity or quality, sufficient to sustain the poor beasts over 
that arduous part of their journey to and from the finer pasture of the 
settled interior. 

" The natives living at Walfish Bay are a portion of a tribe called 
Topnaars, a branch of the Namaqua nation. They were once of 
importance, but have gradually deteriorated until they are now perhaps 
the most degenerate members of a rapidly degenerating family. Those 
of them who live at Walfish Bay do not number more than from one 
hundred and fifty to two hundred souls. They have been led to choose 
this arid coast, partly on account of an edible gourd-like fruit called 
the naras, which grows all along that shore in great abundance, and 
on account of the facilities offered for the capturing of fish driven into 
the lagoon at the bottom of the harbour by the sharks which abound 
in the deeper waters ; and partly too because of the remuneration they 
can from time to time obtain for their labour in carrying from the 
beach to the warehouses cargoes landed by the coasters from the 
Cape. 

" The white population of Walfish Bay, consisting usually of not more 
than five or six persons, was at the time of my arrival augmented (to 
twenty-three souls) by the presence of some hunters and up-country 
traders who had come down for supplies. The stores are wood and iron 
buildings erected on an artificial mound of sand bags, and are rather 
depots of merchandise for the up-country trade than what is ordinarily 
meant by stores. They are but four in number, and of these but two 
are of any size ; one belongs to the Missions Handels Achtien 
Gesellschaft, the other to Messrs. Eriksson & Co., a Swedish house. 
These two firms do between them more than half of the trade of 
Damaraland, and are likewise employed as landing and forwarding 
agents for the other establishments." 



1876] First Mission of Mr. Palgrave. 109 

Leaving the bay, Mr. Palgrave travelled for an hour in an 
ox-waggon over the low flat, which at very high tides is 
covered by the sea, and then reached the fringe of sand 
dunes. The only way of passing through them >vas along 
the sandy bed of the Kuisip, which had not contained any 
running water for nine years. On each side the undulating 
dunes rose in billowy waves from a metre and a half to 
fifteen metres in height, over which the creeping naras plants 
spread themselves, while along the river course stunted 
tamarisk trees grew abundantly. For twenty-two hours the 
oxen drew the waggon through the sand, and then it was 
necessary to outspan and send the exhausted animals to the 
Swakop, seven miles (11 2 kilometres) distant, to get water 
and grass. 

After reaching the bed of the Swakop travelling was 
much easier, and at every stage water at no great distance 
from the surface, and grass were to be had for the cattle. 
The sand belt, which extends along the whole coast and 
upon which rain seldom falls, does not reach inland more 
than about forty miles or sixty-four kilometres, and beyond 
it the country rapidly improves and becomes fit for pastoral 
purposes. 

The presence of the farmers on the border had the effect of 
solidifying the Herero tribe again, and as Mr. Palgrave pro- 
ceeded on his journey he found the chiefs of the clans 
expressing submission to Kainaherero as paramount over 
them all. Wherever he went he was well received, for 
every one felt the need of protection. Several preliminary 
meetings took place, at which the advantage of being guided 
by a friendly European was talked over, and finally it was 
resolved that a general assembly of the chiefs and leading 
men of the Ovaherero and Ovambanderu should be held at 
Okahandja, when an arrangement with the commissioner 
would be made. The discussions at this meeting showed that 
the chiefs were unwilling to part with their authority over 
the people, but were quite ready to receive a European officer 
as their nominal head and guide. 



no First Mission of Mr. Palgrave. [1876 

On the 9th of Sapfceinber a letter was drawn up and 
addressed to Sir Henry Barkly, in which his Excellency 
was requested " to send soma one to rule them and to be the 
head of their country, and as they did not wish at first to 
have one who was a stranger to them, they prayed 
that Mr. Palgrave might be sent to manage their affairs, 
and they promised to give him all the help in their power. 
They wanted him to have authority in all cases in which 
other people than their own were concerned in any way, and 
they promised not to screen their own people from justice, 
but willingly to assist in carrying out the law and maintain- 
ing order in their country. They promised to set on one 
side a part of their country for the use of the government, 
and if more money was required for its maintenance than 
could be obtained from the ground set aside, they promised 
to collect from amongst themselves a sufficient amount for 
the purpose. They also asked that his Excellency would 
everywhere make it known that the sea boundary of their 
country was in his possession, and that they had given him 
the right to such ground as might be required for its protec- 
tion, as well as for the building of towns and villages in the 
vicinity of all landing places." This letter received the 
marks of Kamaherero, twenty-eight chiefs of clans, and 
thirty counsellors and leading men, and it was witnessed by 
six Europeans who were present at the meeting. 

As now arranged with Mr. Palgrave, a tract of land with 
defined boundaries was reserved for the exclusive use of the 
Ovaherero and Ovambanderu, being the whole area that 
they then occupied and much to spare, and the remainder 
of the unoccupied territory beyond their border was placed 
at the disposal of the colonial government. After allowing for 
what was valueless and for reserves for Abraham Zwartbooi's 
Namaquas and the Berg Damaras, Mr. Palgrave estimated 
that sufficient would remain for at least four hundred cattle 
runs, where the pasture was excellent, but where in most 
instances it would be necessary to construct dams to conserve 
water. These cattle runs could be allotted to Europeans, 



1876] First Mission of Mr. Palgrave. 11 1 

and he believed would readily be taken up. A moderate 
quitrent upon them, with trading and hunting licenses 
and a small tax upon the blacks, would bring in sufficient 
revenue, he thought, to cover the cost of such a simple 
administration as was needed. 

The part of the country placed at the disposal of the 
government included the Kaoko, a healthy elevated tract 
of land, which was well covered with nutritious grass, and 
which was capable, if occupied by Europeans, of supplying 
four or five thousand oxen every year for sale. There were 
indications of copper ore all over it, and the Ovambo were 
known to obtain supplies of that metal from Bushmen at 
Otav6, some distance east of it, where there were enormous 
deposits of surpassing richness. 

Having completed his task with the Hereros, who were 
unanimous in their desire for British protection, and whose 
attitude throughout had been most satisfactory, Mr. Palgrave 
proceeded next in a southerly direction to ascertain the views 
of the ISTamaquas. These people had not the same cause to 
look about for aid, because there was not the slightest fear 
of the migrating farmers desiring to settle in any part of 
the sterile territory which they occupied. There the waste 
of sand dunes extends farther back from the coast than it 
does north of the Kuisip, and between it and the Kalahari, 
except in a few localities of limited size, the pasture lands 
are not such as graziers would covet. The contour of the 
country is different. In Hereroland the rivers, when they 
flow, run from east to west, and enter the Atlantic. In 
Great jSTamaqualand the drainage is from north to south, 
and the outlet of water, when there is any, is into the 
Orange river. 

The little clan of Geii|Khauas at Gobabis and the clan 
calling itself the young red nation, under Abraham Zwartbooi 
at Bokberg, .were differently situated from the others. The 
latter of these necessarily followed the lead of the Hereros, 
and the former, from its isolated position in the north-west, 
was at the mercy of any strong party coming down from 



IX 2 First Mission of Mr. Palgrave. [1876 

Lake Ngami. These Gei||Khauas bad suffered very severely 
in the war of 1863-70, and had recently lost many of their 
number from small- pox. The clan was now only one third 
as strong as it was when the old chief Amraal died, and it 
had a very evil reputation with the traders, who could only 
reach the lake country from Walfish Bay by the way of 
Gobabis. They complained that either their waggons were 
plundered by the Gei||Khauas, or they were compelled to 
sell goods on credit with no prospect of payment, and were 
insulted and abused as well. The captain, Andries Lambert, 
and six of his principal men wrote on the 17th of April to 
Mr. Palgrave, asking to be received as British subjects, but 
when he requested them to explain their conduct to the traders 
they did not reply, and so no further notice was taken of 
them. 

At Windhoek the commissioner met Jan Jonker Afrikaner 
and the captain of Beersheba, Jacobus Izaak, who was 
decidedly opposed to interference of any kind by the 
colonial government. No other arrangement could be made 
than for a general assembly of all the Namaqua captains at 
Beersheba on the 20th of November, to discuss the condition 
of the country. At the time appointed the captains were 
not there, so the meeting was postponed to the 27th. On 
that day the commissioner met Jacobus Izaak, of Beersheba, 
David Christian, of Bethany, Moses Witbooi, of Gibeon, two 
sub-captains, and three missionaries. Neither Jan Jonker 
Afrikaner nor Barnabas, chief of the red nation, was there, 
nor was William Christian, captain of the Bondelzwarts. 
Nothing whatever resulted from this conference, but at 
another meeting on the 29th the captains agreed to protect 
traders from robbery and violence. With no other result 
than this from his meetings with the Namaqua captains, 
Mr. Palgrave continued his journey in great discomfort from 
extreme heat, scarcity of water, and want of grass, till he 
crossed the Orange river into the colony. 

In letters received from Jan Jonker Afrikaner, dated 12th 
of November, Jacobus Izaak, dated 9th of December, 



1877] Second Mission of Mr. Palgrave. 113 

William Christian, dated 22nd of December 1876, and David 
Christian, dated 16th of March 1877, those captains declared 
their willingness to receive a British resident in the country, 
who should have control over strangers, but who should not 
interfere in any way with their government of their own 
people, or have any right to dispose of land. They did not 
offer to contribute anything towards the support of such an 
officer, nor did they express any strong desire for his 
presence among them. It was evident that tbey preferred 
to be left alone. 

Of the other inhabitants of the territory he had visited, 
the Ghou Damup and the Bushmen knew nothing of what 
was going on and cared for nothing but food and to be left 
alone to live in their own way. The European traders and 
hunters in Hereroland sent in an address, dated 11th of 
December 1876, asking for British authority to be extended 
over the country. They were thirty-eight in number, of 
whom fifteen bore English names. 

Upon Mr. Palgrave's return to Capetown the government 

took the matter into consideiation and resolved to send him 

back to complete the preliminary arrangements with the 

Hereros. Accordingly in September 1877 he was again in 

the country, but found that during his short absence a 

change had taken place in the opinions of many of the 

people, notably in that of Kamaherero himself. They had 

begun to think that the colonial government might have 

some evil designs in view, and to regard as somewhat 

mythical the existence of the strong armed force that might 

be necessary to protect them. That was after all the real 

object of their wishes, protection from enemies, with liberty 

to do themselves whatever they chose. Some of the 

Namaqua captains openly asserted that they would have 

nothing to do with the white man's government, as if they 

did they would lose their land, and Kamaherero had come 

to believe that perhaps they might be right. So suspicious 

was he that at first he refused to allow trading licenses to 

be issued, because if Europeans paid any taxes at all, he 
vol. v. 1 



ii4 Earl Carnarvon s Instructions. [1878 

said they would make that a pretext for claiming the 
country. 

Though Mr. Palgrave's personal influence with the Hereros 
was very strong, it was with some difficulty that he induced 
the chief to alter his decision, and it was evident that he 
did so reluctantly. It was then arranged that an English 
magistrate with a staff of assistants should be stationed at 
Okahandja, that the expense should be partly met by the 
issue of trading licenses, and that Kamaherero should con- 
tribute two hundred oxen and four hundred sheep yearly 
to make up the remainder. His object in consenting to 
this was to recover by English aid the paramount chieftain- 
ship over many of the clans that at this time again were 
ignoring his authority. Having arranged this and some other 
matters of less importance, and made another tour through 
the country, in February 1879 the special commissioner 
returned to Capetown and sent in his report. 

Things were different now in the colony from what they 
had been a year before. Towards the close of 1877 the 
ninth war with the Xosas commenced, which had the effect 
of deterring the ministry that came into power shortly 
afterwards and the people alike from undertaking any 
responsibilities in connection with tribes beyond the northern 
border that could be avoided. It was considered advisable 
merely to take possession of Walfish Bay, and to proclaim 
a protectorate over the coast, without establishing as com- 
plete an administration as in the territories east of the Kei, 
no other authority being exercised over the Hereros than 
such moral pressure as could be brought to bear upon them 
by a diplomatic agent. The view entertained by the 
secretary of state for the colonies was communicated to 
Governor Sir Bartle Frere in a despatch dated 23rd of 
January 1878, and was consequently acted upon. Earl 
Carnarvon wrote as follows : 

" The conditions at the present time existing in those districts appear 
to point unmistakably to their union with the British communities of 
South Africa in the future, and it is of high importance not only to 
prevent any circumstances arising which could impede such a course, 



1878] Earl Carnarvon s Instructions. 1*5 

but also to take such steps as may be necessary in preparation for the 
event. I have, therefore, as you are aware, approved of the steps taken 
in this direction in consequence of the resolution of the Cape parliament 
in 1875 and which were preparatory to the annexation of Walfish 
Bay. 

" But the scheme which is sketched in your despatch is so extensive 
that I hesitate, especially under the existing circumstances of South 
Africa, to commit myself to an approval of it at the present moment. 
It is true that the formal annexation is not recommended of the vast 
regions specified, but I can by no means feel assured that a protectorate 
if established would entail upon South Africa and this country a degree 
of responsibility substantially less. It is evident from Mr. Palgrave's 
report that grave elements of discord exist among the native tribes, 
which may in the future, as they have in the past, produce destructive 
wars, and though no doubt by the appointment of commissioners of tried 
ability and courage much might be done to obviate such disorders, it 
cannot be affirmed that their efforts would of necessity be successful, 
while if they should be unsuccessful the government exercising the 
protectorate would find itself pressed to take active measures to restore 
peace, and thereby to assume a task which would be a severe strain upon 
its resources. 

"Recent events on the borders of the Cape Colony and elsewhere 
have shown that the British communities of South Africa have at the 
present time native questions before them, the satisfactory settlement of 
which will tax all their energies, that the principles of native govern- 
ment have not as yet been finally determined, and that properly 
qualified officers for native administration are by no means easy to 
obtain. I cannot therefore think that the burden of native government 
in South Africa should, at the present moment, be materially increased. 

"With regard however to Walfish Bay itself it appears to me that 
other considerations prevail. I learn from the observations of the 
colonial secretary in parliament in 1875 that there is already a very 
considerable trade from the colony in that direction. This trade may be 
reasonably expected to take larger dimensions ; there are British 
residents on the spot, and practically no great number of natives ; the 
harbour is good, and as I am informed the only safe one within a 
long distance ; while finally there is an anxious desire on the part of 
the colony that possession of it should be taken, and that thus the 
only door of entrance to very large regions in which the colony is 
materially interested should be placed in the custody of Great Britain. 
For these reasons therefore I think that the step which has long been 
in contemplation should now be taken, and that the British flag should 
be hoisted in Walfish Bay ; but that for the present at least no jurisdiction 
should be exercised beyond the shores of the bay itself. 

44 It would also be necessary upon this step being taken that provision 
should be made for the exercise of magisterial powers on the spot. You 



n6 Annexation of Walfish Bay. [1878 

will be able to advise how this can be best done, and whether there is 
any British resident to whom such powers could be entrusted, or whether 
provision should be made for periodical visits by some one charged with 
magisterial authority. You will however understand that any expense in 
this respect must be borne by the colonial government." 

In accordance with this decision her Majesty's ship 
Industry was sent to Walfish Bay, and there on the 12th 
of March 1878 possession was formally taken by her 
commander for the British crown. In the proclamation 
which he issued on the occasion the boundaries of the territory 
thus annexed to the British dominions were declared to be 
"on the south a line from a point on the coast fifteen miles 
(24 kilometres) south of Pelican Point to Scheppmansdorp ; 
on the east a line from Scheppmansdorp to the Rooibank, 
including the plateau, and then to ten miles (16 kilometres) 
inland from the mouth of the Swakop river ; on the north 
the last ten miles of the course of the Swakop river; and on 
the west the Atlantic ocean." The area thus enclosed is in 
extent about four hundred square miles or a little over a 
thousand square kilometres. Its sole value consisted in its 
position, as it never can produce anything for exportation 
or for the support of human life. 

The proceeding was ratified by her Majesty, and on the 
14th of December of the same year letters patent were issued 
under the great seal empowering the governor to issue a 
proclamation annexing the bay and territory to the Cape 
Colony as soon as the Cape parliament should pass an act for 
the purpose. Practically it was now under the control of 
the Cape government, for Major D. Erskine, who had 
previously been colonial secretary of Natal, and who on the 
1st of June 1878 was appointed resident at Walfish Bay, 
received his instructions from the secretary for native 
affairs in Capetown and sent his reports to that minister. 
So matters continued until the necessary act was passed 
by the Cape parliament in the session of 1884, and a 
proclamation was issued by Governor Sir Hercules Robinson 
on the 7th of August of that year, annexing the territory 
under the name of Walfish Bay to the Cape Colony, 



1879] Relief of Distressed Farmers. n? 

making it subject to the colonial laws, and constituting it a 
magisterial district. 

Shortly after the incorporation of Walfish Bay in the 
British dominions, an application was made to the colonial 
government for assistance and protection by Jan Jonker 
Afrikaner, who was then in an extremely wretched plight. 
All his plans to unite the various sections of the Hottentot 
race in the country under his own leadership had failed, 
a number of disaffected Koranas and Griquas in the Cape 
Colony that he had hoped would join him had not done so, 
and Kamaherero had stationed parties of men with cattle 
all around him, so that he had neither pasture nor hunting 
grounds. His people were half starved and in the most abject 
poverty. So the man who before the success of the Herero 
revolt was the richest and most powerful ruler between the 
Kunene and the Orange, in hope of obtaining relief from 
the Herero pressure, on the 6th of January 1879 addressed 
a letter to Sir Bartle Frere, requesting to be taken over 
with his people as British subjects. The letter bore in 
addition to his own the signatures of fifteen of his leading 
men and of the missionary at Windhoek, the reverend J. G. 
Schroeder. No notice was taken of it for more than a year, 
as the circumstances under which it was written were 
known in Capetown, but on the 12th of March 1880 a 
reply was forwarded to him declining the proposal. 

The farmers who had migrated from the South African 
Republic were at this time encamped near the south-western 
border of Ovamboland, and it was reported in the Cape 
Colony that they had lost all their cattle and effects and 
were in a condition of dire distress. Their number was 
unknown, as was everything connected with their actual 
circumstances and intentions, except that they had under- 
gone great suffering and that many had died. A committee 
was therefore elected by those benevolent persons in Cape- 
town who sympathised with their countrymen in trouble, 
and subscriptions were collected for the purpose of sending 
them relief. A schooner named the Christina was chartered 



1x8 Examination of the Coast. [1872 

and laden with provisions and other necessaries, some horses 
and mules were put on board, and two gentlemen named 
Joubert and Haybittle were engaged to proceed in the 
vessel up the coast to a point called Fort Rock, where it 
was believed a landing could be effected and the migrating 
farmers be communicated with. 

In September 1879 both houses of the Cape parliament 
passed resolutions requesting the government to adopt 
measures for the relief of those people, and as a consequence 
the imperial authorities directed her Majesty's ship Swallow 
to accompany the Christina and render all the assistance 
possible. Mr. Palgrave was instructed to proceed in the 
Swallow, taking with him two capable men, six horses and 
mules, a travelling cart, saddles, and a quantity of stores, 
to cooperate with Messrs. Joubert and Haybittle. 

On the 24th of September 1879 the Swallow left Table 
Bay. She called at Walfish Bay to take on board some 
Hottentot interpreters and to obtain the latest information 
concerning the distressed people, which was to the effect that 
they were no longer in a condition urgently requiring 
assistance. On the 2nd of October she left Walfish Bay, 
but upon arrival at Fort Rock it was found impossible to 
land on account of the heavy surf, so after various attempts 
made during the next six days, she proceeded to examine 
the coast northward to Cape Frio, and the Christina 
remained behind to watch the surf. The search for a 
landing place, though most carefully made, was unsuccessful, 
so at Cape Frio the Swallow put about. Keeping close to 
the shore on her way southward, and sending out her boats 
wherever any opening appeared in the line of surf caused 
by the rollers that even in the calmest weather broke with 
terrific force on the land, anchoring before dark and 
resuming the examination at daylight, she found not a 
single place where the expedition could disembark until she 
reached Walfish Bay again, on the 17th of October. The 
shifting sand hills also, that formed a continuous line a 
short distance inland, would have prevented access to the 



i88o] Appointment of a British Resident. 119 

country beyond them if a landing could have been effected. 
It was believed that if certain winds were blowing boats 
could reach the shore at Cape Cross, but that was mere 
chance, and could not be waited for.* 

The Christina discharged her cargo at Walfish Bay, and 
the members of the expedition returned to Capetown, except 
Mr. Haybittle, who made his way overland to the farmers' 
camp. They numbered in all three hundred and three souls, 
but forty-nine others had left the main body and become 
hunters and traders. They had in their possession seventy 
waggons, but only three hundred and twenty oxen, from 
three to four hundred cows, and a few goats. As long as 
game was to be had they lived upon it and milk, but after 
all the wild animals within reach had been killed they 
suffered much from want of food. Then they made gardens, 
which gave large returns, especially of pumpkins, so that 
though they were in distress, they were not in danger of 
actual starvation. Having waggons and twenty spans of 
oxen, they were now able to draw upon the supplies at 
Walfish Bay ; and not long afterwards they crossed the 
Kunene and settled in Portuguese territory. 

Mr. Palgrave had made an arrangement with Kamaherero 
that an English magistrate should be stationed at Okahandja, 
and to keep faith with the chief a gentleman named Manning 
was appointed to fill the post temporarily. He, however, 
exceeded his powers by taking judicial cognisance of certain 
cases, and was therefore speedily recalled. On the 8th of 
January 1880 Major Benjamin D'Urban Musgrave was 

* This is the spot where Diogo Cam erected a cross in 1485 to mark 
the southern termination of his discovery. The cross was still standing 
in 1879. Unfortunately the records of the Portuguese explorer's voyage 
are so scanty that it is impossible to ascertain the condition of the 
place at that time, and it is quite possible that he may have been able 
to land with the greatest ease. Owing to the tremendous swell setting 
in on a sandy shore, changes are constantly taking place along that 
coast, and in our own times more than one safe harbour enclosed by 
a sand spit like that at Walfish Bay has been reported by trustworthy 
persons to have been found, which when sought for a few years later has 
entirely disappeared, 



120 Third Mission of Mr. Palgrave. [1880 

appointed British resident, with instructions "not to exercise 
any magisterial functions, but to use whatever moral influ- 
ence he might possess or acquire to discourage barbarism, 
repress crime, promote civilisation and order, and specially to 
protect the interests of her Majesty's subjects in Damaraland 
(Hereroland)." He was further "to keep the government 
fully informed of the moral, social, and material condition of 
the people and of the relations subsisting between them and 
the neighbouring tribes, and to furnish information upon all 
subjects affecting the interests of the colony." He was thus 
to be nothing more than a diplomatic agent or a consul. 

Mr. Palgrave was at the same time appointed "commissioner 
to the tribes north of the Orange river," and was instructed 
to "return to Damaraland, and continue there his duties as 
such." He was to introduce Major Musgrave to Kamaherero 
and his people as the agent of the colonial government at 
Okahandja. He was "as far as practicable to make Walfish 
Bay his head-quarters, so that, in addition to his other duties, 
he might be able to take charge of that territory, administer 
its government, if found desirable, and until other arrange- 
ments could be made, collect customs there and perform all 
the functions of a magistrate, and prevent the introduction 
of firearms and ammunition unless the importers were 
furnished with a permit from the colonial government." 
He was also to "direct his attention towards obtaining a 
supply of labour by inducing Berg Damaras to go to the 
colony for the purpose of entering into contracts of service 
with the government or with private individuals or 
companies." 

On the 11th of March Major Musgrave was formally 
introduced to Kamaherero, and took up his residence at 
Okahandja, but his position from the first was of little 
account. Mr. Palgrave too found hardly any other sphere 
of usefulness open to him than to act as a labour agent. 
The Ghou Damup or Berg Damaras were in a state of 
famine, and whenever they were caught stealing a sheep for 
food, or were even suspected of having an intention" to do 



1880] Massacre of Hottentots. 121 

so, were put to death by both Hereros and Namaquas with 
no more compunction than if they were vermin. The com- 
missioner got a number of them together, and sent them by 
sea to Capetown, where they were given out in service, but 
were not found capable of performing any kind of labour 
requiring the smallest amount of ma.nual dexterity or skill. 

The northern Herero clans, who had disowned the para- 
mount authority of Kamaherero, were at this time in a 
state of anarchy, and the Gei||Khauas at Gobabis had become 
little better than a band of robbers, so that on two borders 
neither life nor property was safe. A strong will, with 
physical force to support it, was needed in the territory, and 
there was nothing in its stead but the moral influence of two 
English agents upon suspicious and barbarous chiefs. 

For ten years there was peace between the Hereros and 
the Namaquas, but there never was a friendly feeling on 
either side. In 1880 war recommenced. The immediate 
cause was the visit of about thirty Hereros to a Hottentot 
kraal to seek for a missing cow, which was not found, but 
three Hottentots were made prisoners and taken away. The 
friends of the prisoners at other kraals hastily assembled, 
followed the retiring party, and overtook it. The Hereros 
fired upon their pursuers, and were fired upon in return, 
when eleven of them fell and the others took to flight. The 
Hottentots pursued them, killed ten men, and seized about 
fifteen hundred head of cattle at the nearest Herero posts. 

Upon learning this, Kamaherero gave orders that every 
Hottentot, whether man, woman, or child, that could be 
found was to be put to death. At Okahandja, his own 
residence, over twenty were murdered before daylight of the 
23rd of^August, and during that day a general massacre 
occurred at other places. At New Barmen twenty were killed. 
In some localities the order was interpreted to include Berg 
Damaras also, and a large number of these perished. It is 
impossible, to say how many Hottentots fell, as the accounts 
are conflicting, but the whole number cannot have been 
larger than from one hundred and fifty to two hundred. In 



I2£ Reneival of War. [1880 

one place four, at another five, and so on, is the most that 
was recorded by the Europeans in the country at the time. 

A Herero army was at once sent to surround Wmdhoek 
and destroy every one there, but Jan Jonker and his people 
had notice of its approach in time, and escaped in the night. 
He was pursued, but defended himself with such bravery 
that he succeeded in reaching Rehoboth with a loss of only 
six killed, while of his pursuers twenty fell. 

During the next seven or eight weeks preparations for 
active hostilities were pushed on by both parties. The 
atrocities committed by the Hereros were so revolting that 
the whole of the Namaqua clans, with the exception of the 
Bondelzwarts under William Christian, joined in opposing 
them. Abraham Zwartbooi and his people were among the 
most active adherents of their cause. The mixed breeds at 
Rehoboth tried to remain neutral, but when six of them 
and a European were murdered by the Hereros while 
hunting, they too joined the Namaquas. 

As soon as intelligence that war had broken out reached 
Capetown the colonial government recalled Mr. Palgrave, 
and directed Major Musgrave to remove from Okahandja to 
Walfish Bay and prevent the supply of munitions of war 
of any kind to either of the combatants, so as to preserve 
the strictest neutrality. At the beginning of November 
these instructions were carried out. 

On the 10th of November the whole Namaqua force with 
the halfbreeds attacked New Barmen and got possession of the 
place, but during the following night a Herero army arrived, 
and in the early morning of the 11th drove them away 
with a loss of six halfbreeds and fifty-nine Namaquas killed, 
among whom was David Christian, the captain of Bethany. 
The victors made booty of their waggons, oxen, provisions, 
and everything else they had taken with them. 

The attacks and forays on both sides continued after this 
at short intervals, without either party gaining a decided 
advantage, but it would be wearisome, and could serve no 
good purpose, to give a detailed account of them. The 



18S3] German Settlement at Angra Pequena. 123 

Topnaars, who were British subjects, joined Abraham 
Zwartbooi, and the Hereros threatened to attack Walfish 
Bay in revenge, while the resident there was apprehensive 
that the Hottentots might come upon him and plunder the 
stores to obtain the ammunition in them. In January 1882 
a party of volunteers under Captain E. J. Whindus was 
sent from Capetown in her Majesty's ship Wrangler to 
protect the place, and the reverend Dr. C. H. Hahn, of the 
Rhenish mission, was commissioned by the governor to 
accompany him to endeavour to bring about peace. He 
succeeded in doing so between the half breeds and the 
Hereros and in obtaining promises from some of the captains, 
which resulted in a meeting of their representatives at 
Rehoboth on the 13th of June 1882, after his return to 
Capetown, and the conclusion of an agreement to cease 
hostilities between Kamaherero and the southern Hottentot 
captains. Jan Jonker Afrikaner and Abraham Zwartbooi, 
however, declined to attend the meeting, and so the wretched 
guerilla warfare went on as before. 

In 1883 Mr. F. A. E. Luderitz, a merchant of Bremen, 
established a trading station at Angra Pequena, and on the 
1st of May of that year purchased a small tract of land round 
the bay from Joseph Fredericks, who had succeeded David 
Christian as captain of Bethany, for two hundred rifles and 
£100 in money, and on the 25th of August he completed 
the purchase of another and much larger tract of land from 
the same captain for sixty rifles and £600. 

In 1868 there had been some correspondence between the 
Prussian and British governments concerning the protection 
of the Rhenish missionaries and the trading association 
connected with that mission in Hereroland and Great 
Namaqualand, but nothing came of the matter then, and the 
peace concluded in 1870 did away with the necessity for 
action. Mr. Luderitz now applied to his government for 
protection, and communications were opened between the 
German authorities and the foreign office in London on the 
subject, though nothing" was said or written that could lead 



124 Fourth Mission of Mr. Palgrave, [1884 

to the supposition that Germany had any design of taking 
possession of the whole country. The time, however, had 
arrived when there was a general scramble for those parts 
of Africa not already under European rule, and even upon 
this, next to the Sahara for colonising purposes the least 
valuable district in the continent, Germany had cast a 
covetous eye. 

The Cape Colony had for several years been desirous of 
annexing the coast line, not for anything to be derived from 
the country behind it, but simply to prevent unauthorised 
trading that might interfere with the customs regulations. 
The expense — in which term was included not only the 
maintenance of the necessary officials, but the charges 
incidental to the responsibilities of every kind that would 
be incurred — was the only difficulty, and this prevented 
the imperial government from giving its sanction until the 
correspondence with Germany commenced. Then the secre- 
tary of state for the colonies signified his consent if the Cape 
government would undertake to bear the whole cost. 
This was agreed to, and on the 16th of July 1884 a resolu- 
tion was passed by the house of assembly "that it was 
expedient to provide for the annexation to this colony of 
the coast line between Walfish Bay and the mouth of the 
Orange river and between Walfish Bay and the southern 
boundary of the Portuguese possessions." On the 18th 
of the same month this resolution was passed by the 
legislative council also. 

Meantime Mr. W. C. Palgrave had been sent again to Great 
Namaqualand and Hereroland to ascertain whether the 
various chiefs and clans there were still desirous of coming 
under British sovereignty ; whether, in that case, they were 
willing to contribute towards the cost of a simple govern- 
mental establishment and a police force to protect and 
preserve order among them; and further, to ascertain the 
exact condition of affairs in the country, the amount that 
might be raised annually from trading licenses, and generally 
anything else of import auce to be known. Mr. Palgrave 



1884J Proclamations of a German Protectorate. 125 

proceeded to various parts of the territory, with Mr, Peter 
de Smidt as his secretary, and received the assurances of 
the leading chiefs that they were not only desirous, but 
anxious, to place themselves under British rule as a means 
of restoring and preserving peace ; and he devised a plan 
by which, as he thought, the cost of government could be 
met ; but he had not concluded his task when he was 
recalled, as the action of the German government had made 
his mission useless. 

At this time British subjects held concessions from Herero 
and Namaqua chiefs of greater value than that which 
Mr. Luderitz had obtained from Joseph Fredericks, the 
captain of Bethany. Notably, Mr. Daniel De Pass, of London, 
and Captain John Spence, of Capetown, had acquired 
extensive rights at Sandwich Harbour and along the coast 
below Angra Pequena, as well as the lease of what was 
called the Pomona mine, where they had expended much 
capital. The establishments along the coast for catching 
and drying fish were owned in Capetown, and part of the 
trade was conducted by Englishmen. The hunting grounds 
had been almost cleared of game. On the other hand the 
missionaries were Germans, except in the far north of the 
territory, where in 1869 a mission had been established by 
the Finnish evangelical society. Part of the little trade 
that was left, now that ivory and ostrich feathers were no 
longer to be had, was also in German hands. 

On the 7th of August 1884 by order of the emperor 
Wilhelm I Captain Sobering of the corvette Elizabeth hoisted 
the German flag at Angra Pequena and proclaimed a pro- 
tectorate over the coast and a belt of land along it twenty 
geographical miles in width from the Orange river to the 
26th degree of south latitude, and a day or two later 
Captain Von Raven, of the German gunboat Wolf, hoisted 
his flag and issued at Sandwich Harbour and Cape Frio a 
similar proclamation respecting the coast from the 26th 
degree of latitude northward to Cape Frio, excepting the 
British territory at Walfish Bay. 



126 Extent of the German Territory. [1884 

On the 15th of August the German consul in Capetown 
informed the government of the first of these acts, and 
soon the full significance of the occurrence — that another 
factor had been introduced into South African affairs — came 
to be realised. The first difficulty was in connection with 
the twelve guano islands off the coast. Mr. Luderitz laid 
claim to them as being within cannon shot of the mainland, 
and he wanted the British subjects who leased them from 
the Cape government expelled. They were the most valuable 
asset of the country, if mineral wealth should not be found. 
The act of 1873 by which they had been annexed to the 
colony * was regarded in England as informal, but it had 
been rectified by an act approved of on the 6th of July 
1874, which was based on authority derived from letters 
patent issued by her Majesty on the 27th of February 1867, 
and since that date they had been as much a part of the 
colony as Robben Island at the entrance to Table Bay. The 
German government did not contest this fact, and so the 
twelve islands on the coast and Walfish Bay with the little 
territory around it remain under the British flag and parts 
of the Cape Colony, and all the remainder of the country 
from the Orange river in the south to the Portuguese 
possessions in the north, and from the Atlantic ocean on 
the west to the twentieth meridian from Greenwich on the 
east, with an additional tract in the shape of a rectangle on 
the north-east, which makes the Zambesi its border there, 
in course of time became a dependency of the German 
empire. 

♦See Vol. II, page 236. 



CHAPTER LXXXIX. 

THE PORTUGUESE POSSESSIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA DURING THE 

NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

The condition of Portugal from the time of the departure 
of the regent Dom Joao to Brazil until 1855, when Pedro V 
ascended the throne as a constitutional monarch, was such 
that very little attention could be given to her African 
possessions. War succeeded war, revolution followed revolu- 
tion, councils of regency appeared and disappeared, democrats 
and aristocrats rose in turn and fell, all was chaos and 
confusion. This is the least interesting period of the history 
of the mother country, and it would be the least interesting 
period in the history of South-Eastern Africa also if the 
wars among the Bantu had not been more destructive than 
ever before. A rapid glance at the principal events that 
took place is therefore all that is necessary. 

While the war with France continued French cruisers 
and privateers preyed upon the coasting trade until it was 
nearly annihilated. The stations were garrisoned with blacks, 
who were so poorly and so irregularly paid that they were 
often in revolt against their officers. Even Fort Sao 
Sebastiao at Mozambique seldom contained more than fifty 
or sixty European and mixed breed soldiers, who were aided 
by three or four hundred negroes. The walls of this fort 
were badly in need of repair, and the guns mounted upon 
them were old and almost useless. The governor was now, 
as a measure of policy, made independent of the viceroy at 
Goa, that he might have more freedom of action and greater 
responsibility. Along the Zambesi strife and disorder were 
constant, and in 1807 the principal officer there lost his life 
at the hands of the Bantu. 

127 



128, The Portuguese Possessions. [1817 

During the first half of the century the slave trade was 
almost the only source of revenue. Vessels badly fitted 
out and crowded with negroes to their utmost capacity 
sailed from Kilimane and the other ports for Brazil, often 
arriving at their destination with less than a third of the 
number taken on board. Some of these vessels put into 
Table Bay in distress, with hardly any provisions or water 
left, for their owners calculated from the outset upon 
obtaining supplies there and thus being able to transport 
more slaves. For a time this plan succeeded, as humanity 
forbade the vessels being sent away without food ; but when 
it was ascertained that this was depended upon as a means 
of furthering the traffic, all assistance was refused. The 
passage had then to be made without a break, so the vessels 
left with fewer slaves and more provisions. The horrors of 
these voyages, especially when any accident happened or 
when sickness broke out, -can hardly be overdrawn. 

Events at Delagoa Bay at this period began to assume 
greater importance than in earlier years. On the 5th of 
April 1805 Jose* Antonio Caldas, who was then captain of 
the fort at Lourenco Marques, obtained from a Bantu chief 
a deed of cession to Portugal of a considerable tract of land 
north of the Espirito Santo, which that chief had wrested 
from its previous owner. But the weakness of the garrison 
and the circumstances of the time were such that no real 
cession was intended, and the relation of the two parties to 
each other remained as it had been before. 

The English and Americans evidently made whale fishing 
pay, so in 1817 the Portuguese formed a company to carry 
on the same pursuit, and commenced operations at Delagoa 
Bay. But the effort was not attended with much success, 
for there were too many officials in proportion to the number 
of seamen, and they did not display the same activity as 
their competitors. Their jealousy of the English and 
Americans, though only natural under the circumstances, led 
them whenever an opportunity occurred to illtreat subjects of 
the Bantu chiefs who had dealings with their rivals, until 



1823] Transactions of Captain Owen. 129 

such animosity was aroused that on the 29th of June 1818 
the superintendent of the fishery, Joao Pereira de Sousa 
Caldas, lost his life in a quarrel. 

Towards the close of 1822 an English exploring and 
surveying expedition, under Captain William FitzWilliam 
Owen, of the royal navy, entered Delagoa Bay. It was 
provided with credentials from the government at Lisbon to 
the Portuguese officials on the coast, in which they were 
required to render all the assistance in their power, as the 
object was purely scientific. But when Captain Owen 
requested protection for his boats' people while they were 
surveying the rivers, he was informed by the commandant of 
the fort that the Bantu were not subject to the Portuguese 
government, and that he must depend upon his own resources. 
That was the true condition of matters at the time. Accord- 
ingly the English officers acted thereafter as if Portuguese 
sovereignty did not extend beyond the range of the guns 
of the fort, and when May eta, the chief of the tribe along 
the Tembe river, was understood as offering to cede his 
country to Great Britain, Captain Owen accepted the cession. 
A document to that effect was drawn up and formally 
signed and witnessed on the 8th of March 1823. 

A close examination of this paper and of the reports con- 
cerning it show, however, that the object of the chief was 
something very different from what appears on the surface. 
Tshaka had then commenced his murderous career in the 
country to the south, and various hordes fleeing from his 
armies had made their appearance on the shores of Delagoa 
Bay, where they were causing great havoc among the earlier 
inhabitants. It was protection from them that May eta 
desired, not subjection of himself and his followers to 
foreign authority. Captain Owen described the invaders, 
whom he termed Vatwahs, as a martial people of free air 
and noble carriage, marked by piercing very large holes in 
the lobes of their ears. They were clothed with the skins 
of animals, lived chiefly on animal food, used oval shields 
of oxhide large enough to cover their bodies, and carried 

vol. v. 



/ 



130 The Portuguese Possessions. 

from three to six assagais and a stabbing spear. One night 
a band of them attacked an English surveying party that 
was encamped in tents, so he had more than a casual 
acquaintance with them. 

The Batonga inhabitants of the country around the bay he 
described as a timid race, armed with assagais and spears, 
and sometimes carrying a small shield. Many of them wore 
hardly any clothing at all, but some were dressed in calico 
obtained from the Portuguese and others in woollen garments 
bartered from whalers. They possessed horned cattle, goats, 
and barnyard poultry, and had in their gardens rice, maize, 
millet, sweet potatoes, onions, cabbages, pumpkins, pineapples, 
bananas, and other foreign and indigenous fruits. Most of 
these vegetables and fruits had been introduced by Euro- 
peans, and were cultivated by the Bantu not only for their 
own use, but for disposal to the crews of whalers. Through- 
out the country beads were used as coin : four hens could be 
had for a penny's worth, and the labour of a man for a day 
cost the same. With beads and calico these people bartered 
from others ivory and ambergris, which they disposed of to 
Europeans at a large profit. Captain Owen estimated the 
population of the shores of the bay south of the Manisa 
river at one hundred thousand souls. 

Into the territory of these timid agricultural and com- 
mercial people, the ferocious Vatwahs, kinsmen of the Zulus, 
had come like lions into a herd of antelopes, and no wonder 
they sought protectors. The Portuguese in the fort did not, 
and could not, help them, they even purchased from the 
invaders the spoil gathered in murderous raids. One large 
body of the Vatwahs was then encamped at a distance of 
only fifty or sixty kilometres, so the need was urgent. >This 
was the cause of the chief of Tembe affixing his mark to 
the document that purported to be a deed of cession of his 
country to the king of England. One of his men who had 
served in a whaler and who could speak a little broken 
English advised him to make the application, and he followed 
the counsel. But that he did not realise what he was doing 



1 823 J Transactions of Captain Owen. I3 1 

is certain, and this deed of cession was of no greater value, 
honestly considered, than the one covering the same ground 
made to the Portuguese in November 1794. The document 
was purely European in word and spirit, and contained 
clauses that no Bantu chief in South Africa was capable 
of understanding. 

On the same da}^ that it was signed, 8th of March 1823, 
the British flag was hoisted on the bank of the Tembe river, 
and was saluted with twenty-one guns. As soon as possible 
thereafter notice was given to the captain of the Portuguese 
fort that the tribe had become British subjects, but no 
authority of any kind was ever exercised over them, nor 
was the least protection against their enemies given to them. 
They were left as before to themselves, and in the terrible 
wave of war that soon afterwards rolled over their land 
they were almost exterminated by Swangendaba and 
Manikusa without the British government even knowing 
what was taking place. 

On the 23rd of August 1823, Makasane, chief of the tribe 
occupying the territory between the Maputa river and the 
sea, that is the same tract of land that had once belonged 
to the friendly ruler Garcia de Sa, affixed his mark to a 
document by which he placed himself and his country under 
the protection of Great Britain. Captain Owen's object in 
obtaining this declaration was to secure for England the two 
islands Inyaka and Elephant, which were regarded as more 
healthy stations than any on the mainland, and behind 
which there was good anchorage for ships. He wrote that 
he considered Delagoa Bay a place of considerable political 
and commercial importance. It was the only good harbour 
on the coast south of Mozambique, over which it had many 
advantages, as it was easy of access at all seasons of the 
year, was free of such currents as would obstruct navigation, 
and had a better country behind it. It was the door for 
commerce to the vast interior, was the base of a valuable 
whale fishery, and commanded intercourse with the entire 
seaboard of Madagascar at all seasons of the year. From it 



132 The Portuguese Possessions. [1823 

British sovereignty might be extended southward to embrace 
Natal and the whole of the coast. In the possession of a 
foreign power it could be made ruinous to the Cape Colony 
and to the commerce of India, either in peace or war. In 
peace it could be made a depot for eastern productions, and 
in war one of the best ports in the world whence hostile 
expeditions might issue at pleasure. These were the reasons 
assigned by Captain Owen for taking the preliminary steps 
to make the south-eastern shore of the bay an English 
dependency. But no force was left for Makasane's pro- 
tection, and beyond the existence of the formal document 
there was nothing to show that Great Britain had obtained 
a foothold there. 

Some of the names of the rivers were changed by this 
expedition into English ones. Thus the Manisa became the 
King George's, but the old designation of that stream near 
its mouth survives until to-day, and the new one is now 
seldom used, while the upper course is always known as the 
Komati. The Da Lagoa or Lourenco Marques became the 
Dundas, but recently the Bantu name Umbelosi has driven 
all the others out. The estuary called the Espirito Santo 
was changed into the English river, and is still frequently 
so termed. 

In October 1823 Captain Owen sent from Mozambique a 
report to the admiralty office upon the condition of Eastern 
Africa at the time. He stated that there were then in that 
harbour seven vessels taking in slaves for Rio Janeiro, one of 
them, of six hundred tons burden, being intended to carry 
twelve hundred. Not fewer than twenty - five thousand 
slaves were exported from Mozambique annually. From 
Kilimane sixteen vessels had taken during the preceding year 
ten thousand slaves. Between Inhambane and Brazil there 
was also direct communication, but from that port the number 
sent away was not so large. At Delagoa Bay the traffic was 
still less. The cost of a slave to the Portuguese at Kilimane, 
Inhambane, and Delagoa Bay was rarely more than two or 
three dollars, and they were sold to the owners of the 



1823] Transactions of Captain Owen. 133 

ships at from twenty to thirty dollars each. These owners 
considered that they made a good voyage if a third of the 
number embarked readied Rio Janeiro, where they brought 
from one hundred and fifty to two hundred dollars each. 
Sometimes half were saved, when the gain became a strong 
motive for more extensive speculation. 

Sofala, he reported, was the most miserable of all the 
Portuguese establishments on the coast except Lourenco 
Marques : it could not even furnish a boat to assist one of 
his ships when aground. Strangers everywhere visiting 
the stations for purposes of trade were subject to wanton 
indignity and exaction. At Mozambique an English vessel, 
even in distress, was obliged to pay five per cent of the 
value of any goods it might be necessary to land, and 
twenty-five per cent on everything that was sold. Inham- 
bane was the most thriving of all the settlements, owing to 
the exceptional ability of its captain, who encouraged 
industry in the free blacks by his example, counsel, and 
manner of administration. 

Except along the lower Zambesi the Portuguese had then 
no dominion or authority beyond the limits of their forts 
and factories. At Sofala, however, they professed to have 
recently conquered with fifty men the whole of the old 
Kiteve country as far as Manika, though when he was 
there he found them almost shut up in their establishment 
by tribes at war with them, and along the Zambesi it was 
feared that some hostile chiefs might destroy the villages of 
Sena and Tete. 

Mozambique was in such a critical state that the governor 
found it necessary to reside within the fort. He had not 
more than twelve or fourteen European soldiers, and only 
eight officers on whom he could rely, mostly very young 
men. In the market nothing except slaves was exposed for 
sale, and it was with much difficulty that any other pro- 
visions than rice and shellfish could be procured. Most of 
the traders were Arabs so-called and Banyans. In short, the 
whole country from Delagoa Bay northward presented a 



134 The Portuguese Possessions. [1823 

lamentable picture of decay and ruin, owing to the indolence 
and incapacity of those who claimed to be its possessors. 

Captain Owen recommended that the treaty which per- 
mitted the Portuguese to carry on the slave trade in their 
dominions between Cape Delgado and Delagoa Bay should 
not be construed to include independent Bantu territory 
within those limits.* Nowhere south or north of the Zambesi 
had they any dominion whatever beyond the muzzles of their 
guns. In most parts, indeed, they were even excluded by 
the Bantu. Great Britain could make treaties with the 

*The following are the clauses of the treaties limiting the extent of 
territory in which the Portuguese could carry on the slave trade : — 

Article X. 

His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal being fully 
convinced of the Injustice and Impolicy of the Slave Trade, and of the 
great disadvantages which arise from the necessity of introducing and 
continually renewing a Foreign and Factitious Population for the 
purpose of Labour and Industry within His South American Dominions, 
has resolved to co-operate with His Britannic Majesty in the cause of 
Humanity and Justice by adopting the most efficacious means for 
bringing about a gradual abolition of the Slave Trade throughout the 
whole of His Dominions. And actuated by this Principle His Royal 
Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal engages that His Subjects 
shall not be permitted to carry on the Slave Trade on any part of the 
Coast of Africa not actually belonging to His Royal Highness's Dominions, 
in which that Trade has been discontinued and abandoned by the 
Powers and States of Europe, which formerly traded there, reserving 
however to His Own Subjects the Right of purchasing and trading in 
Slaves within the African Dominions of the Crown of Portugal. — Treaty 
of 19th February 1810. 

Article II. 

The Territories in which the Traffic in Slaves continues to be per- 
mitted, under the Treaty of the Twenty second of January one 
Thousand Eight Hundred and fifteen, to the Subjects of His most 
Faithful Majesty, are the following : 1st. The Territories possessed 
by the Crown of Portugal upon the Coast of Africa to the South of 
the Equator, that is to say, upon the Eastern Coast of Africa, the 
Territory laying between Cape Delgado and the Bay of Lourenco 
Marques, and upon the Western Coast, all that which is situated 
from the Eighth to the Eighteenth Degree of South Latitude.— Treaty 
of 28th July 1817. 



1823] Conduct of some Batonga Chiefs. 135 

independent chiefs which would destroy the slave trade, or 
she could establish factories for commerce where she could 
undersell the Portuguese and starve them out. Or, as 
Delagoa Bay must be considered as of great importance to 
the Cape Colony, an arrangement might be made with tli6 
Portuguese government that it should withdraw its claims 
to all territory south of Inhambane and abolish the slave 
trade farther north, conditionally upon Great Britain 
abstaining from entering into any relations with the chiefs 
beyond Cape Correntes. 

Probably a neutral party would have drawn a less gloomy 
picture of the condition of South-Eastern Africa at this time, 
and would have disputed Great Britain's right to do what 
Captain Owen recommended, but there can be no question 
as to the weakness of the Portuguese government or the 
extent of the slave trade. 

On the 3rd of November 1823 Commodore Joseph Nourse, 
who was then in command of the British naval force on 
the Cape station, arrived in Delagoa Bay in the Andromache. 
An English trading vessel named the Orange Grove was 
lying at anchor there at the time. Commodore Nourse 
obtained from the captain of the fort a promise to abstain 
from interference with Bantu trading with the English, but 
after the departure of the two ships he took a different 
course. The reverend Mr. Threlfall, a Wesleyan missionary 
who had gone to the bay with Captain Owen, and who 
remained there until 1824, when he returned in ill health 
to Capetown in the whaler Nereid, reported that immedi- 
ately after the departure of the Andromache and the 
Orange Grove the Portuguese captain showed a disposition 
to subjugate the Bantu states, and threatened the chiefs 
with immediate war if they would not accede to his terms. 
In December he caused the Portuguese flag to be hoisted 
in Tembe, and appointed three soldiers to guard it. About 
the same time an official of the chief of Maputa ceded the 
south-eastern territory to the Portuguese, but the chief 
refused to confirm the cession, upon which the captain sent 



136 The Portugese Possessions. [1823 

a company of soldiers and a large number of enlisted blacks 
of another tribe against him. Makasane obtained assistance 
from the chief of Tembe, but was defeated with a loss of 
many killed, and his followers then dispersed. 

A good deal of skirmishing among the various tribes 
followed, until the Portuguese and their allies were destroyed 
by an act of treachery rather than of war. One of the chiefs 
sent a present to the captain with a message that it was 
intended as giving his consent to the arrangement proposed, 
and invited him to come to the territory and hoist the 
Portuguese flag. The captain, Lupe de Cardenas by name, 
fell into the snare laid for him. With all the officers of the 
garrison except Lieutenant Teixeira who was sick, forty-five 
soldiers, and most of his Bantu allies, he was proceeding to 
the place arranged for hoisting the flag with due ceremony, 
when he fell into an ambuscade and the whole party, 
excepting three soldiers and a few of the allies, perished 
under the assagai. Those who escaped fled to the fort, 
which was at once besieged, but the attacking party was 
induced to withdraw by presents of beads. Internecine 
strife among the various tribes followed, and this alone 
saved the Portuguese establishment from entire annihilation. 

This account, however, is not quite in accordance with the 
official documents on the other side. According to them 
the chiefs who had affixed their marks to the English docu- 
ments signed a counter declaration, to the effect that they 
were subjects of the king of Portugal, as their fathers from 
time immemorial had been. The captain Lupe de Cardenas 
with a junior officer and thirty-nine black soldiers then 
proceeded to hoist the Portuguese flag on the banks of the 
Tembe river, whereupon Mayeta, the chief who was asserted 
to be a subject of Portugal as his ancestors had always been, 
attacked the party, killed Cardenas and twenty-six of his 
men, and obliged the ensign and the remaining thirteen 
blacks to surrender and submit to his mercy. 

In this precarious manner the fort or trading station 
continued to be held until 1833, without authority of any 



1824] Devastating Wars among Bantu. 137 

kind over the neighbouring Bantu clans being exercised. 
It was just the other way, for the tenure under which the 
Portuguese occupied the ground on which they lived was 
one of sufferance on condition of friendly behaviour towards 
the strongest of their neighbours. They were there at the 
mercy of the barbarians. 

With the object of trying to keep strangers away, on the 
13th of November 1824 a royal charter was issued in which 
an exclusive monopoly of the commerce of the bay was 
granted to the Fishing Company, as it was supposed its 
agents would show a good deal of energy in the matter. 
This charter remained in force until January 1835, when 
the company was dissolved. 

For some years the country round Delagoa Bay had been 
devastated by war of an exceptionally ferocious character. 

First a little band of warriors under a leader named 
Ngokweni broke away from Tshaka, and passed through it 
on their way to the Zambesi, where they settled on a large 
island in the river near Sena. They did some damage on 
their march, but they were too few in number to cause 
devastation on an extensive scale. 

They were followed by a much larger horde, under the 
chief Swangendaba, who fled from the border of the district 
now called Swaziland. This ferocious horde iu its flight to 
the north created great havoc among the feeble tribes, who 
were incapable of resisting it. It moved about the country 
between Delagoa Bay and the Zambesi nearty two years, 
breaking up and almost exterminating many of the Batonga, 
Baroswi, and Makalanga clans, and setting at defiance the 
Portuguese in their stations along the coast. At length the 
Angoni, as this devastating host was afterwards called, were 
routed in a great battle on the bank of the Sabi river by 
a still stronger body of refugees from the south, under the 
chief Manikusa. Swangendaba then retreated northward, 
crossed the Zambesi, and settled on the western shore of 
Lake Nyassa, where the Angoni became a scourge to all 
their neighbours. Upon the death of Swangendaba he was 



138 The Portuguese Possessions. [1833 

succeeded by his son Mpezini, who was chief of the tribe 
when in 1875 missionaries of the Free church of Scotland 
founded the station Livingstonia. The Angoni were then 
masters of a wide extent of country, and were still pursuing 
the career of marauders. 

Far more destructive than the Angoni to the inhabitants 
of the coast north of Delagoa Bay was the fierce tribe now 
known as the Matshangana, because their occupation of the 
territory was permanent. This tribe was composed of a 
number of refugees from various clans, who fled from the 
shore of St. Lucia Bay to avoid contact with the Zulu 
stabbing assagai. These refugees were welded into one body 
by the chief Manikusa, afterwards generally called Sotsha- 
ngana, from whom the tribe took its name. Among the 
less highly disciplined people living north of St. Lucia Bay 
the Matshangana spread dreadful havoc. Many of the clans 
were exterminated, and others were reduced to the most 
abject condition, all their property being seized, and their 
serviceable children of both sexes being taken away to swell 
the ranks of their conquerors. 

On the 22nd of October 1833 a strong body of warriors 
of the Matshangana tribe appeared before the fort on the 
Espirito Santo. They were provided with no other weapons 
than short-handled stabbing assagais, so they could not effect 
an entrance, but during the night of the 27th the captain 
Dionysio Antonio Ribeiro, seeing an opportunity to escape, 
evacuated the place, and with his men retired to the island 
Shefina, which lies close to the coast. On the following day 
the Matshangana destroyed the fort, and then pursued the 
Portuguese to the island and captured them all. The 
prisoners were brought back to their ruined habitation, and 
were there put to death. 

Manikusa then for the second time devastated the territory 
from Delagoa Bay to the Zambesi, and destroyed the clans 
within it, the descendants of the tribes that three centuries 
earlier had been governed by the Sedanda, the Kiteve, and 
the Tshikanga, as well as the various divisions of the 



1836] Destruction of the Portuguese Stations. 139 

Batonga south of the Sabi and of the Mashona, who were 
comparatively recent immigrants. 

The captain of Inhambane was so rash as to attempt to 
assist a friendly clan against Manikusa. Inhambane had 
then about twenty-five Portuguese residents, all told, and the 
garrison of the little fort Sao Joao da Boa Yista consisted 
of about a hundred negroes. The village contained a church 
dedicated to our Lady of the Conception, and a few houses 
built in the European style, though none of great size, as 
the station was inferior in importance to those on the 
Zambesi. The result of the interference with Manikusa by 
the captain of Inhambane was the plunder of the village 
and the slaughter of the captain himself and all the 
inhabitants except ten individuals who managed to escape, 
3rd of November 1834. 

Sofala had sunk to be a place of very little note. Its 
fort had fallen into decay, and its best houses were built of 
mud. Still it had a captain and a garrison of negroes. In 
1836 it was attacked by the Matshangana, when the fort 
managed to hold out, but all else was plundered and destroyed. 
The military commandant, Jose Marques da Costa, then 
collected the friendly Bantu in the neighbourhood, and v/ith 
them and his negroes ventured to give the enemy battle, 
with the result that every individual of his force perished. 

Sena contained ten houses built in the European style, 
one church, and a small fort. A number of Bantu huts 
stood close by. There were not more than twenty white 
inhabitants, including three military officers and a priest, 
and in 1830 these had been obliged to abandon the place 
temporarily on account of a famine. There were fifty or sixty 
mixed breeds and sixty blacks called soldiers, but they 
were very little in advance of the barbarians around them. 
The Matshangana attacked the place, and after killing 
fifty-four of the Portuguese and mixed breeds, drove the 
remaining inhabitants of the village to the islands in the 
Zambesi. An arrangement was then made that the traders 
should pay to the chief of the conquering horde a certain 






140 The Portuguese Possessions. 

quantity of merchandise yearly, and on this condition they 
were allowed to return. 

The government at Lisbon was unable to supply a com- 
petent force to protect the stations while the Matshangana 
were in the first flush of their victorious career, and could 
devise no other expedient than to make the government of 
the Rivers independent of that of Mozambique. In 1834 
Jose' Gregorio Pegado was appointed military governor of 
Mozambique, and Isidro Manuel de Carrezedo was sent to 
the Rivers to do the best he could without any interference. 
He could do nothing, as has been seen, for military force was 
what was needed, and with his failure the former system of 
government was reverted to. 

The havoc created anions: the Bantu between the Zambesi 
and the Limpopo by the Matshangana on the south, the 
Makololo on the north-west, and the Matabele on the west, 
was very great. Many of the ancient clans were quite 
exterminated, and of those that remain in existence few 
occupy the same ground that their ancestors did. In the 
years 1852 and 1853 especially they were scattered and 
destroyed with no more compunction than if they had been 
vermin. The Portuguese stations were reoccupied within a 
few years, but they were held with difficulty. In 1849 the 
captain of Inhambane was killed, as was his successor in 
1850. In these years Lourenco Marques and Sofala were 
attacked, and narrowly escaped destruction the second time. 
Lourenco Marques, indeed, was held under the most pre- 
carious of tenures until quite recently. In 1868 it was 
attacked by a tribe in the neighbourhood that was assisted 
by a European renegade, and was only saved by the bravery 
of the captain Jose' Augusto de Sa e Simas. As late as 1878 
there were only four hundred and fifty-eight Europeans, 
Asiatics, and mulattos combined living there. Of these, two 
hundred and ninety-five were men, thirty-two were women, 
and one hundred and thirty-one were children. Ninety-three 
Portuguese, twenty-eight Europeans of other nationalities, 
sixty - six mulattos, and eighty - three Asiatics professed 



The Slave Trade. M 1 

Christianity, and one hundred and thirty-three Indians 
and fifty-five others did not. 

The prazos south of the Zambesi were of course nearly all 
overrun, and on the 22nd of December 1854 a decree was 
issued by the government in Lisbon abolishing the system. 
The decree was not enforced, however, by the local authori- 
ties, except that the method of inheritance was no longer 
observed, and a few prazos held by individuals who 
arrogated to themselves the rights of feudal lords and who 
regarded their people as mere serfs, continued in existence. 

There is a little island called Tshiloane off the coast about 
sixty-four kilometres south of Sofala, It is nearly divided 
into two by a sluggish creek, and is not at all an attractive 
place, but it has a fairly good harbour, and it is secure 
against ravages by Bantu from the mainland. Some of the 
half breeds and others who lived among the blacks in the 
neighbourhood of the ancient gold port removed to this 
island, and since 1862 a military force has been stationed 
there to protect them. A lighthouse has also been built on 
Tshingani Point on the island, though the commerce of the 
place is very small. 

In 1855 some of the refugees from the mainland went to 
reside on the island of Santa Carolina, one of the Bazaruta 
group, and a small garrison was stationed there as an 
evidence that the Portuguese were the owners. 

On the 10th of December 1836 a decree was issued by 
the government at Lisbon abolishing traffic in slaves 
throughout the Portuguese dominions. But so far from its 
coming into force in Eastern Africa, the marquis of 
Aracaty, who was then governor of Mozambique, issued a 
proclamation on the 11th of November 1837 suspending its 
operation, on the plea of absolute necessity. This led to 
correspondence with the British government, which had then 
emancipated the slaves everywhere within its own dominions 
and was exerting itself to the utmost to induce foreign 
nations to follow its example. But the traffic continued, and 
when after a time in accordance with treaty arrangements 



142 The Porttiguese Possessions. 

British cruisers were stationed on the coast to endeavour to 
suppress it, they could generally be evaded by the slave 
vessels getting away from one port while they were watching 
another. It has only been in our own times that this traffic 
has ceased. 

The law regarding commerce by strangers was now greatly 
modified.* In 1811 it was made legal to import goods of 
foreign manufacture, provided they were carried in Portuguese 
vessels manned to the extent of three-fourths of the crew by 
Portuguese subjects. But restrictive laws, except where a 
government is very strong, invariably foster illicit traffic, and 
it was so in this instance. Foreigners could not be kept 
away. Seeing this, in 1853 the government at Lisbon wisely 
adopted a system under which a revenue from strangers 
would be obtained, while smuggling was made too unpro- 
fitable, compared with the risk, to be carried on. Under 
this system Portuguese goods imported into Eastern Africa 
in Portuguese ships were charged four per cent of their value 
as customs duty, foreign goods imported in Portuguese ships 
were charged eight per cent, and foreign goods imported in 
foreign ships twelve per cent. Articles exported in Portuguese 
ships to Portuguese ports were charged one per cent of their 
value, in Portuguese ships to foreign ports three per cent, 

* According to treaty British subjects nominally had rights of trade in 
Eastern Africa, except in certain reserved articles ; but as these included 
gold, ivory, and, of course, slaves, they were practically prohibited from 
purchasing anything else than provisions. The following is the text of the 
article referring to East Africa in the treaty of commerce between Great 
Britain and Portugal : 

Article XXIV. 



All Trade with the Portuguese Possessions situated on the 
Eastern Coast of the Continent of Africa (in Articles not included in 
the Exclusive Contracts possessed by the Crown of Portugal) which may 
have been formerly allowed to the Subjects of the Great Britain, is 
confirmed, and secured to them now and for ever, in the same Manner as 
the Trade which has hitherto been permitted to Portuguese Subjects in the 
Ports and Seas of Asia is confirmed and secured to them by Virtue of the 
Si^th Article of the Present Treaty. —Treaty of 19th February 1810. 



I 86 2 ] Reoccupation of Zumbo. *43 

and in foreign ships to foreign ports five per cent. This 
cannot be regarded as an unreasonable tariff for that time, 
and though it has been modified of recent years, Portuguese 
goods still have the advantage of differential duties in their 
favour. 

In 1856 the farce was enacted of creating a council for 
the province of Mozambique, consisting of thirteen members, 
in which Tete was allotted two representatives, and Sena, 
Sofala, Inhambane, and Lourenco Marques each one. At 
the same time the term of office of the heads of the stations 
was extended from three to five years, in order to obtain 
the advantage of experience. Ten years later, on the 1st 
of December 1866, a more practical decree was issued, 
which established improved courts of justice, both inferior 
and superior, in Eastern Africa. 

Beyond Tete the whole country to the westward had long 
been lost to the Portuguese, and with it of course the 
station that had once been regarded as the most important 
for the commerce of the interior and the conversion of the 
Bantu. This was Zumbo, on the northern bank of the 
Zambesi, nearly two hundred and fifty English miles or 
four hundred kilometres by the stream upward from Tete. 
Projects for the reoccupation of this post had frequently 
been discussed, but nothing could be done before 1862, when 
Albino Manuel Pacheco hoisted the Portuguese flag there 
once more. The ruins of the ancient church and of the 
house once inhabited by the captain marked the site of the 
station. But Zumbo, though reoccupied, has never attained 
its former importance, and only five or six Europeans have 
since resided there at a time. Its principal value to the 
Portuguese has been that it gave them a right, acknowledged 
by Great Britain, to the territory along the river bank that 
distance westward, and secured for them a boundary line 
including it when the interior of the continent was divided 
between different claimants a few years ago. 

The most interesting event during this period is the pro- 
gress of geographical knowledge concerning South Africa, 



144 The Portuguese Possessions. 

and for this the world is mainly indebted to an intrepid 
Scotch missionary. The honour of accomplishing the 
journey across Africa for the first time, however, is due to 
two black traders named Pedro Joao Baptista and Amaro 
Jose*, who were in the employment of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Francisco Honorato da Costa, director of the fair of Mucary 
in the district of Pungo Andongo. These men were 
entrusted with a letter to the captain of Tete, and left 
Muropue in Angola on the 22nd of May 1806. One of them, 
Pedro Joao Baptista, was sufficiently well educated to be 
able to keep a sort of journal, but they had no instruments 
of any kind with them, nor were they competent to make 
observations. On the 2nd of February 1811, four years and 
eight months after setting out, they delivered the letter at 
Tete, and in May of the same year left on their return 
journey. They reached Loanda again safely, and thus 
accomplished the feat of crossing the continent in both 
directions. Some knowledge of the interior far north of 
the Zambesi was gathered from these intrepid travellers, but 
no information whatever concerning the country or the 
people to the south. 

On the 1st of June 1831 a large expedition left Tete to 
follow up Dr. Lacerda's exploration to the west coast. Major 
Jose* Maria Correia Monteiro was in command, Captain 
Antonio Candido Pedroso Gamitto was next in authority 
and also journalist, and there were no fewer than four 
hundred and twenty blacks in different capacities. But 
the difficulties encountered were so great that from the 
kraal of Kazembe the expedition turned back, after despatch- 
ing a letter to the governor of Angola by some trustworthy 
black traders of the party. The letter was dated 10th of 
March 1832, and was delivered on the 25th of April 1839. 
Thus it was not by Europeans, but by blacks, that this 
transit of the continent was effected. 

On the next occasion it was performed by three Arab 
traders from Zanzibar, who, finding themselves far in the 
interior in want of merchandise, pushed on to the nearest 



Exploration by Dr. Livingstone. 145 

coast, and reached Benguela on the 3rd of May 1852. The 
governor of Angola offered a million reis and the honorary 
title of captain to any one who would return to Zanzibar 
with the traders, and describe the route between the two 
coasts. A resident of Angola named Antonio Francisco 
Ferreira da Silva Porto accepted the offer, but after 
travelling a hundred and seven days he could go no farther, 
and therefore turned back. He sent some of his people on, 
however, who reached Mozambique safely on the 12th of 
November 1854. 

It was reserved for the reverend Dr. David Livingstone 
to be the first white man to cross Africa from coast to coast, 
and to be also the first to give reliable information upon 
the interior of the country south of the upper course of the 
Zambesi. This famous explorer proceeded northward from 
the Cape of Good Hope along the healthy highlands of the 
interior to Linyanti, the residence of the paramount ruler of 
the Makololo tribe, about midway between the two oceans. 
With this place as a base of supply, more than half the 
difficulty of crossing the continent was done away with. To 
that point a waggon road was open from the south, and 
everything needed for the journey was collected there with 
little difficulty. On the 11th of November 1853 he left the 
Makololo kraal, and on the 31st of May 1854 arrived safely 
at Loanda in Angola. After resting there nearly four 
months, on the 20th of September Dr. Livingstone set out 
to return, but the journey back could not be accomplished 
in less than a year. Leaving Linyanti again on the 3rd of 
November 1855, he followed the Zambesi down to the sea, 
discovering on the way the magnificent Victoria fall. After 
touching at Tete, where he left most of his attendants to 
await his return from England, he arrived at Kilimane on 
the 20th of May 1856. 

Since that time the continent has frequently been crossed, 
and soon the various details of its features were known, and 
full information was obtained concerning the tribes that 
occupy it. 

vol. v. L 



CHAPTEE XC. 

THE PORTUGUESE POSSESSIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA DURING THE 
NINETEENTH CENTURY (continued). 

After 1838, when the emigrant farmers from the Cape 

Colony began to settle on the highlands of the interior 

between the Vaal and Limpopo rivers, the southern part 

of the territory claimed by the Portuguese along the eastern 

coast acquired a value it never had before. The excellent 

harbour at the mouth of the Espirito Santo in Delagoa Bay 

was the nearest port to the newly occupied territory, and 

efforts were repeatedly made to open a road to it. These 

did not succeed for many years, owing to the prevalence of 

fever near the coast and to the intermediate belt of land 

being infested with the tsetse fly, but the position of the 

bay made it certain that in time all the difficulties of 

establishing communication through it between the South 

African Republic and the outer world would be overcome. 

In 1852 the independence of the farmers north of the Vaal 

was acknowledged by Great Britain, and the importance of 

the bay was realised in England, where the documents 

obtained by Captain Owen in 1823 were not forgotten, 

though no action beyond a little correspondence between 

the authorities at London and Lisbon had ever been taken 

upon them. Matters were left in abeyance, however, until 

the 5th of November 1861, when Captain Bickford, 

commanding her Majesty's ship Narcissus, planted the 

British flag on the islands Inyaka and Elephant, which he 

proclaimed British territory, and together with the adjoining 

roadstead he declared to be annexed to the colony of Natal. 

This action was protested against by the Portuguese, and a 

long correspondence between the two governments ensued. 

146 



1862] Arrangement with Umzila, 147 

Captain Bickford had hardly set sail when a man, who 
was destined to occupy a prominent position thereafter in 
South-Eastern Africa made his appearance at the Portuguese 
fort on the Espirito Santo. His name was Umzila. * He was 
a son of the recently deceased chief Manikusa, and having 
incurred the jealousy of his father he had been obliged to 
flee and for some time had been living as a refugee in the 
South African Republic. Upon the death of Manikusa, his 
great son Maweva succeeded as chief of the Matshangana, 
but a strong party favoured Umzila, who was older than his 
brother and much the abler man of the two. 

On the 1st of December 1861 Umzila applied to Onofre 
Lourenco d'Andrada, captain of the fort on the Espirito Santo, 
for assistance against his brother. Manikusa, his father, had 
been a terrible scourge to the Portuguese, and Maweva, his 
brother, bade fair to be equally hostile. He, on the contrary, 
offered to recognise the sovereignty of the king of Portugal, 
and to cede all the land up to the Manisa river, in return 
for military assistance. The captain Andrada was not in a 
position to give much help. His whole force could not have 
stood five minutes in the open field against the weakest of 
Maweva's regiments, but he recognised that a crisis had come, 
and that if Umzila was unsuccessful, the Portuguese possession 
of any part of the coast south of the Zambesi river would be 
at an end. What Umzila needed also was not so much men 
as arms and ammunition, and he could spare a few antiquated 
firelocks and a quantity of gunpowder. 

An arrangement was therefore entered into, and on the 
2nd of December 1861 the cession of the territory — though it 
was not yet in the giver's possession — was formally made. 
All the assistance that was possible was then afforded to 
Umzila. The war between the brothers lasted many months, 
but at length in two battles fought on the banks of the 
Manisa on the 17th and the 20th of August 1862 Maweva's 
adherents were utterly defeated. He was fortunate enough 
to make his escape, and fled to Swaziland, where he was 
given shelter. Thereafter for many years he made occasional 



148 The Portuguese Possessions.* 

raids into the territory he had lost, but never succeeded in 
gathering together a body of adherents strong enough to 
enable him to meet his brother again in the field. 

Umzila thus became undisputed chief of the Matshangana 
tribe, and until his death in 1884 ruled over nearly all the 
Bantu in that large expanse of territory marked in the 
maps as Gazaland, extending from the Zambesi river on the 
north to the Manisa on the south, and from the fringe of 
the great interior plain down to the shore of the Indian sea. 
Throughout his life he remembered the assistance that had 
been given to him by the Portuguese, but did not always 
refrain from hostile actions towards them, and certainly 
never regarded himself as their subject. To control a tribe 
as powerful as his, the means to compel obedience to 
authority must be ever present, no matter what flag is 
supposed to wave over the territory, and the Portuguese at 
that time had no force in South-Eastern Africa that could 
command respect. 

They were, however, beginning to improve their position, 
which had already passed its lowest point of depression. A 
favourable turn in their affairs was taking place in the 
lower Zambesi valley, as will presently be related, and on 
the Espirito Santo a much stronger and better fort than the 
one previously existing was constructed in 1864, which was 
strengthened three years afterwards by the addition of four 
small batteries. A few houses were built on the adjoining 
ground, and thereafter the site came to be generally called 
Lourenco Marques. 

On the 29th of July 1869 a commercial treaty was con- 
cluded between the governments of Portugal and of the 
South African Republic, and in it a boundary line between 
them was fixed commencing from the parallel of 26° 30' 
south latitude. 

Such a treaty could not be regarded with indifference by 
the British government, whose interests in South Africa were 
likely to be seriously affected by it. Accordingly the claim 
to the southern and eastern shore of Delagoa Bay, based on 



1874] Arbitration respecting Delagoa Bay. 149 

the documents obtained by Captain Owen, attracted greater 
attention, but naturally the Portuguese government refused 
to acknowledge ifc. Arbitration was then decided upon, and 
on the 25th of September 1872 a protocol was signed at 
Lisbon, by which the contending parties agreed to submit 
their respective claims to the decision of the president of 
the French republic. 

The case for Portugal was well worked out, though many 
mere suppositions were made to appear as incontrovertible 
facts, and numerous papers were put in which could easily 
have been proved to be of no weight whatever. Their records 
and ancient histories were searched, and everything that 
favoured their claim was brought forward, while all that 
opposed it was carefully held back. Among their documents 
was a treaty between Great Britain and Portugal, in which 
the territories of the latter on the East African coast were 
declared to extend from Cape Delgado to the bay of 
Lourenco Marques, which they reasonably interpreted as 
including that bay. Real effective occupation of any part 
of the country beyond the precincts of their fort they could 
not prove, nor could they show the exercise of substantial 
control over any of the Bantu clans living in the vicinity. 
But their discovery of the bay, their commercial dealings 
with the tribes on its shores, the cessions on paper made to 
them, and what more has been related in these volumes, 
they fully proved. 

The English case was less carefully prepared. It could not 
have been brought to appear as good as that of the Portuguese, 
but by a careful search in the archives of the Cape Colony 
and in printed and manuscript volumes in the library of the 
British museum, it might have been considerably strength- 
ened. * An attempt was made to show that the bay of 
Lourenco Marques mentioned in the treaty put in by the 
Portuguese really meant the estuary of the Tembe, Umbelosi, 
and Matola, that is the Espirito Santo or Euglish river, 
and not the large sheet of water of which this is only a very 
small part, but such an interpretation was easily proved to 



150 The Portuguese Possessions. 

be incorrect. Some of the documents relied upon by the 
other side were explained away, but the fact that the territory 
in dispute had for centuries been within the sphere of 
influence of the Portuguese — though at irregular intervals 
and to a very limited extent only — could not be disturbed. 
If the Portuguese claim to the southern and eastern shores of 
the bay was weak, the English claim was weaker still. 

On the 24th of July 1875 Marshal Macmahon, president of 
the French republic, issued his award, which gave to Portugal 
the territory as far south as the parallel of latitude of 
26° 30' from the ocean to the Lebombo mountains. That 
included the territory of Tembe, defined as bounded on 
the north by the Espirito Santo or English river and the 
Lourenco Marques, .Dundas, or Umbelosi river, on the west 
by the Lebombo mountains, and on the south and the east 
by the river Maputa and the shore of Delagoa Bay. In it 
was also comprised the territory of the Maputa, between the 
Maputa river and the sea, including the Inyaka peninsula 
and the islands Inyaka and Elephant. 

The Portuguese had been in possession of stations on the 
East African coast for more than three centuries and a half, 
and believed themselves entitled to the whole of the interior 
of the continent south of the Zambesi, yet so little did they 
know of even its geographical features that they were 
unacquainted with the course of the Limpopo river beyond 
a day's sail in boats above its mouth. As far as can be 
traced, not an individual of that nation had ever been upon 
its banks at any part where it is not navigable. In 1870 
for the first time its whole course was traced from the 
junction of the Shashi to the sea. 

On the 6th of July of that year, Captain Elton, of the 
London and Limpopo Mining Company, left the Tati with 
the object of ascertaining if a road could not be opened 
from that place to Delagoa Bay. He proceeded first in an 
east-south-easterly direction to the junction of the Shashi 
and the Limpopo, which he reached on the 30th. He had 
taken a boat with him, which he now launched on the main 



Treaty with the South African Republic. 151 

stream, at this point nearly two hundred metres in width. 
On the 1st of August he commenced the descent of the river, 
and managed to continue on it for nearly a hundred miles 
or a hundred and sixty-one kilometres, though he met with 
several accidents caused by rapids. Then he reached a 
magnificent fall, at the margin of the plateau, where he 
narrowly escaped destruction, but managed to run the boat 
on shore in time. 

From the falls the journey was necessarily continued on 
foot, but by dint of great exertion on his own part and on 
that of the men with him on the 29th of August the junction 
of the Lipalule and the Limpopo was reached, up to which 
point the river had been explored from its mouth by Mr. 
St. Vincent Erskine. At the junction of the Lipalule, 
Captain Elton left the Limpopo, and directed his course in 
a straight line to Lourenco Marques, where he took passage 
for Natal. From a commercial point of view his journey 
was a failure, but it resulted in a great improvement of 
the map of South Africa. 

Various schemes for the construction of a railway between 
Lourenco Marques and the capital of the South African 
Republic had been projected before the publication of the 
award which secured the seaboard to Portugal, but all had 
fallen through. On the 11th of December 1875, less than 
five months after that event, a treaty was entered into 
between the governments of the two countries, which pro- 
vided for the free interchange of the products of the soil 
and industry of the republic and the Portuguese possessions, 
for the importation free of customs duties through the port 
of Lourenco Marques of a great many articles destined for 
the republic and for the importation of all other articles thus 
destined upon payment of duty at the rate of three to six 
per cent of their value, as also for the construction of a rail- 
way from the harbour inland. Owing to political events in 
South Africa this treaty could not be carried into effect for 
some years, but it was revived and ratified again on the 7th 
of October 1882. 



152 The Portuguese Possessions. 

On the 14th of December 1883 the Portuguese government 
granted a concession for the construction of a railway about 
eighty- three kilometres in length, from Lourenco Marques to 
Komati Poort, on the western boundary. The subsidy 
offered was ample, still it was only in March 1887 that a 
company was formed in London to carry out the work. In 
November 1888 the line was opened to a point which was 
believed to be on the Portuguese boundary, though soon 
afterwards it was ascertained to be some distance short, and 
then, as it could not be completed within the stipulated time, 
the government took advantage of the opportunity and on 
the 24th of June 1889 confiscated the railway. This led to 
interference by Great Britain and the United States on 
behalf of the shareholders, but after much negotiation the 
Portuguese authorities retained the line, and the amount of 
compensation to be awarded to the company was referred 
for decision to three Swiss lawyers. These gentlemen did 
not issue their award until March 1900, when they adjudged 
the Portuguese government to pay £941,511, less than half 
of what the claimants considered themselves entitled to. 

Meantime on the republican side a railway was being 
constructed from the Portuguese border at Komati Poort 
towards the heart of the country. In July 1895 this was 
completed and joined to the southern line through the 
Orange Free State and the Cape Colony, so that there is 
now unbroken communication between Capetown and 
Lourenco Marques. A large proportion of the commerce of 
the territory between the Vaal and the Limpopo finds its 
way to Delagoa Ba} T , and with the development of the gold 
fields during recent years, the traffic is as much as the line 
can carry. 

Lourenco Marques has thus become a place of considerable 
importance. A town of some size has sprung up, and is 
rapidly growing, though the death rate is exceedingly high. 
It is believed, however, that with the drainage of a great 
marsh adjoining it the place will become less unhealthy. 
The means of landing and shipping goods with facility 



Condition of the Interior. 153 

are being provided, and a lighthouse at the entrance to the 
harbour has been built. The residents of the town are of 
various nationalities, a large proportion being English and 
Germans. There is no commerce of any consequence with 
the surrounding territory, which is, as of old, in possession 
of Bantu clans, the existence of Lourenco Marques as a town 
being due solely and entirely to the transit of merchandise 
and passengers between the shipping and the railway to 
the interior. Yet it is to-clay much the most important 
place in the Portuguese possessions in South-Eastern Africa. 

Next to it comes Beira, a town unknown a quarter of a 
century ago, and which sprang into being as the ocean 
terminus of a road from a settlement — not Portuguese — in 
the interior. Beira is at the mouth of the Pungwe river, 
not far north of Sofala. It has an excellent harbour, 
capacious, with good depth of water, and easy of access. 
The Arabs had once a small settlement there, but the 
Portuguese never occupied the place in olden times, and 
when the Asiatics retired, it fell into such decay that for 
more than three centuries it was almost forgotten. 

Owing to negotiations with Germany and France relative 
to the partitioning of the continent, in 1887 Portugal 
advanced a claim to the whole territory between Angola and 
Mozambique down to the South African Republic, but Great 
Britain immediately announced that her sovereignty would 
not be recognised in places not occupied by a sufficient force 
to maintain order. There were no Portuguese at all at that 
time on the highlands north of the Limpopo, nor had a 
single individual of that nation, as far as is known, even 
visited the clans there within the preceding century. The 
Matabele chief Moselekatse had conquered the greater part of 
the country in 1838 and subsequent years, had slaughtered 
most of its inhabitants, and ruled over the others with a 
ferocity unknown except among African tribes. The border 
of the Matabele raids on one side was the border of the 
Matshangana raids on the other, and Lobengula, son and 
successor of Moselekatse, was the recognised lord of the 



154 The Portuguese Possessions. 

interior plateau from the Limpopo to the Zambesi, ac- 
knowledging or pretending to acknowledge no superior. 
Gungunyana, son of Umzila and grandson of Manikusa, was 
the real lord of nearly all the territory between the edge of 
the interior plateau and the sea, and though the Portuguese 
claimed him as a subject, he was to all intents and purposes 
independent of control. 

This condition of things was indisputable, yet the intense 
jealousy of many Portuguese was aroused when early in 1888 
an agreement was made by a British commissioner with 
Lobengula, in which that chief bound himself to refrain 
from entering into correspondence or concluding a treaty 
with any other state or power, and the territory governed 
by him was declared to be within the British sphere of 
influence. That they had never occupied the country, and 
never could occupy it, was not taken into consideration, it 
was the background of a line of coast which their navigators 
had first discovered and along which they had military and 
trading stations, and that was sufficient in their opinion to 
justify their claim to it. 

Negotiations were opened between the governments of 
Great Britain and Portugal, but while they were proceeding 
subjects of both countries were busy securing rights from 
Bantu rulers. Two Portuguese — Colonel Joaquim Carlos 
Paiva d'Andrada and Lieutenant Cordon — with some black 
troops visited various petty chiefs, and induced them to 
accept flags and in some instances to allow a few of the 
so-called soldiers to be stationed at their kraals. At the 
same time several energetic Englishmen obtained from the 
Matabele chief various concessions, which were united in 
the hands of one strong company, to which on the 29th 
of October 1889 a royal charter was granted. 

In August 1890 an agreement was entered into by the 
governments of Great Britain and Portugal, in which the 
eastern limits of the British South Africa Chartered Com- 
pany's territory were defined, but it was not ratified by the 
cortes, though it served as a basis for a temporary under- 



1890] Position of Umtasa. 155 

standing between all the parties whose interests or whose 
passions were involved. At this time a strong body of men, 
fitted out by the Chartered Company, was on the way from 
the Cape Colony to the northern territory, and on the 11th 
of September 1890 reached the site of the present town of 
Salisbury, where the British flag was formally hoisted and 
the country taken in possession in the name of the queen. 

On the way up the pioneer expedition had constructed 
forts at Tuli, Victoria, and Charter. From Charter the 
company's administrator, Mr. Archibald Colquhoun, with Mr. 
Frederick Courteney Selous and a small escort, travelled 
eastward to the kraal of Umtasa, the principal chief of the 
Manika country. With this chief, on the 14th of September, 
an arrangement was made, by which he placed himself under 
the protection of the British South Africa Company, to whom 
he granted a concession of mineral and other rights in his 
country. He declared that he was not, and never had been, 
under subjection or vassalage to the Portuguese government, 
but that a trading station had with his consent been 
established by the Mozambique Company in 1888 at a place 
called Andrada in the Masikesi district, some thirty-two 
kilometres to the south-east, and he knew that an agent of 
this company — Joao de Rezende by name — was residing 
there. A policeman and a black interpreter were left with 
Umtasa to represent the British South Africa Company, and 
Mr. Colquhoun then rejoined the pioneers at Salisbury. 

Mr. Selous rode over to Masikesi to visit the Portuguese 
station, and on the way met two officers with a party of 
black attendants, who were bearers of a protest against the 
arrangement just made with Umtasa, and who claimed a vast 
extent of territory to the westward as being in the 
dominions of their sovereign. In that territory not a 
single Portuguese was then resident, and there were not ten 
individuals of that nation in the whole of Manika. 

That they had a special claim upon the allegiance of 
Umtasa, resting chiefly upon the position in which he stood 
to a man named Gouveia, was afterwards brought forward. 



156 The Portuguese Possessions. [1890 

This Gouveia, or Manuel Antonio de Sousa as he was called 
by the Portuguese, was a native of Goa who had settled in 
Africa shortly after the middle of the century. He was a 
man of considerable force of character, and had performed 
services of great importance for the crown. Having obtained 
a prazo, he armed and trained his dependents upon it, and 
then acted like a powerful feudal lord in mediaeval times in 
Europe, being in matters affecting his retainers and in dis- 
putes with his neighbours almost, if not quite, independent, 
though in everything else acknowledging the supremacy of 
the Portuguese government. 

He went to the aid of the people of Sena, drove away 
their Matshangana oppressors, and released them from the 
ignominy of paying tribute. He recovered much of the 
territory that had formerly been prazos and that had been 
overrun by the subjects of Manikusa. Services so eminent 
were warmly acknowledged b} 7 the governor - general at 
Mozambique and by the authorities in Lisbon, and Gouveia 
was appointed chief captain of a great district and had the 
honorary title of colonel conferred upon him. For twenty 
years the body of men that he commanded, consisting 
entirely of his black dependents, was almost the only 
military force employed by the Portuguese in South-Eastern 
Africa at a distance from their stations. Under these 
circumstances war could not be conducted as if the com- 
batants were European soldiers, and Gouveia's reputation 
among his neighbours was rather that of a daring and 
successful freebooter than of an official of a civilised 
government. 

In 1873 the chief of the largest clan in Manika died, and 
there was a quarrel concerning the succession. One of the 
claimants was Umtasa, but he was defeated in battle and 
driven away. This was just such an opportunity as Gouveia 
was wont to take advantage of, so he went to the aid of 
Umtasa, whom he succeeded in establishing firmly in the 
chieftainship as a vassal of his own. At the same time, 
however, Umtasa necessarily became a dependent of Umzila, 



1890] Position of Umtasa. 157 

who was paramount over all the Bantu in that region. 
Thus he had two overlords, which meant that two indi- 
viduals more powerful than himself claimed and exercised the 
right of levying tribute from him and his people at any 
time. And as both of these overlords were regarded as 
Portuguese subjects, it followed that he also was in the 
same position. 

In addition to this he had been invested with the office of 
chief by the commandant of Sena, and had received the 
appointment of sergeant-major of Manika. Further, in 
February 1888 Colonel D'Andrada had hoisted the Portuguese 
flag at his kraal, and had left the flag in his keeping. On 
all these grounds, the Portuguese authorities claimed Umtasa 
as a subject and the district occupied by his people as part 
of the dominions of their crown. 

The British South Africa Company's officers, on the other 
hand, declined to take any notice of the Portuguese claim, 
because it was evident Umtasa himself did not recognise it, 
and because those who made it had no means of maintaining 
order or protecting life and property, the essential duties of 
sovereignty. They did not admit that Gouveia's followers 
constituted a force such as a civilised government had a 
right to employ. 

In October a report reached Salisbury that Colonel 
D'Andrada and Gouveia with a band of followers were on 
the way from the east towards Umtasa's kraal. Mr. Colqu- 
houn at once sent a few policemen to support the chief, and 
soon afterwards increased the number to thirty and directed 
Captain Patrick William Forbes to take command. Captain 
Forbes arrived at Umtasa's kraal on the 5th of November, 
and formed a temporary camp at a short distance from it. 
He then sent a messenger to Masikesi, where Colonel 
D'Andrada and Gouveia then were, with a protest against 
their proceeding farther with an armed force. 

Colonel D'Andrada had no wish to precipitate matters. He 
was a highly educated and amiable man, who had resided 
ten or twelve years in South Africa, where he had held 



158 The Portuguese Possessions. [1890 

various offices under the government, besides being the 
occupant of a prazo at the mouth of the Zambesi. He 
knew perfectly well that any force which he and Gouveia 
could bring into the field would be unable to meet the 
British South Africa Company's police in battle. Besides he 
was a director of the Mozambique Company, and his interests 
were all on the side of peace. But he was also a Portuguese 
colonel of artillery, and his pride and patriotism revolted 
against being turned away from a place that he had more 
than once visited before, and that he regarded as Portuguese 
territory. His ostensible mission was to open a road to the 
interior from the head navigable water of the Pungwe and 
to arrange matters in connection with the exploitation of 
some mines, in the interests of his company. He resolved 
therefore to proceed on his journey. On the 8th of November 
Gouveia arrived at Umtasa's kraal, and was followed shortly 
afterwards by Colonel D'Andrada and Joao de Rezende, when 
their whole following amounted to between two and three 
hundred men, including palanquin-bearers, carriers, and 
personal attendants. 

Captain Forbes now resolved upon decisive action. On the 
14th of November with twelve troopers of his police he 
entered Umtasa's kraal, and arrested Gouveia and the two 
Portuguese gentlemen, who had just retired from an interview 
with the chief. The blacks looked on with approbation, and 
were ready to assist if that had been necessary. Gouveia's 
men were encamped under some trees several hundred metres 
away, where they were surprised by the remainder of the 
British police, and were disarmed before they could make any 
arrangement for resistance. De Rezende was permitted to 
return to Masikesi, but Colonel D'Andrada and Gouveia were 
sent as prisoners to Salisbury, and left that place under 
escort for Capetown. At Tuli, on the way, they met Dr. 
L. S. Jameson going up to assume the administration of 
the British Chartered Company's territory, and by him 
were released from further restraint. From Capetown 
Gouveia proceeded to Mozambique by steamer, and Colonel 



1 891] Defeat of Portuguese Volunteers. 159 

D'Andrada took passage to Portugal to lay the matter before 
his government. 

After the arrest of their leader and the seizure of their 
arms, Gouveia's men fled homeward, and to prevent the 
Mozambique Company's trading station at Andrada in 
Masikesi from being plundered, Captain Forbes placed a 
temporary guard there. He then proceeded to visit various 
chiefs living between the Busi and Pungwe rivers, 
with whom he entered into friendly arrangements, his object 
being to secure a road to the coast at Beira, a place which 
the Mozambique Company had recently made use of as a 
harbour. 

There was great excitement in Portugal when intelligence 
of the events at Umtasa's kraal reached tbat country. Bands 
of students pressed forward as volunteers to defend the 
honour of their flag, and were sent with all haste to Beira. 
It seemed as if the ancient spirit of the people of the little 
kingdom had revived, and that they were ready to proceed 
to the last extremity in an attempt to get nominal possession 
of a territory that could be of no use whatever to them. 
The government, however, was not so far carried away with 
the prevailing excitement as to cease negotiations for a 
friendly settlement with the British authorities. 

Upon the arrival of the first party of volunteers at Beira, 
they were sent forward with some negroes from Angola, under 
command of Major Cardas Xavier, to occupy Andrada. They 
arrived at that station on the 5th of May 1891. Not far 
distant was a camp of the British South Africa Company's 
police, fifty-three in number, commanded by Captain Heyman. 
On the 11th of May a Portuguese force, consisting of 
about a hundred Europeans and three or four hundred 
Angola blacks, was sent out to make a reconnaissance, and 
at two in the afternoon fell in with the English pickets, who 
retired upon the camp. The Portuguese followed, and an 
action was brought on, which resulted in their total defeat, 
with a heavy loss in killed and wounded. There were no 
casualties on the British side. Umtasa and his followers 



160 The Portuguese Possessions. [1891 

watched the engagement from the top of a hill out of range 
of the shot, and expressed great satisfaction with the result, 
though probably they would have done the same if the 
position of the combatants had been reversed. 

The whole Portuguese force now fled precipitately to the 
seacoast, abandoning Andrada, which the British Chartered 
Company's men occupied on the following day. They found 
there some stores, of which they took possession as lawful 
spoil of war, but the most valuable part of the booty con- 
sisted of eleven machine guns that had been left behind. 

Meantime the negotiations between the two governments 
in Europe had been brought nearly to a close, and when 
intelligence of the collision arrived, they were quickly 
completed. On the 11th of June 1891 a treaty was signed 
at Lisbon, in which the boundary between the British and 
Portuguese possessions south of the Zambesi was declared to 
be a line starting from a point opposite the mouth of the 
river Aroangwa or Loangwa, running directly southward as 
far as the sixteenth parallel of south latitude, following that 
parallel to its intersection with the thirty-first degree of 
longitude east of Greenwich, thence running eastward direct 
to the point where the river Mazoe is intersected by the 
thirty-third degree of longitude east of Greenwich, following 
that degree southward to its intersection by the parallel of 
south latitude of 18° 30', thence following the upper part of 
the eastern slope of the Manika plateau southward to the 
centre of the main channel of the Sabi, following that 
channel to its confluence with the Lunte, and thence striking 
direct to the north-eastern point of the frontier of the South 
African Republic. It was agreed that in tracing the frontier 
along the slope of the plateau, no territory west of longitude 
32° 30' east of Greenwich should be comprised in the Portu- 
guese sphere, and no territory east of longitude 33° east of 
Greenwich should be comprised in the British sphere, except 
that the line should, if necessary, be deflected so as to leave 
Umtasa's kraal in the British sphere and Masikesi in the 
Portuguese sphere. 



1 891] Treaty defining Boundaries. x 6i 

The treaty provided further that in the event of either of 
the powers proposing to part with any territory south of the 
Zambesi assigned to its sphere of influence, the other should 
have a preferential right to the territory in question, or any 
portion of it, upon similar terms. 

It provided for the transit of goods across the Portuguese 
territory during the following twenty-five years upon pay- 
ment of a duty not exceeding three per cent of their value, 
for the free navigation of the Zambesi, for the construction 
of lines of telegraph, and for facilitating transit of persons 
and goods of every description over the waterways of the 
various rivers and over the landways which supply means of 
communication where the rivers are not navigable. 

A very important clause provided for the immediate 
survey and speedy construction of a railroad between the 
British sphere of influence and the navigable water of the 
Pungwe river, and for encouraging commerce by that route. 

And now, for the first time, the Portuguese territory in 
South Africa was properly defined on all sides, and was 
secured from invasion by tribes beyond its border. It 
contained as great an area as its owners could by any 
possibility make beneficial use of, and as many Bantu as 
they had sufficient power to control. It would not have 
been to their advantage if the boundary had been laid down 
farther westward. They could not colonise any of the land 
beyond it, and without colonisation on a large scale an 
addition of territory would have implied nothing more than 
additional expense and additional responsibility. Now, with 
ample scope for their commercial enterprise, with an assured 
revenue, and with two flourishing seaports — Lourenco 
Marques and Beira — in their possession, their prospects were 
brighter than ever before. This they owed to the settle- 
ment of other Europeans on the highlands away from the 
coast, and their pride, which was wounded by seeing the 
vast interior of the continent in other hands, might be 
soothed by the reflection. In accordance with the terms of 
the treaty, a railroad was constructed between Beira and 

vol. v. m 



162 The Portuguese Possessions. [1899 

Salisbury, through Umtali, the British town nearest the 
border. The capital was furnished by the British South 
Africa and Mozambique companies, the former contributing 
rather more than the latter. Since it was opened for use 
a railway has been constructed from Salisbury to the border 
of the Cape Colony, where it joins the great northern line 
with branches from Capetown, Port Elizabeth, and East 
London, so that there is now unbroken communication 
between Beira and those places. Beira is built on a tongue 
of sand extending into the Pungwe river. The site is the 
healthiest on that part of the coast, but the flat country 
stretching away behind is a hotbed of fever. The town 
has advanced with rapid strides, and is now a place of 
considerable importance. 

The whole of Portuguese South Africa between the Zam- 
besi and Sabi rivers, except the district of which Tete is the 
centre, is now ruled by the Mozambique Company. This 
company was formed in 1888 as a mining corporation, the 
acquisition of the gold-fields of Manika being the inducement 
to the shareholders to subscribe the capital. On the 11th 
of February 1891, however, the company obtained a royal 
charter, which conferred upon it large administrative powers. 
The charter was followed on the 30th of July by a royal 
decree, and on the 28th of December of the same year by 
the publication of statutes, which documents combined form 
the present constitution. The company has a monopoly of 
all mineral and commercial rights, which it may lease in 
detail to associations or individuals, it is under an obliga- 
tion to introduce a limited number of colonists, and it has 
taxing and governing powers subject to the supreme 
authorities at Lisbon. 

The chief official of the Mozambique Company in the 
territory between the Zambesi and Sabi rivers has the title 
of governor, and resides at Beira. The country is divided 
into districts, over each of which a commissioner, subor- 
dinate to the governor, presides. The officers who administer 
justice are appointed by the supreme government, and are 



1899] Condition of the Country. 163 

not subject to the Chartered Company, but to the governor- 
general at Mozambique. There are courts at Beira, Sena, 
Andrada, Sofala, Tshiloane, Gouveia, and Tshupanga. Sena 
and Sofala have not recovered their old importance, small as 
that was, and are now insignificant places compared with 
Beira. Andrada and Tshiloane have been described. Gouveia 
and Tshupanga, recently the centres of prazos, can hardly yet 
be dignified with the name of hamlets. The last-named — 
Tshupanga — on the southern bank of the Zambesi, is well 
known to English readers as the burial place of Mrs. 
Livingstone, wife of the celebrated explorer, and of Mr. 
Kilpatrick, a member of the surveying expedition under 
Captain Owen. It is one of the most beautiful localities 
in a land that abounds with charming scenery, but the 
deadly fever must for ever prevent it from becoming a 
place of note. 

The old system of giving out great tracts of country as 
prazos has been abolished, unless the whole territory be 
regarded as one great prazo in possession of the Chartered 
Mozambique Company. By that company unoccupied 
ground is now allotted for agricultural purposes on quit- 
rent tenure, but no area larger than five thousand English 
acres can be held by any individual or association. Occupa- 
tion of ground and mining are open to people of all 
nationalities, upon condition of their submission to the 
laws of the country. 

The tract of land between the Limpopo and Manisa rivers, 
from the inland border to the sea, is held by another com- 
pany under a concession from the crown, dated 16th of 
November 1893, but nothing of consequence has yet been 
done to develop its resources. 

Inhambane, the port of the territory between the Limpopo 
and the Sabi, has made some progress of late years, though 
as it is dependent upon trade with the Bantu only, it is 
far less important than either Lourenco Marques or Beira. 
The village consists of a church and a few houses and 
shops. 



164 The Porhiguese Possessions. 

There remains the territory of which Tete is the seat of 
government, between the Zambesi and the Anglo-Portuguese 
border west of the Mozambique Company's district. Early 
in the nineteenth century the greater number of the prazos 
there were almost denuded of people, so many were sent 
away as slaves to Brazil. Washing for gold ceased, and the 
larger part of the territory reverted to the condition in which 
it was when white people first saw it. The village of Tete 
sank to be a mere depot of the ivory trade. 

Thus long before 1844 Portuguese influence had been 
declining, and in that year it was completely lost by the 
insurrection of a Goanese half-breed named Joaquim Jose' da 
Cruz, commonly called Nyaude, who was the holder of an 
extensive prazo. This man armed and trained some four 
hundred black dependents, and then built a strong stockade 
at the confluence of the Luenya with the Zambesi, from 
which he exacted tribute upon all commerce passing up 
and down. Two of the neighbouring chiefs were induced 
by the authorities of Tete to attack him, but were repulsed, 
and their people were exterminated by him as a warning to 
others. 

Nyaude then sent a division of his force, under his son 
Bonga, or as called by the Portuguese Antonio Vicente da 
Cruz, against Tete, when the village was plundered and 
most of the buildings burned. The church and a few houses 
were spared, and the fort, into which the inhabitants retired, 
was not taken. In the following year, 1854, two hundred 
men were sent from Lisbon to suppress the revolt, but after 
suffering from hunger, fever, and other forms of misery, 
they were defeated by Bonga, and those who remained alive 
were obliged to retreat. 

In 1855 an amnesty was offered to Nyaude, but he 
declined to accept it, and continued his career of robbery. 
The unfortunate inhabitants of Tete were reduced to great 
distress, but nothing could be done to relieve them, and no 
shadow of Portuguese authority remained beyond the range 
of the guns of the fort. 



Insurrection of Bonga. 165 

A few years later Nyaude died, and was succeeded by his 
son Bonga. Efforts were made to conciliate the new chief, 
who was appointed sergeant - major of Masangano, but he 
would not desist from plundering far and near, nor submit 
to control of any kind. Early in 1867 he massacred a 
number of people, and then a force eigbt hundred strong 
was raised at Mozambique and sent against him. On the 
6th of August this force, when close to the stockade, was 
attacked by the robber captain, and was defeated with 
great slaughter. Two other expeditions sent against him in 
the same year also failed. 

In 1869 Portugal made another effort to recover her 
authority. A hundred artillerymen and four hundred 
fusileers, well equipped with war material, were sent from 
Lisbon, and were joined by three hundred and fifty soldiers 
from Goa and as many Africans as could be enlisted and 
armed along the Zambesi. But the campaign was so badly 
conducted that the men were suffering from want of food 
before they reached the scene of action, and the military 
movements were carried on with the utmost vacillation and 
want of skill. Bonga's stockade was bombarded with 
artillery for three days without a breach being effected, and 
the army was so unskilfully distributed that the best section 
of it was surprised and annihilated by the rebel. The 
failure of the expedition was complete, and those who 
escaped slaughter were few. 

From that time until 1888 Bonga's power — the power of 
an audacious and merciless ruffian — was supreme. Then 
Gouveia took the matter in hand, and not the least of the 
services which he performed for his government was the 
capture of the stockade and the destruction or dispersion 
of the robber band. Arrangements with various chiefs 
along the river followed, and Portuguese influence was 
again restored. 

Tete has been rebuilt, and now contains the church which 
was spared when the village was plundered by Bonga and 
from twenty to thirty stone houses of European pattern, 



166 The Portuguese Possessions. [1899 

roofed with red tiles. It is protected by a small garrison of 
black troops with white officers, who occupy a quadrangular 
fort overlooking the river. The European residents, officials 
included, do not number more than twenty-five or thirty, 
for the commerce of the place is small. A Bantu town of 
ordinary huts stands close behind the European quarter. 
The government of Tete, as of all the Portuguese stations in 
South Africa except those under the administration of the 
Chartered Company, is military in form, and subordinate to 
the general authority at Mozambique. The Jesuits have 
recently established a mission among the Bantu here, and 
also at a station a few kilometres distant. There are 
extensive coal fields in the neighbourhood, and it is possible 
that, owing to them, the village may some day become a 
thriving place. 

Throughout the whole territory from the Zambesi to 
Lourenco Marques difficulties in controlling the Bantu have 
been experienced, but Portugal has opened her eyes to the 
fact that it is necessary to employ other and better forces 
than convicts and uncivilised negroes, and she has succeeded 
in establishing her authority fairly well. In a war with a 
chief named Makombi in 1892 Gouveia lost his life, but his 
opponents were subsequently vanquished. Then Umdungazwe, 
or Gungunyana as called by the Portuguese, son and 
successor of LTmzila, gave a great deal of trouble. He 
assumed an attitude of independence, and demanded that 
tribute should be paid to him by the Portuguese. This led 
to war in 1894, but after several engagements in which his 
army was defeated, on the 28th of December 1895 he was 
surprised by Captain Mousinho d'Albuquerque at Tshaimite 
while sacrificing to the spirit of his grandfather Manikusa, 
and was made a prisoner. Captain D'Albuquerque had 
made a very daring march with only fifty Portuguese 
soldiers from the camp Languene on the Limpopo, and had 
been joined on the way by a couple of thousand blacks who 
were enemies of the Matshangana. The surprise was so 
complete that no resistance was offered. Gungunyana was 



1899] Cotidition of the Country. 167 

taken to Lourenco Marques, and sent thence in a steamship * 
to Lisbon, where he was confined in a fort. Since that 
event the peace of the country has not been seriously 
disturbed. 

Lines of English and German steamships connect the 
various harbours with Europe by way of the Red sea, and 
with the British settlements of Natal and the Cape Colony. 
The commerce of the territory has made rapid progress. 
Unfortunately a large proportion of it is in the hands of 
Indian traders, a class of people who do not contribute to 
the strength of the country, nor improve it in any way. But 
in all other respects the prospects of Portuguese South 
Africa seem brighter now at the close of the nineteenth 
century than at any previous time since Pedro d'Anaya 
built the first fort on the river bank of Sofala. 

* She put into Table Bay on the passage, where through the courtesy 
of her officers the author of this volume was accorded an interview of 
some length with the prisoner, and learnt from him many particulars 
concerning the history of his tribe. He and his family were exceedingly 
well treated on board the Africa. After a short confinement in Portugal 
Gungunyana was sent to one of the possessions on the west coast, where 
he was set at large, and where he remained till his death in December 
1906. 



SYNOPTICAL INDEX. 

Abandonment 

by the Cape colonial government in 1864 of territory east of 
the Kei river, by order of the secretary of state for the 
colonies, iv 302 

Abandonment of the Orange River Sovereignty by Great Britain 
in 1854 : 
particulars concerning, m 349 et seq. 

Abasekunene, Bantu tribe : 
mention of, ii 110 

Abatetwa, Bantu tribe : see Dingiswayo 

A BE ON A, THE : 

is conveying passengers to South Africa when she is destroyed 
by fire and many lives are lost, i 358 

Abercrombie Robinson, British transport : 

on the 28th of August 1842 is wrecked in Table Bay, ii 229 

Aberdeen, earl of : 

from December 1834 to April 1835 is secretary of state for the 
colonies, ii 141 

Abraham Kok : see Kok 

Abraham Zwartbooi : see Zwartbooi 

Adam Kok : see Kok 

Adams, Dr., of the American board t 

in February 1836 assists in founding the first mission station 
in Natal, ii 348 ; in April 1838 is obliged to abandon that 
country to save his life, ii 374 ; in June 1839 returns and 
resumes work at the Umlazi station, ii 399 ; endeavours to 
introduce cotton planting in Natal, in 259 

Adamson, Rev. Dr. James : 

in November 1827 arrives in South Africa as minister of the 
Scotoh church in Capetown, ii 17; in July 1875 dies 



170 History of South Africa. 

Adderley, Right Hon. C. B., a member of the house of 

COMMONS : 

aids the Cape colonists in the struggle against the introduction 
of convicts, Hi 82 ; on the 9th of May 1854 endeavours in 
vain to induce the house of commons to prevent the abandon- 
ment of the Orange River Sovereignty, Hi 369 

Adderley street, Capetown : 

is the old Heeregracht renamed, Hi 83 

Administration of justice in the Cape Colony: 
particulars concerning, i 319 

Administration of the early government of Natal: 
simplicity of the, Hi 230 

Africaine, frigate : 

gallant defence of the, i 243 

Afrikaner, Hottentot captain : 

in 1793 drifts into war with all his neighbours, t 65 ; and at 
length becomes the leader of a formidable band of robbers, 
whose strongholds are on islands in the Orange river, ib. ; in 
1799 expeditions are sent against him without success, * C6 ; 
in 1800 he declines an offer of pardon by the governor on 
condition of living honestly in future, ib. ; in 1802 is un- 
successfully attacked by a party under Adam Kok, * 102 ; 
but after this date confines his attacks chiefly to people 
beyond the colonial border, i 66 ; in his old age he leads a 
reformed life, but his son Jonker continues the career of a 
marauder, ii 26 

Agent for the Cape Colony in England : 
particulars concerning, ii 46 

Agricultural department of the Cape government : 

in September 1800 is established, i 74 ; but is a failure, i 78 

Agriculture : 

extent of ground used for in 1865 in the Cape Colony, iv <*3 

Albania, or the district between the Orange river and the 
Vetberg line : 
from 1855 to 1871 is under the government of the Griqua captain 
Nicholas Waterboer, iv 336 ; before 1870 is partly occupied 
by Europeans, iv 337 



Synoptical Index. 171 

Albany, district in the cape province : 

in January 1814 the tract of land previously called the Zuurveld 
is named Albany, i 266 ; in October 1820 it is formed into a 
district with its own landdrost, to have effect from May 1821, 
i 359 ; condition in 1834 of, ii 83 

Albany levy : 

in April 1823 the force so called is organised, i 385 ; in March 
1825 is disbanded, ii 85 

Albasini, Joao, a resident in the Zoutpansberg district of the 
South African Republic : 
particulars concerning, iv 4,11 ; is regarded by the refugee Mag- 
wamba in the district of Zoutpansberg as their head, iv 476 ; 
is vice consul for Portugal, and superintendent of all the blacks 
in the district of Zoutpansberg under the government of the 
South African Republic, iv 4t.ll ; in 1864 gives protection to the 
fugitive chief Tabana, iv 478 ; gives a location to the refugee 
chief Umzila, iv 479 ; in 1864 refuses to appear before the land- 
drost's court at Schoemansdal to answer a charge brought against 
him by a turbulent refugee named Monene, iv 480 ; upon 
Monene's subsequently being placed in custody for committing an 
offence, and making his escape, sends in pursuit of the fugitive 
a party of Knobnoses who commit great atrocities, iv 481 ; is 
dismissed from the service of the South African Republic, iv 
489 

Albert, division in the Cape province : 
in January 1848 is created, Hi 70 

Alberti, Captain Lodewyk : 

in April 1804 is appointed acting landdrost of Uitenhage, i 151 ; 
in April 1806 is succeeded by Captain Jacob Glen Cuyler, t 212 

Albertyn, Rev. P. K. : 

in August 1844 becomes the first resident clergyman of Prince 
Albert, ii 220 ; at the end of 1847 goes on a mission to the 
emigrants north of the Orange, Hi 296 

Albinos among Bantu : 
mention of, ii 278 

d' Albuquerque, Captain Mousinho, Portuguese officer: 

in December 1895 by a daring maroh captures the rebel chief 
Gungunyana, v 166 

Alexander, Henry : 

in November 1808 becomes colonial secretary, i 271 ; in May 
1818 dies, i 413 



172 History of South Africa. 

Alexander, Captain James Edward : 

in 1837 sends some specimens of copper ore from Little Namaqua- 
land to Capetown, Hi 84 

Alexandria, district in the Cape province : 
in January 1856 is created, w 148 

Alfred County : 

in 1865 is annexed to Natal, iv 166 ; on the 1st of January 1866 
the British flag is formally hoisted, m 239 

Algoa Bay : 

account of shipwrecks in October 1859 and September 18C9 at, 
iv 105 ; failure of efforts to improve the port, Hi 169 ; see 
Port Elizabeth 

Alice, village in the Cape province : 

in January 1847 receives its name, Hi 43 ; previous owners of 
the ground on which it is built, ib. ; in December 1847 is 
made the seat of magistracy of Victoria East, in 67 

Aling, Rev. R. A. : 

in May 1800 dies, i 104 

Aliwal North, village in the Cape province: 
in May 1849 is founded, Hi 70 

Aliwal North, district of : 

in July 1855 is created, m 148 

Aliwal North : 

treaties of: see Treaties 

Amabaca, Bantu tribe : see Baca 

Amabels, Bantu tribe : 
mention of, t» 110 

Amahlubi, Bantu tribe : 

particulars concerning, i 439 ; genealogical table of the ohiefs, i 
440 ; see Bangazita, Fingos, Langalibalele, Ludidi, and Zibi 

Amaewabi, Bantu tribe : 
career of, i 451 

Amampondo, Bantu tribe : see Pondo 

Amampondomsi, Bantu tribe : see Pondomei 

Amangwane, Bantu tribe : 

career of the, » 439 ; see Matiwane 

|Amaqua tribe of Hottentots : 
particulars concerning, v 95 



Synoptical Index, 173 

Amaswazi, Bantu tribe : see Swazis 

Amatola mountains : 

description of the country along the, ii 106 

Amatuli, Bantu tribe : 

a wretched remnant is found at Port Natal in 1824 by some 
Englishmen who settle there, ii 327 

Amazizi, Bantu tribe : 
mention of, ii 110 

Amazulu, Bantu tribe : see Dingana, Ketshwayo, Panda, and Tshaka 

American board of foreign missions : 
particulars concerning, Hi 233 

American missionaries : 

in 1835 arrive in South Africa, ii 348 ; particulars concerning their 
work in Natal, ii 461 ; see Adams, Champion, Grout, Lindley, 
Venable, and Wilson 

Amraal, chief of the GeiHkhauas, Hottentot tribe in Great 
namaqu aland : 
in 1865 dies, v 94 

Amsterdam, Dutch ship-of-war : 

on the 16th of December 1817 is run ashore in Algoa Bay, i 283 

Amsterdam flats, on the boeder of Algoa Bay : 

are named after a Dutch ship-of-war run ashore there, i 284 

Anderson, Rev. William : 

is the first missionary to the Griquas, t 100 ; labours devotedly 
among them, i 186 ; on account of dissensions among these 
people in 1820 he is obliged to leave them, ii 473 ; on the 
24th of September 1852 dies at Pacaltsdorp, ib. 

Andeesson, Charles J., Swedish naturalist and exploeer : 

assists the Hereros in their war of independence, and is severely 
wounded, v 98 

d'Andrada, Colonel Joaquim Carlos Paiva, Portuguese officer in 
Manika : 
transactions in 1890 of, v 154, 157, and 158 

d'Andrada, Onofee Loubenqo, captain of the Portuguese fort at 
Loueenqo Marques : 
in 1862 assists Umzila against his rival and in return obtains a 
cession of territory, v 147 

Andrews, Arthur Thomas : 

is the first resident engineer of the Table Bay harbour works, 
Hi 168 



174 History of South Africa. 

Andries Lambert, chief of the Gei|jkhauas, Hottentot captain in 
Great Namaqualand : 
particulars concerning, v 94, 102, and 112 

van Andringa, Watse Sibius : 

in July 1812 becomes landdrost of Stellenbosch, i 271 

Angloman faction in Capetown in 1803 : 
particulars concerning, i 120 

Angoni, Bantu horde : 

career of the, i 439 and v 137 

Angora goats : 

particulars concerning the introduction into South Africa of, ii 41 
and iv 12 

Angra Pequena, inlet on the coast of Great Namaqu aland : 

in December 1795 is taken possession of for Great Britain, i 25 

Annexation of British Kaffraria to the Cape Colony: 
particulars concerning, iv 23 to 26, 28, 37, and 70 to 75 

Annexation of the diamond fields to the British dominions : 
effect upon the blacks of, iv 397 

Anniversary of the arrival of the British settlers : 

in May 1870 the fiftieth is celebrated in Grahamstown, iv 110 

Anta, minor son of the Xosa chief Gaika: 

upon the death without heirs of Ntimbo, right-hand son of Umlawu, 
is chosen to be his successor, ii 51 ; takes part against the 
Cape Colony in the sixth Kaffir war, but on the 17th of September 
1835 agrees to become a British subject, ii 125 ; on the 5th 
of December 1836 is released from his allegiance to the queen 
by the Stockenstrom treaties, ii 150 ; on the 2nd of December 
1840 agrees to certain modifications of the treaty proposed by 
Sir George Napier, ii 187 ; in April 1846 assists in an invasion 
of the Cape Colony, Hi 8 ; a few months later professes a desire for 
peace and is permitted to settle on the eastern bank of the 
Keiskama, Hi 36 ; in August 1847 joins Sandile in resuming 
hostilities, Hi 51 ; but on the 19th of October is obliged to 
surrender, when he is sent to Grahamstown a prisoner, Hi 52 ; 
in December he is released by Sir Harry Smith, Hi 57 ; on 
the 7th of January 1848 takes an oath of allegiance to the 
queen of England, and has a tract of land in British Kaffraria 
assigned to him, Hi 61 ; on the 20th of December 1850 on 
account of his defiant conduct is proclaimed an outlaw, Hi 94 ; 
takes part against the colony in the war of 1850-52, Hi 100; 



Synoptical Index. 175 

on the 9th of March 1853 agrees to the terms of peace imposed 
upon him, Hi 114 ; declines at first to kill his cattle at the 
bidding of Umhlakaza, Hi 200 ; career of from 1857 to the 
forfeiture of his location and the removal of his retainers to 
the territory beyond the Kei, Hi 211 ; further mention of, iv 52 

Anthing, Louis : 

is sent by the Cape government as a special commissioner to the 
territory along the Hartebeest river, iv 30 ; in April 1863 sends 
in a report dealing with the Bushmen, iv 31 

Anti-Convict pledge : 

wording as first proposed, Hi 76 ; wording as finally adopted, 
Hi 77 

Aponda, chief of the Ovambanderu, Bantu clans in Hereeoland : 
mention of, v 102 and 105 

Appeals in criminal cases before the establishment or a 

SUPREME COURT IN THE CAPE COLONY : 

particulars concerning, i 219 

Apprenticeship of black children in the South African Republic : 
particulars concerning, in 439, and iv 464 

Arabs in East Africa : 
mention of, i 460 

Arbitration in 1872-5 between Great Britain and Portugal 
concerning the ownership of delagoa bay : 
account of, v 149 and 150 

Arbousset, Rev. Thomas, of the Paris evangelical society : 

in June 1833 with his colleagues founds the mission station 
Morij a in Basutoland, i 469 ; suffers severely in the war of 
1858 between the Orange Free State and the Basuto, Hi 479 

Archbell, Rev. Me. : 

in 1836 is Wesleyan missionary at Thaba Ntshu, and renders 
important service to the emigrant farmers, ii 294 ; in June 
1842 is a missionary in Durban, Natal, and conveys a flag of 
truce from Commandant- General Pretorius to Captain Smith, 
ii 426 

Arkcoll, Charles : 

in October 1851 is appointed a member of the legislative council 
of the Cape Colony, Hi 128 

Armstrong, a British settler : 

on the 21st of April 1835 when on military service beyond the 
Kei is killed by some Galekas, ii 111 



176 History of South Africa. 

Armstrong, Captain : 

at the commencement of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 induces the 
Hottentots at the Kat river to espouse the colonial side, ii 97 ; 
(Major) in April 1839 commands a division of the force sent 
against the emigrant Tembu chief Mapasa, ii 185 

Armstrong, the right reverend Dr. John : 

in November 1853 is created first English bishop of Grahamstown, 
Hi 144; on the 16th of May 1856 dies, ib. 

Arniston, English transport : 

on the 30th of May 1815 is wrecked on the South African coast, 
when three hundred and seventy-two lives are lost, i 283 

Arnold, E. : 

in June 1823 becomes teacher of the high school at Swellendam, 
i 372 

Arnot, David, agent and chief adviser of the Griqua captain 
Nicholas Waterboer : 
lays claim to the district of Campbell west of the Vaal river, 
iv 213 and 337 ; also to the territory east of the Vaal as far 
as a line from Ramah on the Orange via David's Graf to 
Platberg, iv 214 ; also to a large tract of land between the 
Vaal and Hart rivers, iv 346 ; in May 1869 at a meeting with 
a Free State commission at Swinkspan repudiates the Vetberg 
line, iv 338 ; in August 1870 conducts the case against the 
Orange Free State at the Nooitgedacht conference, iv 342 ; 
in April to June 1871 conducts the case for his client against 
the South African Republic before the arbitration court at 
Bloemhof in a most skilful manner, v 40 et seq. ; in 1864 acts 
as agent for the Batlapin, v 25 ; and in 1869, v 26 ; in 1873 
is elected representative of Hay in the legislative council of 
Griqualand West, iv 410 ; claims extensive tracts of land as 
private property granted to him by Nicholas Waterboer, iv 418 
and 419 ; is the most advanced imperialist in South Africa, iv 
422 ; further mention of, v 70 

Arrangements : 

for the protection of the eastern border of the Cape Colony made 
in 1817 by Lord Charles Somerset, i 325 

Arrowroot : 

cultivation of in Natal, Hi 261 ; see Exports, Hi 265 

Aspeling, Jan Gustaf : 

in January 1828 is appointed resident magistrate of Uitenbage, 
» 493 



Synoptical Index. 177 

Associations of various kinds in Natal: 
account of, Hi 262 

Astronomical observatory : 

in 1821 is established near Capetown, * 365 

Athens, Union Company's steamer : 

on the 17th of May 1865 is lost in Table Bay with all on board, 

iv 77 and 78 

Auckland, military village in the Tyumie valley, Cape Colony : 
in January 1848 is founded, Hi 68 ; on Christmas 1850 is destroyed 
by the Kaffirs, and its male occupants are murdered, Hi 97 

Auction duty : 

particulars concerning, i 3 

Austen, John : 

in May 1870 is appointed magistrate of the southern district of 
Basutoland, v 61 

Australian gold diggers : 

in 1869 arrive in Natal, v 9 

Ayliff, Rev. John, Wesleyan missionary: 

shortly after the commencement of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 retires 
from his station Butterworth to Clarkebury, where he is pro- 
tected by the Tembu regent Vadana, ii 109 ; in April 1835 
he leaves Clarkebury with a patrol sent to rescue the Europeans 
there, and moves with a body of Fingos to the district between 
the Fish and Keiskama rivers, ii 111 and 113 ; after the con- 
clusion of peace he remains at Fort Peddie as missionary with 
the Fingos, ii 131 

Ayliff, James : 

in January 1872 visits Nomansland on a commission, iv 68 and 
69 



Baatje, Carolus, captain of a clan of half-breeds : 

in December 1833 with his people is induced by Wesleyan mis- 
sionaries to settle at Platberg on the Caledon, i 481 ; complains 
of the injustice done to him by the treaty of 1843 between Sir 
George Napier and the Basuto chief Moshesh, ii 483 ; in June 
1846 assists Major Warden to disperse the adherents of Jan 
Kock, ii 500 ; in September 1850 assists the government of 
the Orange River Sovereignty against the Basuto, and by doing 
so brings much trouble upon his clan, Hi 315 

Bacas, remnant of a Bantu tribe : 
account of the, iv 63 ; see Ncapayi 
VOL. V. N 



178 History of South Africa. 

Badenhorst, L. : 

in June 1833 is appointed lancldrost of Port Natal, but only holds 
the office a few weeks, ii 377 

Bafokeng, Bantu tribe : 

mention of, i 429 and 447 

Bahtjkutsi, Bantu tribe : 

mention of, t 432, 467 } and 475 

Bailey, Dr. Samuel : 

in 1817 founds the old Somerset hospital in Capetown, i 365 

Bailie, Charles : 

on the 27th of June 1835 is killed near Pirie mission station, 

ii 121 

Bailie, John : 

in 1820 brings a party of British settlers to the Cape Colony, 
% 351 ; particulars concerning his after life, ii 122 

Bain, Andrew Geddes : 

in 1826 visits the country of the Betshuana, i 474 and 476 ; 
after the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is for a short time owner of 
the site of the present village of Alice, in 43 ; in 1835 explores 
the territory along the upper Limpopo, and is pillaged by the 
Matabele, ii 287 ; superintends the making of the queen's road 
between Grahamstown and Fort Beaufort in the Cape province, 
ii 198 

Bain, Andeew Hudson : 

on the 29th of December 1851 becomes a member of the legis- 
lative council of the Orange River Sovereignty, Hi 313 

Bain's kloof: 

in September 1853 a good road is opened through this kloof in 
the Drakenstein mountains, Hi 144 

Baines, Thomas, artist and explorer : 

is for some time engaged as an agent for a gold mining company, 
v 11 ; on the 8th of May 1875 dies at Durban, v 12 

Baird, Major-General David : 

after serving some time in South Africa, in November 1798 pro- 
ceeds from the Cape to India, i 46 ; war having been renewed 
in 1803 between Great Britain and the Batavian Republic, in 
1805 he is sent with a strong army to seize the Cape Colony, 
* 192 ; previous services of this officer, ib. ; on the 4th of 
January 1806 he arrives at the entrance to Table Bay, i 194 ; 
on the 6th and 7th lands his army on the coast opposite 



Synoptical Index. 179 

Robben Island, * 195 ; on the 8th meets and repels the Dutch 
force under General Janssens, i 197 ; on the 10th receives 
possession of Capetown by capitulation, i 201 ; on the 18th 
arranges with General Janssens for the capitulation of the 
remnant of the Dutch army, * 204 ; from the date of the 
surrender of Capetown to the 17th of January 1807 is acting 
governor of the Cape Colony, i 209 ; on the 18th of January 
1807 embarks for England, i 218 

Bakalahari, Bantu whose home is in the Kalahari desert: 
mention of, i 432 

Bakolokwe clan of Bantu : 

history of, Hi 450 ; see Witsi 

Bakwena, Bantu tribe : 

account of, * 432, 467, 475, and 476 ; v 83 and 84 ; see Setsheli 

Balala, remnants of Bantu tribes living in a servile condition 
among the betshuana : 
mention of, i 432 

Balfour, hamlet on the Kat river in the Cape province : 
in March 1828 receives its name, ii 10 

Ballot, Rev. H. W. : 

in August 1797 arrives in South Africa, and in February 1798 
becomes clergyman of Graaff-Reinet, t 41 ; in April 1802 is 
transferred to Swellendam, % 104 ; in May 1803 is transferred 
to Tulbagh, i 155 ; in January 1814 dies, * 269 

Ballot, Rev. J. S. S. : 

on the 31st of May 1827 is appointed clergyman of George 

Bamangwato, Bantu teibe : 

history of the, v 13 to 15 and 84 and 85 

Bamonaheng, Bantu tbibe : 
mention of, i 429 

Bamorara, Bantu tbibe : 
mention of, i 430 

Bangwaketse, Bantu tribe : 

in 1808 is first visited by Europeans, i 228 ; account of the 
tribe, * 473 and v 82 and 83 ; see Makaba 

Bank of discount : 

in 1808 is established in Capetown, i 245 

Bank notes duty : 

in 1864 is first imposed in the Cape Colony, iv 35 



180 History of South Africa, 

Banks : 

number of in the Cape Colony in 1854, Hi 144 

Banks in Natal: 

particulars concerning, iv 171 

Bantu in South Africa: 

enumeration of the coast tribes at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, i 428 ; enumeration of the mountain tribes or those 
living along the western side of the Kathlamba at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, i 429 ; account of intertribal wars 
originating with the Zulu chief Tshaka, i 439 et seq. ; mode of 
formation of various tribes, i 460 ; method of expansion of the 
Bantu in Africa, i 488 ; enlargement during the wars of Tshaka 
of the area occupied by the Bantu, i 487 and 488 ; particulars 
concerning these people, i 457 et seq. ; their constant extension 
southward, ii 128 ; condition of those in Natal in 1837, 
ii 350 ; classification of those in Natal, in 229 ; instances 
of superstition of, Hi 242, 416, and 479, and iv 252 ; descrip- 
tion of a wedding feast, Hi 242 ; condition of those in Natal 
before 1849, in 233 ; and after that date, Hi 234 ; influx of 
Bantu refugees into Natal, Hi 235 ; estimate of their number 
in Natal in 1857, Hi 246 ; impossibility of obtaining constant 
or reliable labourers from the Bantu in Natal, Hi 260 and 261 ; 
causes of discontent among those north of the Vaal in 1850-60, 
Hi 405 ; condition of the tribes between the Limpopo and the 
Zambesi in 1854, in 411 ; number in the Cape Colony in 1865, 
iv 42 ; characteristics of, iv 51 ; particulars concerning those 
in Natal, iv 166 et seq. ; laws of the South African Republic 
concerning, iv 455 ; land is held by them in the South African 
Republic on the tenure of quitrent farms, iv 474 ; in 1870 they 
are first required to pay taxes in money in the South African 
Republic, iv 500 ; they use iron extensively, v 2 ; instances 
of their religious belief, v 7, 58, and 166 ; under extreme 
circumstances they practise cannibalism, iv 309 ; custom on the 
death of a great chief, v 64; other customs of, v 76 and 77; 
views regarding truth, v 59 ; normal condition of those in a 
state of independence, iv 64 and 69 

Bapatsa, Bantu tribe : 

mention of, i 430, 442, and 445 ; see Sebetoane 

Bapedi, Bantu tribe : 

history of the, ii 505 ; see Sekwati 



Synoptical Index. 181 

Baptista, Pedro Joao, a black trader ; 

in 1806-11 crosses the African continent from Angola to Tete, 
v 144 

Baputi tribe : 

account of the, i 429 and 464 ; see Mokuane and Morosi 

Baramokhele, Bantu tribe : 
mention of, i 429 

Barend Barends, captain of a roving band of mixed half-breeds 
and Hottentots : 
in 1803 is induced by missionaries of the London society to settle 
in the country near the junction of the Vaal and Orange rivers, 
t 271 ; in 1820 moves away from Griquatown and sets up an 
independent government at Daniel's Kuil, ii 473 ; subsequently 
moves to Boetsap and settles there, ib. ; in June 1823 assists 
to defeat the Mantati horde, i 444 ; in July 1S31 loses nearly 
the whole of his fighting men in a marauding expedition against 
the Matabele, » 482 ; after this moves to Namaqualand, but 
two years later returns to Boetsap, t 482 ; particulars con- 
cerning him until his death, v 24 ; he is succeeded as head of 
the clan by Peter Davids, % 481 

Barkly, Sir Henry: 

on the 31st of December 1870 arrives in South Africa and assumes 
duty as governor of the Cape Colony and her Majesty's high 
commissioner, v 65; situations previously held by, iv 114; 
proceeds on a tour of inquiry, and on the 26th of February 
arrives at Klipdrift, where he has a conference with President 
Pretorius, Nicholas Waterboer, and various Barolong and Batlapin 
chiefs, v 39 ; arranges for the disputes between them to be 
submitted to a court of arbitration, ib. ; obtains the consent of 
President Pretorius to a joint government of the diamond-fields 
on the northern bank of the Vaal until the decision of the 
court of arbitration is made known, ib. ; in March 1871 visits 
Bloemfontein, and endeavours, but in vain, to induce the Free 
State government to come to an arrangement concerning the 
diamond-fields south of the Vaal similar to that made with 
President Pretorius, iv 362 ; in the same tour visits also Basuto- 
land and the eastern province of the Cape Colony, iv 1 14 ; on 
the 16th of March 1871 has a conference with Letsie and other 
Basuto chiefs at Maseru, v 65 ; the chiefs profess to be thoroughly 
loyal, and the governor credits their statements, ib. ; as the Free 
State government calls out a commando to support its courts 
of law, he orders the colonial police to assemble at Hopetown, 



182 History of South Africa. 

sends a troop to Klip drift, and announces that he will protect 
her Majesty's subjects from all interference by the Free State 
authorities, iv 363 ; rejects the proposal of the Free State 
government to submit to the decision of the head of a foreign 
power its right to territory transferred to it by Sir George 
Clerk, iv 364 ; on the 27th of April 1871 he opens the Cape 
parliament with a speech in favour of responsible government 
and federation, iv 115; by instructions from the secretary of 
state, in May 1871 submits to the Cape parliament a bill for 
the annexation of Basutoland, v 66 ; which is passed by both 
houses in August, and is carried into effect, v 68 ; endeavours 
to obtain the consent of the Cape parliament to the annexation 
of the diamond-fields, iv 367 ; but does not succeed in the 
attempt, iv 370 ; gets a resolution carried authorising him to 
maintain order among the diggers and collect revenue pending 
the adjustment of the boundary dispute, iv 371 ; upon the 
repudiation of the Kcate award by the government of the South 
African Republic, announces that he will maintain it, v 49 ; 
on the 27th of October 1871 issues a series of proclamations 
declaring the whole of the territory claimed by Mr. Arnot for 
Nicholas Waterboer, and containing the principal diamond-fields, 
part of the British dominions, and providing for its government, 
iv 372 ; deals unceremoniously with the Orange Free State, 
iv 414 and 416 

Baekly West, village in the Cape province : 
in July 1873 receives its present name, iv 409 

Barnabas, successor of Cornelis Oasib, chief of the red nation, 
Hottentot tribe in Great Namaqualand : 
mention of, v 102 and 112 

Barnard, Andrew : 

in 1797 becomes colonial secretary, and remains in Capetown in 
that capacity until 1803, when the country is restored to the 
Batavian Republic, * 28 et seq. ; upon the second conquest of 
the Cape Colony by Great Britain is restored to his former 
office, i 218 ; in May 1807 arrives at Capetown, ib. ; but in 
October of the same } T car dies, i 271 

Barnard, Lady Anne, wife of the colonial secretary : 

by her charming entertainments strives to reconcile Cape people 
of position to English rule, i 29 ; reference to published letters 
of, i 116 

Barnes, Major James : 

in January 1839 becomes the first resident magistrate of Caledon, 



Synoptical Index. 183 

ii 228 ; in March 1848 becomes resident magistrate of Rivers- 
dale, Hi 70 

Barolong tribe : 

traditional history of, i 471 ; genealogical table of the chiefs. 
ib. ; upon the death of the chief Tao about 1760 is broken into 
fragments practically independent one of another, ib. ; after 
1823 various sections suffer very severely in the wars of devasta- 
tion that originated with the Zulu chief Tshaka, * 472 ; in 
1823 one clan, under the chief Sifunelo, guided by the reverend 
Messrs. Broadbent and Hodgson, Wesleyan missionaries, settles 
at Makwasi, on the Vaal river, ib. ; in 1825 it removes from 
Makwasi to Platberg, farther down the river and on the western 
bank, i 473 ; and in 1833, after the death of Sifunelo and the 
succession of his son Moroko as its chief, is removed by the 
reverend Messrs. Archbell, Edwards, and Jenkins to Thaba 
Ntshu, west of the Caledon, ib. ; two clans, under Tawane and 
Gontse, undergo great suffering, i 475 ; after the settlement of 
Moselekatse at Mosega, the petty remnants of some of the other 
clans are obliged to retire to the Kalahari desert and live like 
Bushmen, »&. ; part of one clan, under the captain Matlabe, 
becomes incorporated with the Matabele, ib. ; Tawane and Gontse 
with a few followers flee southward to Platberg, and in 1833 
proceed with Moroko to Thaba Ntshu, ib. ; where they are 
afterwards joined by Matlabe, who manages to escape from 
Moselekatse, i 479 ; the whole Barolong people, excepting the 
few wretched fugitives in the desert, now settle at Thaba 
Ntshu, i 477 ; further particulars concerning the Barolong, 
* 432, 444, 467, and 487 ; see Masisi, Matlabe, Montsiwa, 
Moshete, and Tawane 

Baeoswi or Barotsi, Bantu tribe : 

mention of, i 433 and 485 ; these people are subjected by 
Sebetoane, v 85; in 1S65 a large section establishes its inde- 
pendence by the extermination of the Makololo, v 93 

Barrow, John (afterwards Sip. John) : 

comes to South Africa as private secretary to the earl of Macart- 
ney, * 27 ; is prejudiced against republicans, i 28 ; is sent on 
various missions through the colony, ib. ; and is then promoted 
to be auditor-general, ib. ; reference to volumes written by, 
i 116 

Barry, Advocate J. D. : 

in October 1871 is appointed recorder of Griqualand West, iv 373 



184 History of South Africa. 

Barter between whites and blacks : 

is prohibited by law in the South African Republic, Hi 415 

Basia, Bantu tribe : 

mention of, i 430 and 447 

Basutoland : 

description of, i 430 ; by a treaty in December 1843 between 
Sir George Napier and Moshesh a great tract of country is 
assigned to the Basuto tribe, and is thereafter termed Basuto- 
land or the Lesuto, H 482 ; in October 1849 it is greatly reduced 
in extent by Sir Harry Smith, Hi 307 ; as contained within 
the boundaries defined by Major Warden and confirmed by Sir 
Harry Smith, including also subsequent conquests by Moshesh, 
on the abandonment of the Sovereignty by Great Britain in 
1854 is left independent of all extraneous control, in 441 ; 
receives a large addition of territory by the first treaty of 
Aliwal North, after the war of 1858 with the Orange Free State, 
Hi 493 ; loses a much larger extent of territory by the treaty of 
Thaba Bosigo, after the war of 1865-6 with the Orange Free State, 
iv 273 ; in March 1868 becomes part of the British dominions, 
iv 301 ; condition of the country at this time, iv 308 et seq. ; 
in February 1869 recovers a portion of its old territory by the 
second treaty of Aliwal North, iv 320 ; revenue to the 31st of 
May 1871, v 68 ; in August 1871 is annexed to the Cape Colony, 
t'6. ; and is then divided into the four magisterial districts of 
Leribe, Berea, Thaba Bosigo, and Kornet Spruit, v 70 ; in 
November 1871 the annexation act is ratified by the queen in 
council, and thenceforth has effect, v 76 ; revenue of Basutoland 
in 1870, v 63; for the year ending 31st of May 1872, v 79; 
expenditure in 1872, ib. 

Basuto laws and customs : 

in August 1872 a commission is appointed to investigate and 
report upon, v 78 

Basuto police force : 

in October 1872 is organised, v 77 

Basuto tribe : 

is formed by the genius of Moshesh, i 460 et seq. ; at the time 
of the abandonment of the Sovereignty by Great Britain in 
1854 is rapidly increasing in power, Hi 443 ; makes aggressive 
movements against the Orange Free State, Hi 450, iv 202 and 
205 ; after Sir Philip Wodehousc's award in October 1864 
endeavours to provoke the Free State to commence hostilities, 



Synoptical Index. 185 

iv 223 ; see Letsie, Mokuane, Molitsane, Molapo, Morosi, Moshesh, 
Moyakisani, and Poshuli 

Bataung, Bantu tribe : 

mention of, % 430, 442, 465, and 472; see Makwana, Molitsane, 
and Tulu 

Bathurst, Earl: 

from June 1812 to April 1827 is secretary of state for the colonies, 
i 426 

Bathurst, district in the Cape province : 
in March 1848 is created, iii 70 

Bathurst, village in the Cape province : 

in 1820 is founded, % 357 ; at the beginning of the Kaffir war of 
1834-5 is abandoned, ii 92 ; but is shortly afterwards re- 
occupicd 

Batlakoana, Bantu tribe : 
mention of, t 429 

Batlapin, Bantu tribe : 

in 1801 is first visited by travellers competent to give a correct 
description of the people, i 100 ; in 1805 is visited by Messrs. 
Van de Graaff and Lichtenstein, t 186 ; very complete informa- 
tion upon the condition of these people is obtained in 1811 and 
1812 by Mr. W. J. Burchell, % 272 ; dastardly conduct of Batlapin 
warriors in the engagement with the Mantatis at Lithako, i 444 
and 445; particulars concerning the tribe, i 186 et seq., 432, 
444, and 471 ; account of the various clans of, iii 486 

Batlaro, Bantu tribe : 
mention of, i 471 

Batlokua, Bantu tribe : 

mention of, i 430 and 447 ; after 1853 is dispersed, and the 
fragments are now to be found in Zululand and in Griqualand 
East, iii 355 ; see Lehana, Ma Ntatisi, and Sikonyela 

Batoka : see Batonga 

Batonga, Bantu tribes : 

mention of, * 433 and 485 ; those along the Zambesi are brought 
under subjection by Sebetoane, v 85 ; description of those at 
Delagoa Bay, v 130 

Battle of Amalinde : 

is fought in the winter of 1818 between the rival Xosa chiefs 
Gaika and Ndlambe, i 333 



i86 History of South Africa. 

Battle of Berea : 

is fought on the 20th of December 1852 by General Cathcart 
with the Basuto under Moshesh, in 337 

Battle of Blattwberg : 

is fought on the 8th of January 1806 between English and DutcV 
forces, i 197 

Battle of Blood River : 

is fought on the 16th of December 1838 between the emigrant 
farmers and the Zulus, ii 381 

Battle of Boomplaats : 

is fought on the 29th of August 1848 between the emigrant 
farmers and British forces, Hi 288 

Battle of Viervoet: 

is fought on the 30th of June 1851 between the Basuto of Moshesh 
and forces collected by Major Warden in the Orange River 
Sovereignty, Hi 320 

Bayley, T. B. : 

note on a pamphlet on horse sickness prepared by, Hi 153 

Baumgardt, Jan Pieter : 

on the 10th of October 1795 becomes collector of the land revenue 
of the Cape Colony, i 2 

Bavenda, Bantu tribes : 

mention of, i 432 and 486 

Bawana, son of Tshatshu, chief of a small Tembu clan : 

in 1809 is found by Colonel Collins to have wandered away from 
the Tembu country proper, and to have settled with his people 
on the eastern bank of the Tsomo, i 233 ; in August 1827 he 
is driven over the Zwart Kei into the Cape Colony by the 
Amangwane, i 452 ; in an interview with General Bourke he 
promises to return to his own country, but is unable to do so 
owing to Matiwane having settled on the Umtata, i 453 ; after 
the retreat of the Zulu army from Tembuland in July 1828 and 
the destruction of the Amangwane in August of that year, he 
retires from the colony, i 484 ; when his people, being joined 
by other refugees, spread themselves thinly over the territory 
between the Stormberg on the north and the Winterberg on 
the south, from the Indwe to the Zwart Kei and Klaas Smit's 
rivers, ib. ; in 1829 he is murdered by a petty captain named 
Batwa, ii 8 



Synoptical Index. 187 

Beaufort West, district in the Cape province : 

in November 1818 is formed as a sub-district of Graaff-Reinet, 
» 307 ; in August 1836 is placed under a civil commissioner 
independent of Graaff-Reinet, ii 166 

Beaufort West, town oe : 

in 1818 is founded, i 307 ; is the first municipality in the Cape 
Colony, ii 167 ; in October 1869 sustains much damage from 
heavy floods, iv 105 

Bedford, district in the Cape province : 
in January 1858 is created, in 160 

Beersheba mission station : 

in 1835 is founded by the reverend Mr. Holland, of the Paris 
evangelical mission society, at Zevenfontein on the right bank 
of the Caledon river, ii 297 ; at the commencement of the 
war of 1858 between the Orange Free State and the Basuto 
tribe, most of the residents are driven away, Hi 476 ; in 
September 1858 by the first treaty of Aliwal North it is greatly 
reduced in size and is incorporated with the Orange Free State, 
Hi 494 ; a large portion of the land is then given out as 
farms, iv 181 ; in June 1862 the remainder is sold to farmers 
by the Paris evangelical society, iv 208 

Beira, the second town in importance in Portuguese South 
Africa : 
description of, v 153 ; condition of in 1809, v 162 

Bell, Advocate Sydney Smith : 

on the 1st of February 1851 is appointed second puisne judge in 
the supreme court of the Cape Colony, Hi 147 

Bell, Lieutenant-Colonel John : 

in 1827 becomes secretary to government in the Cape Colony, 
i 494 ; during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 administers the govern- 
ment while Sir Benjamin D' Urban is on the frontier, ii 97 ; 
on the 10th of June 1841 goes to England on leave, and as he 
receives military promotion there does not return, ii 214 

Bell, Major Charles Harland : 

in May 1871 is appointed magistrate of the district of Leribe in 
Basutoland, v 71 

Bell, William, master of the schooner Conch : 

in June 1842 conveys troops to Natal to aid the British force 
beleaguered there, ii 427 ; on the 22nd of December 1844 is 
appointed harbour master of Port Natal, ii 461 



i88 History of South Africa. 

Bennie, Rev. John, of the Glasgow society : 

in November 1821 commences mission work in the Tyumie valley, 
i 409 

Bentinck, Walter: 

on the 16th of December 1808 becomes auditor of the Cape 
Colony 

Berea mission station : 

in 1843 is founded in Basutoland by the Paris evangelical society, 
ii 502 

Berg Damaras or Ghou Damup, a black tribe speaking the 
Hottentot language, living in Hereroland : 
mention of, v 94, 98, 110, 113, 120, and 121 

Bergh, Egbertus : 

on the 6th of June 1804 is appointed receiver general of revenue 
in the Cape Colony in succession to Arend de Waal, deceased ; 
in January 1828 is appointed resident magistrate of Graaff- 
Reinet, i 493 ; in the great retrenchment of 1834 is reduced 
to be assistant civil commissioner and resident magistrate of 
George, it 44 

Bergh, W. F. : 

in March 1848 becomes civil commissioner of Malmesbury, Hi 71 

Bergtheil, J. : 

in 1848 brings out to Natal thirty-five German agricultural 
families, Hi 254 

Berkeley, Lieutenant-General Sir George Frederick : 

on the 27th of January 1847 arrives in Capetown from England 
as commander of the forces in South Africa, Hi 40 ; on the 
17th of December in the same year is succeeded by Sir Harry 
Smith, and then proceeds to Madras, Hi 56 

Berlin missionary society : 

in 1834 commences to labour in South Africa, H 84 ; particulars 
concerning its work in this country, Hi 224, 233, 291, 311, 349, 
357, and 455, and iv 374 and 467 

Berlin, royal library in : 

contains many original documents relating to South Africa, i 129 

Berrange, Rev. Jan Christoffel : 

in December 1815 is appointed clergyman of Swellendam, t 404 ; 
in June 1817 is transferred to Capetown, i 404 ; in November 
1824 is chosen to be moderator of the first synod of the Dutch 
reformed church in the Cape Colony, ib. 



Synoptical Index. 189 

Berrange, Rev. J. F. : 

in 1844 becomes the first resident clergyman of Richmond in the 
Cape Colony, it 246 

Bertie, Vice Admiral Albemarle : 

on the 1st of August 1808 assumes command of the Cape squadron, 
i 240 ; on the 5th of January 1811 transfers the command to 
Rear Admiral Stopford, i 244 

Bester, Paul : 

takes part against the British forces in the battle of Boomplaats, 
but afterwards surrenders, Hi 293 ; and is appointed by Sir 
Harry Smith civil commissioner and resident magistrate of 
Harrismith, Hi 299 

Bethany mission station : 

in December 1835 is founded by the Berlin society on the Riet 
river in the present Orange Free State, Hi 291. The grounds 
are 22,000 morgen in extent 

Bethelsdorp, London missionary society's station : 

in 1803 is founded by the reverend Dr. Vanderkemp and Mr. 
James Read on a tract of land near Port Elizabeth in the 
Cape province, i 124 ; a few months later it is visited by 
Commissioner- General De Mist, who forms an unfavourable 
opinion of the method of instruction pursued there, i 147 ; in 
subsequent years it is regarded with dislike by people outside 
the missionary circle, % 231 ; but at a later date it is greatly 
improved, i 500 

Bethesda mission station : 

in 1843 is founded in Basutoland by the Paris evangelical society, 
ii 502 

Bethlehem, district in the Orange Free State : 
in May 1871 is established, iv 384 

Bethlehem, village of : 

in March 1860 is founded, iv 185 

Bethulie mission station : 

in 1833 is founded by the reverend Mr. Pellissier, of the Paris 
evangelical mission society, on the northern bank of the Orange 
river, i 470 

Bethulie, district of : 

in October 1859 by cession of the chief Lepui becomes part of 
the Orange Free State, iv 184 ; in February 1860 is erected 
into a district under a landdrost, iv 185 



i go History of South Africa. 

Bethulie, village of : 

in June 1862 is founded, iv 185 

Betshuana, Bantu tribes in the interior of South Africa: 

in 1802 the first authentic information concerning these people is 
obtained, i 98 ; enumeration of the tribes at the beginning of 
the nineteenth century, i 431 

Betshuana refugees : 

after 1823 invade the Cape Colony in considerable numbers, i 391 

Beyer, Rev. Mr. : 

in November 1861 becomes clergyman of the Separatist Reformed 
church at Reddersburg in the Orange Free State, iv 438 

Bezant, Charles : 

on the 6th of July 1838 is murdered at Pato's kraal, ii 186 

Bezuidenhout, Frederick : 

in 1815 sets the judicial authorities of the Cape Colony at defiance, 
i 290 ; resists a party of pandours sent to arrest him, and is 
shot dead, i 291 

Bezuidenhout, Jan : 

in 1815 is the instigator and leader of an insurrection against the 
government of the Cape Colony, i 292 ; on the collapse of the 
insurrection at Slachter's Nek flees towards Kaffirland, i 296; 
ia overtaken by a band of Hottentot soldiers, but declines to 
surrender, and shoots one of the pandours before he is mortally 
wounded, i 298 

Bible and school commission : 

formation in Capetown of, i 267 

Biokford, Captain : 

in November 1861 proclaims the islands Inyaka and Elephant in 
Delagoa Bay British territory and annexed to Natal, v 146 

Biddulph, T. J. : 

on the 8th of March 1848 is appointed first civil commissioner 
and resident magistrate of Winburg in the Orange Free State, 
Hi 279 ; on the 22nd of May is installed in office, Hi 280 ; 
on the 21st of June retires to Bloemfontein owing to threats 
of the disaffected farmers, ib. ; but is required by the British 
resident to return to his post, Hi 281 ; on the 12th of July 
makes his escape from Winburg just before Mr. Pretorius enters 
the village, ib. ; on the 29th of August is wounded in the 
battle of Boomplaats, Hi 291 

BlDOUW, TRACT OF LAND IN THE CAPE PROVINCE : 

description of, i 170 



Synoptical Index. 191 

Biggar, Alexander : 

in 1820 arrives in South Africa as head of a party of British 
settlers, ii 350 ; in 1834 establishes himself as a trader at Port 
Natal, ib. ; in May 1833 is appointed landdrost of Port Natal, 
but declines to perform the duties, ii 377 ; on the 23rd of 
December 1838 is killed in battle with the Zulus, ii 383 

Biggar, George, son of Alexander : 

in 1834 arrives in Natal, ii 358 ; on the 17th of February 1838 
is murdered by the Zulus in the great massacre of the emigrant 
farmers, ii 365 

Biggar, Robert, son of Alexander : 

is in nominal command of a force which marches from Port Natal 
against Dingan and which succeeds in securing a good deal of 
plunder, when it is broken up by internal dissension, ii 369 ; 
a few days later, when in command of another expedition, on 
the 17th of April 1838 is killed in battle with the Zulus, ii 
373 

Bigge, John Thomas : see Commissioners of inquiry 

Bind on, Dr. H. Veriker : 

successfully treats serious cases of illness of Kaffirs at Dohne 
post, Hi 191 

Bird, Captain Christopher : 

in 1807 becomes deputy colonial secretary, t 218 ; in May 1818 
becomes colonial secretary, t 413 ; (Lieutenant-Colonel) in June 
1824 through Lord Charles Somerset's agency is obliged to 
retire with a small pension, ib. ; thereafter is an opponent of 
that governor, i 414 

Bird, John : 

note on a pamphlet written by, ii 351 

Bird, Wilberforce : 

is controller of customs at Capetown, ii 44 ; on the 19th of April 
1836 dies 

Birkenhead, the : 

account of the loss of this transport on the 26th of February 
1852, and the splendid conduct of the soldiers on board, Hi 106 

Bisseux, Rev. Mr., of the Paris evangelical society : 

in 1829 commences a mission at Wellington in the Cape Colony, 
% 468 



192 History of South Africa. 

Blair, Charles : 

on the 16th of December 1808 becomes collector of customs in 
Capetown 

Blair, Robert : 

in July 1822 arrives from Scotland, and is appointed teacher of 
the high school at Caledon, i 371 

Blair, Welllam : 

in 1825 is appointed a commissioner of inquiry, and assumes duty 
in Capetown on the 24th of December of that year, * 425 

Blake, Richard, private secretary to Sir George Yonge : 
evidence against on charges of corruption, i 82 and 83 

Blankets : 

before 1834 are manufactured in the district of Albany in the 
Cape Colony, ii 39 

Bleek, Dr. W. : 

is the first custodian of the Grey Library in Capetown, iv 20 

Bletterman, Hendrik Lodewyk : 

in November 1795 retires from office as landdrost of Stellenbosch, 
i 3 ; in 1804 is appointed a commissioner to arrange the 
boundary of the district of Tulbagh and select a site for the 
drostdy, i 152 

Bloem, Jan, captain of the Springbok clan of the Koranas : 
depredations committed by, i 101 

Bloem, Jan, son and successor of the above : 

in 1849 is provided by Major Warden with a location along the 
southern bank of the Vaal river, Hi 311 ; but a few vears 
later abandons it, Hi 484 

Bloemfontein, town of : 

in 1846 is founded, ii 500 ; in March 1848 is made the seat of 
government of the Orange River Sovereignty, Hi 278 ; on the 
17th of July 1848 is surrendered by Major Warden to Com- 
mandant-General Pretorius, Hi 282 ; is recovered by Sir Harry 
Smith, Hi 292 ; is the seat of government of the Orange Free 
State, Hi 443 

Bloemfontein Bank : 

in June 1862 is established, iv 208 

Bloemfontein : 

convention of, Hi 364 



Synoptical Index. 193 

Bloemhof, village in the South African Republic : 

in August 1864 is founded, iv 499 ; proceedings of the court of 
arbitration from April to June 1871 at, v 40 et seq. 

Bloemhof, district of : 

in June 1869 is established, iv 499 " 

Blyth, Captain Matthew : 

in 1869 is appointed Fingo agent, and speedily acquires gTeat 
influence with the prople, iv 60 

BOADICEA, FRIGATE : 

splendid achievements of the, t 243 

Board of executors for administering estates : 
in 1838 is founded in Capetown, ii 225 

Board of examiners, precursor of the University of the Cape 
of Good Hope : 
in 1858 is created, Hi 163 

Board of relief : 

is constituted by Sir Benjamin D'Urban soon after the commence- 
ment of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 to alleviate the misery of 
the ruined colonists, ii 98 ; on the 8th of May 1846 a similar 
board is constituted by Sir Peregrine Maitland for the same 
purpose, Hi 12 

BOARDMAN, REV. WDLLLA.M, OF THE ENGLISH EPISCOPAL CHURCH : 

in 1820 arrives with a party of British settlers, i 351 

BONDELZWARTS, HOTTENTOT CLAN IN GREAT NaMAQUALAND : 

mention of, v 97 

BONGA, A RESIDENT ON THE BANK OF THE ZAMBESI : 

rebels against Portuguese authority and for many years successfully 
resists the forces sent against him, v 165 ; in 1853 plunders 
and partly destroys Tete, v 164 ; but in 1888 is subdued by 
Gouveia, v 165 

Borcherds, J. H. : 

in March 1848 becomes civil commissioner and resident magistrate 
of Fort Beaufort, Hi 71 

Borcherds, Petrus Borchardus : 

in 1801-2 visits Southern Betshuanaland, t 99; in May 1826 is 
appointed magistrate of Capetown, with the title of permanent 
sitting commissioner, i 493 ; in January 1828 his title is changed 
to judge of police, and the magisterial work of the district is 

VOL. V. ° 



194 History of South Africa. 

added to his duties, ib. ; in 1834 his title is again changed to 
civil commissioner and resident magistrate, and the district of 
Simonstown is joined to the Cape and placed under his charge, 
ii 44 

BOSHOF, DISTRICT IN THE ORANGE FREE STATE : 

in February 1858 is established, iv 185 

BOSHOF, VILLAGE OF : 

in April 1856 is founded, in 467 

Boshof, Jacobus Nicolaas : 

in May 1838 arrives in Natal and thereafter takes a leading part 
in affairs in that territory, ii 376 ; in February 1848 is appointed 
a member of a land commission in Natal, Hi 253 ; is elected 
president of the Orange Free State, Hi 456 ; in August 1855 
is installed, Hi 457 ; by Sir George Grey's mediation in October 
1855 has a conference with Moshesh at Smithfield, and concludes 
a formal treaty, Hi 458 ; in February 1858 tenders his resigna- 
tion, which is accepted by the volksraad, but after the appoint- 
ment of an executive commission he is induced to withdraw 
it and remain in office, Hi 469 ; on the 11th of March 1858 
sends an ultimatum to Moshesh, Hi 472 ; and as no notice 
is taken of it, on the 19th of the same month declares war, 
Hi 473 ; in June 1859 resigns the office of president of the 
Orange Free State, and retires to Natal, iv 182 

BOSPHORUS, TRANSPORT : 

on the 21st of October 1867 is wrecked near Cape Saint Francis, 
iv 95 

Botanic garden in Capetown : 
in 1848 is resuscitated, Hi 89 

Botlasitsi, son of Gasibone, Batlapin chief: 

in 1878 is at war with Griqualand West, iv 426 and 427 ; in 
November of that year is made a prisoner and is confined at 
Kimberley, iv 431 

Botma, Abraham : 

is one of the leaders of the insurrection of 1815, i 294 -, after 
the failure of the insurrection is arrested at the Winterberg, 
t 297 ; is sentenced to death by a commission of the high 
court of justice, i 298 ; and on the 9th of March 1816 is 
executed at Van Aardt's post on the Fish river, i 299 

Botma, Stephanus : 

is one of the leaders of the insurrection of 1815, i 293 ; after 



Synoptical Index. 195 

the failure of the insurrection is captured by a band of Hottentot 
soldiers, i 297 ; is sentenced to death by a commission of the 
high court of justice, i 298 ; and on the 9th of March 1816 
is executed at Van Aardt's post on the Fish river, i 299 

BOTUMANE, CAPTAIN OF A SECTION OF THE ImIDANGE CLAN OF XOSAS : 

in 1328 takes possession of the western bank of the Tyumie 
river, ii 5 ; in November 1833, owing to depredations by his 
people, he is required to leave that territory, ii 55 ; in 
December 1834 sends his followers to lay waste the frontier 
districts of the Cape Colony, ii 90 ; continues the conflict until 
the 17th of September 1835, when he agrees to terms of peace 
and becomes a British subject, ii 125 ; on the 5th of December 
1836 is released from his allegiance and enters into a treaty 
with the British government, ii 150 ; on the 2nd of December 
1840 agrees to certain modifications of the treaty proposed by 
Sir George Napier, ii 187 ; on the 21st of January 1845 enters 
into a new treaty framed by Sir Peregrine Maitland, ii 259 ; in 
March 1846 declines to surrender some criminals in accordance 
with his treaty engagements, Hi 2 ; from April to November 
1846 takes an active part in the war against the Cape Colony, 
Hi 37 ; on the 7th of January 1848 takes an oath of allegiance 
to the queen of England, and has a tract of land in British 
Kaflraria assigned to him, Hi 61 ; after 1857 loses his ground 
and sinks into insignificance, Hi 212 

VON BOUCHENROEDER, B. F. : 

during the administration of General Janssens is connected with 
a project of introducing Dutch immigrants, i 135 et seq. ; 
subsequent career of, i 137 

Boundary of the Cape Colony : 

as defined in July 1798 by Lord Macartney, i 39; as defined 
in February 1805 by Governor Janssens and the council, i 180 ". 
as extended in 1820 by Sir Rufane Donkin, i 359 ; as extended 
in September 1824 by Governor Lord Charles Somerset, i 394 ; 
as extended in March 1825 by the same governor, %b. ; as ex- 
tended in April 1829 by Governor Sir Lowry Cole, ii 9 ; see 
Extension 

Boundary between the districts of Stellenbosch and Swellen- 
dam: 
as defined in April 1811, i 226 

Boundary between the districts of Albany and Somerset East : 
in October 1837 is defined, ii 165 



196 History of South Africa. 



Boundaries of the republic of Natal : 

ii 398 ; of the colony of Natal, see Natal 

Boundary dispute between the Orange Free State and the South 
African Republic : 
in February 1S70 is decided in favour of the latter by Lieutenant- 
Governor Keate, of Natal, as arbitrator, who adjudges that the 
Klip river shall be the dividing stream, iv 496 to 498 

Boundary between the South African Republic and the Portu- 
guese possessions in South-Eastern Africa : 
is defined in the treaty of 1869, v 22 

Boundary of Portuguese South Africa, v 160 

Bourbon, island of : 

on the 8th of July 1810 is taken by a British force, i 241 ; 
in 1814 is restored to France, i 21 Q 

Bourke, Major- General Richard : 

in August 1825 is appointed lieutenant-governor, i 399 ; in 
February 1826 arrives in the colony, i 425 ; on the 5th of 
March 1826 assumes duty as acting governor during the absence 
of Lord Charles Somerset, ib. ; on the 9th of September 1828 
transfers the duty to Sir Lowry Cole, and on the 7th of 
November 1828 leaves for England, i 510 

Bowker, James Henry : 

in April 1868 is appointed high commissioner's agent in Basutoland, 
iv 312 ; in May 1870 succeeds Sir Walter Currie as commandant 
of the frontier armed and mounted police, iv 99 ; in October 
1871 is appointed a member of the executive committee of 
Griqualand West, iv 373 

Bowker, John Mitford : 

at the close of the sixth Kaffir war is appointed agent with the 
Gunukwebes and the Fingos, and is stationed at Fort Peddie, 
ii 130 ; in December 1836 is directed to act as consular agent 
with the Fingos, ii 153 ; in February 1839 is succeeded in 
that office by Mr. Theophilus Shepstone, ii 190 

Bowker, Thomas Holden : 

in March 1848 becomes resident magistrate of Stockenstrom, Hi 
70; in 1872 is a member of the Griqualand West land com- 
mission, iv 418 and 419 

Bowker, Miles : 

in 1820 arrives in South Africa as head of a party of British 
settlers, and is the first breeder of woolled sheep in Albany, 
ii 39 



Synoptical Index. 197 

Boyce, Rev. William : 

at the commencement of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is obliged to 
abandon his station Mount Coke, ii 111 ; assists in the negotia- 
tions by which the war is brought to an end, ii 123 ; upon 
the conclusion of peace reoccupies his station, ii 131 

Boys, Lieutenant-Colonel Edmond French : 

from the 2nd of August 1849 to the 19th of April 1850 and also 
from the 12th of October 1852 to the 31st of January 1853 
acts as lieutenant-governor of Natal, Hi 228 

Brand, Christoffel : 

on the 10th of October 1795 becomes collector in Capetown of 
the tithes, i 2 

Brand, Christoffel Josephus, LL.D. : 

on the 23rd of July 1850 is appointed a member of the legislative 
council of the Cape Colony, Hi 122 ; on the 20th of September 
of the same year resigns his seat, in 124 ; on the 30th of 
June 1854, when the first parliament meets, is elected speaker 
of the house of assembly, Hi 140 

Brand, J. H. : 

on the 1st of January 1810 becomes deputy fiscal at Simonstown 

Brand, Advocate Jan Hendrek, (later Sir John) : 

is elected president of the Orange Free State, and in February 

1864 assumes duty, iv 211 ; finds clans of the Basuto tribe 
pressing upon the state and occupying land far beyond their 
boundary, iv 219 ; induces Sir Philip Wodehouse to mediate in 
the interests of peace, iv 217 ; after the award of Sir Philip 
Wodehouse — which is that the old boundary shall be maintained 
with but one slight modification — gives Moshesh notice to recall 
his people before the 30th of November 1864, iv 221 ; but 
upon request of the Basuto chiefs extends the time for the 
removal of property to the end of January 1865, iv 225 ; 
owing to the outrageous conduct of Ramanela on Free State 
soil, in May 1865 calls out an armed force to punish that chief, 
iv 227 ; finds hostilities with the Basuto tribe inevitable unless 
Moshesh will keep his people in order, ib. ; on the 2nd of June 

1865 sends an ultimatum to Moshesh, of which no notice is taken, 
so on the 9th of June proclaims war with the Basuto, ib. ; 
on the 3rd of April 1866 agrees to peace, and signs the treaty 
of Thaba Bosigo, iv 273 ; owing to the deceitful conduct of 
the Basuto, in July 1867 is obliged to take up arms again, 
iv 290 ; but in March 1868 is compelled by the interference 
of Sir Philip Wodehouse practically to cease hostilities, iv 305 ; 



198 History of South Africa. 

in February 1869 is driven by force of circumstances to sign 
the second treaty of Aliwal North, iv 319 ; upon the expiration 
of his first term of office is again elected president of the 
Orange Free State ; in December 1870 with Mr. C. W. Hutton 
visits Capetown to explain the position of his government with 
regard to the territory claimed by Mr. Arnot for Nicholas Water- 
boer, iv 359 ; carries on a long, but fruitless, correspondence 
with the high commissioner concerning the right of the Free 
State to the diamond-fields south of the Vaal, iv 356 et seq. ; 
is desired by a large party to become president of the South 
African Republic, so as to unite the two states, d 51; as 
the scheme is unfriendly to Great Britain, he declines to allow 
himself to be put in nomination, v 52 ; but acts as a peacemaker, 
«&. ; upon the annexation of the diamond-fields to the British 
dominions, on the 7th of November 1871 enjoins all officers 
and burghers of the Free State to avoid anything that might 
cause a collision with the incoming authorities, iv 375 ; and 
expresses perfect confidence that England will do justice to the 
republic as soon as the true condition of affairs is known, ib. ; 
is temporarily irritated by the annexation of the diamond-fields 
to the British dominions, iv 395 and 396 ; in 1876 visits 
England to confer with the imperial authorities, iv 421 ; and 
accepts an offer made by Lord Carnarvon to settle the dispute 
regarding Griqualand West, ib. 

Brandfort, village in the Orange Free State j 
in October 1866 is founded, iv 233 

Breakwater in Table Bay : 

in September 1S60 its construction is commenced, iv 5 

van Breda, K. N. : 

in March 1848 becomes civil commissioner of Paarl, Hi 70 

van Breda, Michiel : 

is one of the earliest successful breeders of merino sheep in the 
Cape Colony, ii 39 ; is one of the first unofficial members of 
the legislative council established in 1834, ii 48 

van Breda, Michiel (not the above) : 

in June 1842 takes a leading part in resistance to the British 
troops at Natal, ii 425 ; in July is excepted from the general 
amnesty agreed to by Colonel Clcete, ii 439 ; a reward of £250 
is offered by Sir George Napier for his apprehension, but no 
one molests him, ii 440 

Van Breda, Servaas : 

in June 1842 takes a leading part in resistance to the British 



Synoptical Index. 199 

troops at Natal, ii 425 ; in July is excepted from the general 
amnesty agreed to by Colonel Cloete, ii 439 ; a reward of 
£250 is offered by Sir George Napier for his apprehension, but 
no one molests him, ii 440 

Beedasdoep, district in the Cape province : 
in September 1855 is created, in 148 

Beedasdoep, village of : 

in May 1838 is founded, ii 218 

Beedasdoep, Dutch reformed church at: 

on the 27th of April 1839 the first elders and deacons are approved 
of, and in May they commence duty, ii 218 

Beereton, Lieutenant-Colonel : 

in December 1818 commands an expedition that enters Kafnrland 
to aid Gaika against his uncle and rival Ndlambe, i 335 

Beesler, Frans Reinhard : 

in January 1796 is appointed landdrost of Graaff-Reinet, i 6 ; 
on the 9th of February arrives at the village, i 7 ; attends a 
stormy meeting of the nationals, ib. ; as the people refuse to 
receive him as landdrost, in March he proceeds to Capetown, 
i 10 ; is instructed by Lord Macartney to return to Graaff- 
Reinet, i 34; in July 1797 assumes duty as landdrost there, 
i 37 ; in 1803 is removed, * 149 ; and is afterwards a judge in 
the high court of justice, i 290 

Bright. H. E. Richard : 

in November 1871 becomes clerk to the chief magistrate of 
Basutoland, v 71 

Brink, Rev. J. J. : 

in May 1839 becomes the first resident clergyman of Bredasdorp, 
ii 218 

Brink, Pieter Gerhard : 

from June to November 1824 acts as secretary to the government 

of the Cape Colony, i 413 ; on the establishment of the supreme 

court at the beginning of 1828 becomes sheriff, i 491 

"British emigrants to Natal : 

particulars concerning the scheme of settlement carried out in 

1849, 1850, and 1851 by Mr. J. C. Byrne, Hi 255 and 256; 

the great disproportion of the sexes causes much restlessness, 

Hi 256, and in 1852 and 1853 many leave for Australia, ib. ; 

particulars concerning other settlers in the coljny of Natal, 
Hi 257 



200 History of South Africa. 

British Kaffraria, province of: 

on the 17th of December 1847 is annexed to the queen's dominions, 
in 57 ; regulations for the government of, Hi 58 ; census of 
1848, Hi 66; condition in 1854 of, Hi 188; in 1855 the Kaffir 
chiefs agree to Sir George Grey's proposal to surrender a portion 
of their power in return for certain money allowances, Hi 189 ; 
in 1855 the construction of roads and watercourses is com- 
menced, Hi 190 ; the imperial government grants £40,000 in 
each of the years 1855, 1856, and 1857 to enable Sir George 
Grey to carry out his benevolent plans for the reformation of 
the Kaffirs, Hi 192 ; census of Europeans in 1855, in 194 ; 
census of 1857, Hi 206 ; financial difficulties in, Hi 207 ; census 
at the close of 1858, Hi 219 ; census at the close of 1859, 
Hi 224 ; on the 7th of March 1860 letters patent are issued 
defining the boundaries of the province and settling the form 
of its government, Hi 225 ; description of the province in 1860, 
Hi 226 and 227 ; population, revenue, expenditure, and exports 
in 1861 of, iv 18 ; form of government of, Hi 226 ; boundaries 
as fixed in 1860, Hi 225 ; in 1865 is annexed to the Cape 
Colony, iv 75 ; imports and exports from 1862 to 1865, iv 76 ; 
population in 1865, ib. ; see Annexation 

British regiments stationed in South Africa between 1795 and 
1872 : see Garrison 

British settlers of 1820 : 

account of the arrival and location of, i 349 et seq. ; condition 
of in 1822, i SI 2 ; condition of in 1823, i 389 ; celebration 
of the fiftieth anniversary of the arrival of, iv 110 

British South Africa Chartered Company : 

on the 29th of October 1889 is established, v 154 

Brown, Archibald : 

in July 1822 arrives from Scotland, and is appointed teacher of 
the high school at Stellenbosch, i 371 

Brownlee, Charles : 

in October 1846 is appointed clerk to the Gaika commissioner, 
Hi 36 ; in December 1847 is appointed assistant commissioner, 
and is stationed at Fort Cox, Hi 59 ; in October 1850 is 
appointed head of the Gaika clans by Sir Harry Smith, Hi 93 ; 
but is unable to control them, Hi 94 ; in 1855 is directed to 
act as magistrate with Sandile, Hi 190; aids in preventing a 
Kaffir raid into the Cape Colony, Hi 203; on the 16th of 
March 1865 holds an important meeting with the Gaika chiefs, 
iv 52 ; in November 1872 becomes secretary for native affairs 



Synoptical Index. 201 

under responsible government, iv 147 ; in January 1873 visits 
the Transkei and brings about peace between the Tembus and 
Xosas, iv 58 and 59 

Browitlee, James : 

visits Dingan~. a few hours after the massacre of Pieter Retief 
and his party, ii C63 

Brownlee, Rev. John : 

leaves the service of the London society, and in June 1820 as 
a government agent founds a mission station in the Tyumie 
valley, i 318 ; resumes his connection with the London society, 
and in 1825 founds a mission station with the Tinde clan of 
the Xosa tribe on the eastern bank of the Buffalo river, within 
the area that is now the municipality of Kmg-Williamstown, 
i 409 ; at the beginning of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 with his 
family takes refuge at Wesleyville, ii 99 ; and is there rescued 
by a party of volunteers, ib. ; upon the conclusion of peace 
re-establishes the mission with Tshatshu's people, ii 131 ; when 
the war of 1846-7 commences has full confidence in the good 
faith of the Tinde clan towards the Cape Colony, but is soon 
undeceived, and is compelled to abandon his station, Hi 3 ; 
which at the close of the war he again occupies, Hi 60 

Buchanan, David Dale, editor of the Natal Wits ess : 

in February 1867 becomes the avowed advocate of the Basuto 
tribe, iv 294 ; after the annexation of Basutoland to the British 
dominions fans the discontent of the chiefs towards the high 
commissioner because they have not obtained everything they 
desire, iv 323 ; in April 1869 with the reverend Mr. Daumas 
and Moshesh's son Tsekelo proceeds to England, iv 324 ; obtains 
support from various missionary and philanthropic societies, 
iv 325 ; on the 22nd of June has an interview with the secre- 
tary of state, iv 326 ; with the result that Sir Philip Wode- 
house is called upon for explanations, and the ratification of 
the settlement effected by him is delayed, ib. ; by his violent 
language Mr. Buchanan forfeits the attention of the secretary of 
state, iv 329 ; he returns to Natal, and instigates political 
agitators in Basutoland, v 63 ; is earnestly advised by the 
government of Natal to abstain from interference in Basuto 
affairs, v 64 ; in September 1871 is informed by authority of 
the high commissioner that if he sends messengers again into 
Basutoland they will be prosecuted for stirring up sedition, 
v 70 ; conclusion of his intercourse with the Basuto, v 78 ; on 
the 4th of September 1874 dies in Capetown 



202 History of South Africa. 

Buchanan, Thomas : 

in July 1840 opens in Capetown the first normal school in the 
Cape Colony, ii 212. (The school then opened did good work 
for a shoit time, but was soon closed. It had no connection 
with the present excellent normal school in Capetown, which 
was opened under Mr. Whitton's management on the 23rd of 
January 1878.) 

Buchtj : 

is generally used in South Africa as a medicine, i 281 

Buenos Ayees : 

expedition against under Sir Home Popham and Brigadier- General 
Beresford, i 215 et seq. 

Buffalo kiver mouth, on the south- eastern coast of Afeica : 
in November 1836 is first used as a place for landing and shipping 
goods, ii 134 ; in April 1847 supplies for troops are landed there, 
and from that date the port is constantly used, ii 45 ; see 
East London 

DU BUIS, COENRAAD : 

is a renegade vagabond living with the Xosas, i 52 ; in 1799 
takes an active part in the insurrection of the Graaff-Reinet 
farmers, i 53 ; escapes from the British troops, and for several 
years lives under Gaika's protection, i 56 ; exercises an evil 
influence upon Gaika, i 72 ; in 1803 returns to the colony 
and by Governor Janssens' order goes to reside at Svvellendam, 
i 128 ; in 1815 flees from Swellendam to the neighbourhood 
of Klaarwater, north of the Orange river, where he becomes 
a freebooter and at the head of a party of Griqua ruffians 
plunders the Betshuana clans, i 307 ; after a time moves farther 
northward and spends the remainder of his days on the banks 
of the Limpopo, ii 279 

Buissinne, Petrus Stephanus : 

in January 1810 becomes landdrost of Swellendam, i 271 

Buku (correct Kaffir spelling Buru), right-hand son of the 
Xosa chief Kawuta : 
on the 1st of May 1835 is given by his half-brother Hintsa to 
Sir Benjamin D'Urban as a hostage for the due fulfilment of 
terms of peace, ii 112; is detained two months, and is then 
set at liberty, ii 117 ; takes part in the war of 1846-7 against 
the Cape Colony, and on the 13th of November 1847 cuts off 
and kills four English officers, Hi 52 ; on the 7th of January 



Synoptical Index. 203 

1848 concludes peace with Sir Harry Smith, Hi 62 ; in 1857 
dies of starvation, Hi 202 

Bunbury, Charles : 

accompanies Sir George Napier to South Africa, ii 173 

BUNTINGVILLE MISSION STATION : 

in March 1830 is founded in Pondoland by the reverend Messrs. 
Boyce and Tainton, of the Wesleyan society, ii 52; is abandoned 
during the Kaffir war of 183-1-5, but early in 1836 is reoccupied, 
ii 132 

Burchell, W. J. : 

in 1811 and 1812 resides at Griquatown and Lithako, and gives 
a full account of events there, i 271 

Burger, Jacobus Johannes : 

from 1840 to 1842 is secretary of the volksraad of Natal, ii 403 ; 
in July 1842 is excepted from the general amnesty agreed to 
by Colonel Cloete, ii 439 ; a reward of £250 is offered by Sir 
George Napier for his apprehension, but no one molests him, 
ii 440 

Burgers, Rev. Thomas Franqois : 

particulars concerning, j; 53; on the 1st of July 1872 becomes 
president of the South African Republic, v 54 ; induces the 
volksraad to consent to a loan and to commence the construction 
of a railway to Delagoa Bay, ib. 

BURGERSKLOOF, IN THE DISTRICT OF PlKETBERG, CAPE PROVINCE : 

on the 1st of February 1846 the Moravian school is opened at 

BURGHERSDORP, VILLAGE IN THE CAPE PROVINCE : 

in March 1847 is founded, ii 247 

BURGHERSDORP, DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH AT ! 

in January 1847 the first consistory commences duty, ii 247 

Burgher senate : 

in January 1796 is created to perform duties with which the 
burgher councillors and the committee of the high court of 
justice were charged under the government of the East India 
Compan} 7 , i 3; in 1803 is enlarged to seven members, but in 
1804 is reduced to five, i 119 ; in January 1828 is abolished, 
i 494 

Burghers of the Orange Free State : 

according to the constitution of 1854 are all persons of European 
blood who have resided six months in the state ; according 



204 History of South Africa. 

to the amended constitution of 1864 are all white persons 
born in the country, all white persons resident in the country 
and possessing fixed property to the value of £150 registered 
in their names, and all white persons resident for three succes- 
sive years in the country, iv 211 

Burghers of the South African Republic : 

in the early years are all white persons over twenty-one years of 
age and born within the state, white persons possessing landed 
property within the state, and white persons of good conduct 
resident for one year within the state. Those coming within 
the last two clauses must take an oath of fidelity to the people 
and the government, obedience to the laws, and fidelity to the 
independence of the republic before they can claim burgher 
rights 

Burke, Rev. Dr. : 

in 1838 becomes the first Roman catholic clergyman of Grahams- 
town, ii 225 

Burness, Messrs. : 

in May 1878 are murdered by insurgents at Daniel's Kuil in 
Griqualand West, iv 428 

Burnet, John : 

in May 1850 becomes clerk to the civil commissioner of Winburg, 
Hi 376 ; in January 1852 is secretary to the British commis- 
sioners when concluding the Sand river convention, %b. ; in February 
1854 is left by Sir George Clerk at Bloemfontein as British 
agent, Hi 460 ; in April 1855 is moved by Sir George Grey 
to Aliwal North as civil commissioner and resident magistrate, 
ib. ; in February 1862 is sent with Mr. Joseph M. Orpen to 
Moshesh to obtain information for the high commissioner, iv 
200 ; in February 1864 is sent again as a commissioner to 
Moshesh, iv 217 ; and induces the chief to consent to the 
mediation of Sir Philip Wodehouse between the Free State and 
the Basuto tribe, ib. ; in October 1865 is sent again as a com- 
missioner to Moshesh to endeavour to obtain compensation in 
cattle for Ramanela's raid into Natal, iv 259 ; but meets with 
only partial success, iv 260 and 261 

Burnett, Bishop : 

particulars concerning his residence in South Africa and his 
charges against Lord Charles Somerset, » 354, 355, 414, and 415 

Burnshill mission station : 

in June 1830 is founded on the upper Keiskama, ii 103 ; is 



Synoptical Index. 205 

named after the reverend John Burns, one of the founders of 
the Glasgow missionary society, iv 131 ; during the war of 
1846-7 is abandoned, but on the conclusion of peace is again 
occupied 

Burr-weed : see Xanthium spinosum 

Burton, Clerke : 

on the 1st of January 1828 becomes master of the supreme court 
of the Cape Colony, i 491 

Burton, William Westbrooke : 

on the 1st of January 1828 becomes a judge in the newly estab- 
lished supreme court of the Cape Colony, i 491 ; in November 
1832 is transferred to the supreme court of New South Wales, 
ii 4.6 

Bushmen : 

particulars concerning during the English occupation of the Cape 
Colony from 1795 to 1803, i 7, 35, and 66 ; particulars con- 
cerning during the Batavian administration from 1803 to 1806, 
t 143, 144, 169, 184, and 187 ; particulars concerning since 
1803, * 433, 434, 447, 450, 496 et seq. ; ii 322, 467, and 475 ; 
Hi 88, 236, 238, 313, 474, and 483; iv 2, 30, 31, 32, 63, 64, 
92, 97, 98, 99, 190, and 286; v 8, 94, 106, 111, and 113 

Butler, Captain Thomas : 

in 1820 brings a party of Irish settlers to the Cape, * 352 ; 
and is located at Clanwilliam, i 354 ; subsequent movements 
of the party, t 355 

BUTTERWORTH MISSION STATION : 

in July 1827 is founded by the Wesleyan society, ii 52 ; during 
the war of 1834-5 is destroyed by the Xosas, ii 109 ; early 
in 1836 is occupied again, ii 132 ; at the commencement of 
the war of 1846-7 is abandoned, but in 1848 is reoccupied, 
when Kreli compensates the Wesleyan society for the damage 
done, in 62 ; further particulars concerning, iv 44 

Button, Edward : 

in 1869 and 1870 discovers gold in various parts of the South 
African Republic, v 12 ; in 1871 finds it at Eersteling near 
Marabastad, ib. ; is appointed gold commissioner of the South 
African Republic, v 13 

Buxton, Fowell : 

in July 1828 in the house of commons supports the reverend 
Dr. Philip's views with regard to the coloured people in the 



206 History of South Africa. 

Cape Colony, i 506 ; in 1835 is chairman of a committee of 
the house of commons appointed to take evidence regarding 
the aborigines in British settlements, ii 137 

Buys, Michiel, a halfbreed son of Coenraad du Buis : 

account of, iv 475 ; collects a number of retainers and as their 
chief settles in the district of Zoutpansberg, ib. 

Buyskes, P. L. : 

in October 1871 is appointed sheriff of Griqualand West, iv 373 ; 
in 1872 is a member of the land commission, iv 418 

Byrne, J. C. : 

from 1849 to 1852 sends out over four thousand British emigrants 
to Natal, in 255 and 256 



Caldas, Joao Pereira de Sousa : 

in June 1818 is killed in a quarrel with Bantu at Delagoa Bay, 
v 129 

Caldas, Jose Antonio, captain of the fort at LouRENgo Marques : 
in 1805 obtains from a Bantu chief a cession of a large traot 
of land, v 128 

Calderwood, Rev. Henry : 

before the war of 1846-7 is a missionary of the London society 
residing at a station named Birklands, near Fort Beaufort, Hi 
36 ; in September 1846 becomes the chief adviser of the governor 
on matters connected with the Xosas, ib. ; in October is ap- 
pointed commissioner for the settlement of the Gaika, Imidange, 
and Tinde clans, and fixes his residence at Blockdrift, ib. ; 
in December 1847 becomes the first civil commissioner of 
Victoria East, Hi 67 

Caledon baths : 

account of, i 227 

Caledon, district in the Cape province : 

in January 1839 is created, ii 228 ; in March 1848 is made a 
division, Hi 70 

Caledon, earl of : 

is appointed governor of the Cape Colony, i 218 ; on the 22nd 
of May 1807 assumes the duty, ib. ; in July 1811 resigns the 
government and leaves South Africa, i 248 ; just before embark- 
ing makes a donation of five thousand rixdollars to the South 
African orphan asylum, i 286 ; on the 8th of April 1839 dies, 
%i 232 



Synoptical Index, 207 

Caledon River, a tributary of tee Orange : 

in February 1809 is seen and named by Lieutenant-Colonel Collins, 

* 232 

Caledon, village in tee Cape province : 

in April 1811 a deputy landdrost of Swellendam is stationed here, 
i 226 ; in the following month a congregation of the Dutch 
reformed church is formed, i 227 ; in December 1813 the 
village receives the name Caledon, i 266 ; in October 1822 the 
subdrostdy is abolished by Lord Charles Somerset, i 382 ; on 
the 4th of September 1840 becomes a municipality 

Calton, Thomas : 

in 1820 brings a party of British settlers to the Cape Colony, 

* 351 

Calvinia, district in the Cape province s 
in August 1855 is created, Hi 148 

Camel, storeship : 

on the 20th of September 1799 is unsuccessfully attacked in Algoa 
Bay by a French frigate, i 64 

Campagne, Hubert Dirk : 

in 1796 is arrested for opposition to the government, and is 
sent a prisoner to England, i 10 

Campbell district, west of the Vaal river : 

dispute between the government of the Orange Free State and 
Mr. David Arnot, agent for the Griqua captain Nicholas Water- 
boer, concerning the ownership of, iv 213 and 338 

Campbell, Captain Duncan : 

in 1820 brings a party of British settlers to the Cape Colony, 
and is located on the river Zonder End, * 352 ; subsequent 
movements of the party, i 355 ; he makes unsuccessful efforts 
to farm with southdown sheep, ii 39 ; in July 1828 is ap- 
pointed civil commissioner of Somerset and Albany, i 492 ; 
from March to December 1833 acts as commissioner-general of 
the eastern province, ii 84 ; in 1834 becomes civil commissioner 
and resident magistrate of Albany, ii 44 ; in August 1838 
retires on a pension, ii 181 

Campbell, Rev. John : 

in 1813 visits the Griquas and Batlapin on a tour of inspection 
of the stations of the London missionary society, i 272 ; in 
1813 tries to found a Griqua state, ii 472 



208 History of South Africa. 

Campbell, John : 

on the 30th of November 1870 is appointed by the high com- 
missioner, under the Cape of Good Hope Punishment Act, 
special magistrate in all the territory claimed by Mr. Arnot for 
Nicholas Waterboer, v 37; on the 1st of February 1871 obtains 
a commission as magistrate from Nicholas Waterboer, ib. ; from 
April to June 1871 is one of the judges of the arbitration 
court at Bloemhof, v 40 ; upon the annexation of the diamond- 
fields to the British dominions is appointed civil commissioner 
and resident magistrate of the district of Klipdrift, and a 
member of the executive committee, iv 373 

Cane, John: 

in 1824 accompanies Mr. Farewell to Natal, and remains in that 
country, ii 326 ; in 1828 is sent to Capetown by Tshaka to 
greet the governor, ii 333 ; after Mr. Farewell's death in 
September 1829 becomes chief of a party of blacks, ii 340 ; 
in October 1830 is sent by Dingana with a present of ivory to 
the governor of the Cape Colony, but is not allowed to proceed 
farther than Grahamstown, and the present is declined, ib. ; 
he returns to Natal, ii 341 ; in November 1837 he accompanies 
Pieter Retief from Port Natal to the Tugela on the way to 
Umkungunhlovu, ii 354 ; early in April 1838 takes part in an 
attack upon Dingana' s army, ii 369 ; and on the 17th of that 
month is killed in battle with the Zulus, ii 373 

Cannibalism among the Bantu in South Africa : 

particulars concerning this practice following the wars of Tshaka, 
i 447 and 451 ; is resorted to in some instances by the starving 
Xosas after the delusion of Nongqause in 1857, Hi 205 ; is 
practised by some Basuto as late as 1867, iv 309 

Cape Colony : 

on the 16th of September 1795 is surrendered to the British 
forces, i 1 ; attitude of the people of the country districts 
towards the new authorities, ib. ; conciliatory conduct of the 
English commanders, ib. ; in February 1803 is restored to the 
Batavian Republic, i 111 ; condition at the close of 1805 for 
defensive purposes, i 189 et seq. ; in January 1806 is retaken 
by British forces, i 197 et seq. ; in 1814 is ceded by the 
sovereign prince of the Netherlands to Great Britain, i 216 
to 220 ; census of 1865, iv 42 ; imports and exports from 1862 
to 1867, iv 93 and 94 ; imports and exports from 1868 to 
1872, iv 151 ; see Extension 



Synoptical Index. 209 

Cape Copper mining company : 
account of the, Hi 87 

Cape Ceoss : 

note on, v 119 

Cape, district of : 

in March 1824 is slightly enlarged, i 382 

Cape mounted riflemen : 

in 1851 many of the Hottentot soldiers desert and join the enemy, 
Hi 102 ; after the rebellion in 1851 the regiment is largely 
filled up with Europeans, in 197 ; in 1870 it is disbanded, 
Hi 149 ; see Hottentot regiment 

Cape of Good Hope bank : 

in August 1837 is established in Capetown, ii 168 ; in September 
1890 is closed, ii 169 

Cape of Good Hope fire assurance company : 
in 1835 is founded in Capetown, ii 225 

Cape of Good Hope marine assurance company : 
in 1838 is founded in Capetown, ii 225 

Cape of Good Hope punishment act : 

in August 1836 is passed b}^ the imperial parliament at the 
instance of Lord Glenelg, ii 147 ; provisions of, ii 349 

Cape of Good Hope telegraph company: 
particulars concerning, iv 11 

Cape parliament : 

on the 30th of June 1854 meets for the first time, Hi 140 ; 
names of the first members of the legislative council and of 
the house of assembly, Hi 139 ; proceedings during the session 
of 1861, iv 7 to 11 ; during the session of 1862, iv 23 to 28 ; 
during the session of 1863, iv 32 to 34 ; during the session of 
1864, hi 35 to 37 ; during the session of 1865, iv 72 to 74 ; 
during the session of 1866, iv 79 to 82 ; during the session 
of 1867, iv 85 to 93 ; during the session of 1868, iv 96 ; 
during the session of 1869, iv 100 to 103 ; during the session 
of 1870, iv 106 to 109 and v 61 ; during the session of 1871, 
iv 115 to 132 and v 66 to 69 : during the session of 1872, 
iv 134 to 145 and 398 to 401 ; increase in 1865 of the number 
of members of both houses, iv 75 ; in the session of 1877. 
iv 422 and 423 ; in 1875 declares it advisable to annex the 
western coast as far as Walfish Bay, v 107 ; in the session 

5"OL. V. P 



210 History of South Africa. 

of 1884 passes an act to annex Walfish Bay to the Cape Colony, 
v 116; in July 1884 approves of the annexation to the colony 
of the coast line of Hereroland and Great Namaqualand, v 124 

Capetown : 

population in 1800, i 78 ; population at the close of 1802, i 
105 ; population in 1805, * 189 ; in April 1814 the military 
lines become the southern boundary, * 225 ; particulars con- 
cerning the water supply, i 245 ; in May 1809 the principal 
streets are first lit at night with oil lamps, i 246 ; during the 
government of Sir Lowry Cole great changes are made in its 
appearance, ii 16 ; on the 3rd of March 1840 is created a 
municipality, ii 168 ; is considerably improved in appearance 
during the government of Sir George Napier, ii 227 ; in 1846 
the streets are first lit by gas, ii 245 ; in 1848 the botanic 
garden is resuscitated, Hi 89 ; in the same year a carriage road 
is constructed from Sea Point to Camp's Bay and over the 
kloof to Capetown, Hi 90 ; population in 1865, iv 42 ; in 1867 
is ravaged by fever, iv 83 and 84 

Capitulation of the Cape Colony to the British forces in 
January 1806 : 
terms of, i 201 and 204 

de Cardenas, Lupe, captain of the fort at Lourenoo Marques : 
in 1823 is murdered by Bantu, and nearly the whole of the force 
under his command perishes, v 136 

Caedwell, Right Hon. Mr., secretary of state for the colonies: 
in August 1864 resolves to withdraw British dominion from the 
Transkeian territories, iv 48 

Carel Ruyters, Korana captain : 
account of, iv 97 

Carlyle, Rev. Mr., English clergyman at Grafamstown: 
on the 12th of July 1828 arrives from England 

Carnall, John : 

particulars of the causes of his becoming an opponent of Lord 
Charles Somerset, i 422 

Carnarvon, Earl : 

on the 6th of July 1866 succeeds Mr. Card well as secretary of 
state for the colonies, iv 157 ; in 1876 arranges the long 
dispute with the Orange Free State concerning the diamond- 
fields, iv 421 ; in January 1878 makes known the views of 
the imperial government regarding Hereroland and Great Nama- 
qualand, v 114 to 116 



Synoptical Index. 211 

Casa, petty captain of the Amambala clan of the Xosa tribe : 
in December 1834 attacks a military patrol, but is called back 
by his chief, ii 88 ; as a punishment is required by Colonel 
Somerset to leave the ceded territory, %b. 

Casalis, Rev. Eugene, of the Paris evangelical society : 

in June 1833 with his colleagues founds the mission station Morija 
in Basutoland, i 469 

Castle Steamship Company : 

particulars concerning, iv 149 

Cathcart, Lieutenant-Genep.al the honourable George : 

is appointed governor of the Cape Colony and high commissioner, 
in 107 ; on the 31st of March 1852 arrives and takes the 
oaths of office, Hi 108 ; in November with a strong army 
marches from the Kaffir frontier to the Orange River Sovereignty 
to restore British prestige there, Hi 334 ; on the 14th of 
December sends an ultimatum to Moshesh, Hi 335 ; with the 
terms of which the chief only partially complies, Hi 336 ; so 
on the 20th of December the army enters Basutoland, Hi 337 ; 
and is defeated in the battle of Berea, Hi 340 ; the general, 
however, accepts an overture from Moshesh, declares peace, 
and returns with the troops to the Cape Colony, Hi 342 ; 
on the 26th of May 1854 leaves the colony to return to Europe, 
Hi 140; is killed in the battle of Inkerman, Hi 114 

Catherine, British barque : 

on the 5th of October 1846 is wrecked at Waterloo Bay, Hi 28 

Cattle Damaras : see Hereros 

Cattle diseases : 

mention of, i 159, 160, 162, 167, 169, 171 ; Hi 151 et seq. ; 
iv 164 ; v 104 ; see Lamsickness, Lungsickness, Red-water, and 
Strangury 

Causes of the great emigration of Dutch-speaking people from 
the Cape Colony in and after 1836, H 266 et seq. 

Cedarbergen : 

timber obtained from, t 170 

Census of British Kaffraria at various periods : see British 
Kaffraria 

Census returns of the Cape Colony : 

of 1805, i 188 ; of 1819, i 319 ; of 1854, m 142 ; of 1865, 
iv 42 and 43 



212 History of South Africa. 

Census in 1835 of Bantu between the Fish and Kei rivers 
south of the amatola range, u 131 

Cession of the Cape Colony in 1814 to Great Britain by the 
sovereign prince of the netherlands : 
particulars concerning, i 277 to 279 

Cetywayo, chief of the Zulus : see Ketshwayo 

Chalmers, E. B. : 

in February 1871 is appointed resident with the Tembu chief 
Gangelizwe 

Chalmers, Rev. William, missionary at the Tyumie : 

in December 1834 is required by the chief Tyali to act as his 
secretary, ii 90 ; on the 20th of January 1835 is rescued by 
a military patrol, ii 99 ; at the close of the war returns to 
his station at the Tyumie, ii 131 

Chalmers, Wdlliam B. : 

from September 1861 to the end of 1864 is special magistrate 
at Idutywa, iv 45 

Champion, Rev. Mr., American missionary: 

in February 1836 assists to found the first mission station in 
Natal, ii 348 ; in April 1838 leaves Natal owing to the 
disturbances there, and never returns, ii 374 

Chapman, William : 

in August 1878 is murdered at Kuruman, iv 430 

Charlotte, transport ship : 

on the 20th of September 1854 is lost in Algoa Bay, when over 
a hundred persons perish, Hi 145 

Charter of justice of the Cape Colony : 

provisions of the first, which came in force on the 1st of January 
1828, i 490 ; and of the second, which came in force on the 
1st of March 1834, ii 45 

Charters, Major Samuel, military secretary to Sir George 
Napier : 
in November 1838 is sent with a body of troops to ocoupy Port 
Natal, ii 385 ; constructs a stockaded camp there which he 
names Fort Victoria, ib. ; takes possession of all the ammunition 
in store at the port, ii 386 ; as soon as the troops are settled 
returns to Capetown, leaving Captain Henry Jervis in command, 
ib. 



Synoptical Index, 213 

Chase, John Centlivres : 

in January 1848 becomes the first civil commissioner of Albert, 
Hi 70 

Chase versus Fairbairn: 

particulars of an action for libel in the Commercial Advertiser, 
ii 161 

Children's Friend Society : < 

particulars concerning, ii 193 

Christian, Ewan: 

in October 1851 is appointed a member of the legislative council 
of the Cape Colony, Hi 128 

Christian, Rear Admiral Hugh Cloberry : 

in March 1798 assumes command of the fleet on the Cape station, 
i 46; on the 23rd of November 1798 dies, i 50 

Christian Afrikaner : 

succeeds his father Jonker as captain of a Hottentot clan in 
Great Namaqualand, v 97 ; in June 1863 attacks Otjimbingue, 
and is killed in the action, ib. 

Christophers, Joseph H. : 

in 1843 inaugurates a system of immigration by which a few 
artisans arrive at Port Elizabeth, ii 193 

Chronicle and Mercantile Advertiser, tee South African: 
on the 18th of August 1824 is first published in Capetown, i 
418 ; and continues in existence until the end of 1826, t 419 

Church budlding, Dutch reformed, in Table Valley : 

in 1836 the greater part of the building erected at the com- 
mencement of the eighteenth century is broken down for the 
purpose of enlargement, and in 1841 the present edifice on the 
same site is opened for use, ii 227 

Churches in the Cape Colony : see Dutch reformed, Ecclesiastical 
statistics, English episcopal, Weslej-an, &c. 

Church ordinance of Commissioner-General De Mist : see Dutch 
reformed church 

ClLLIERS, CAREL, A PIOUS FARMER OF PURITAN SIMPLICITY: 

accompanies the second large body of emigrants from the Cape 
Colony, ii 285 ; is one of a party that between May and 
September 1836 explores the country from the Vaal river to the 
Zoutpansberg, ii 288 ; in October takes a leading part in the 



214 History of South Africa. 

defence of tlie camp at Vechtkop when attacked by the Mata- 
bele, ii 292 ; in January 1837 accompanies a commando which 
defeats the Matabele at Mosega, ii 301 ; in November of the 
same year takes part in the expedition that drives the Matabele 
beyond the Limpopo, ii 319 ; is one of the ablest and most 
valiant warriors in the commando that on the 16th of December 
1838 inflicts a crushing defeat upon Dingana, ii 382 

Circuit coup.t : 

in 1811 is first established in the Cape Colony, i 259 ; proceedings 
of the circuit in 1812 of judges of the high court of justice, 
when charges against colonists made by missionaries of the 
London society are investigated, i 262 

ClECUIT COURT OF THE ORANGE FREE STATE : 

as constituted in 1854, Hi 445 

City of Peterborough, barque: 

on the 17th of May 1865 is lost in Table Bay with all on board, 

iv 77 

ClVTL COMMISSIONERS t 

on the 1st of January 1828 are first appointed to divisions in 
the Cape Colony, i 492 ; in 1834 the office is united with that 
of resident magistrate, ii 44 

Civil servants : 

improvement in the method of payment of introduced in 1797, 
» 34 

Civil strife in the South African Republic : 

in September 1860 commences, iv 443 ; and in May 1864 ends 
with the election as president of Mr. Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, 
iv 453 

Claim to a large portion of the Orange Free State made by 
Mr. David Arnot on behalf of the Griqua captain Nicholas 
Waterboer : 
particulars concerning, iv 214 

Clanwtlll^m, district in the Cape province : 

on the 1st of January 1837 is separated from Worcester, having 
previously been only a sub-district, ii 166 

Clanwilliam, village of : 

in February 1808 a deputy landdrost of Tulbagh is stationed 
at this place, then called Jan-Dissels-Vlei, i 224 ; in January 
1814 it receives the name Clanwilliam, i 266 ; in November 
1831 it is provided with a clergyman of the Dutch reformed 
church 



Synoptical Index. 215 

Clarkebtjry mission station : 

in April 1830 is founded in Tenibuland by the Wesleyan society* 
H 52 ; during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is abandoned, but 
early in 1836 is reoccupied, ii 132 

Clarkson, Moravmn mission station : 

in 1838 is founded for the benefit of Fingos at Zitzikama, ii 177 

Cleghorn, J. : 

on the 4th of November 1850 is appointed magistrate of the 
Umvoti location in Natal, Hi 234 

Clergymen in the Cape Colony : 

are unanimously opposed to the great emigration in 1836 and 
later, ii 273 

Clerk, Sir George Russell: 

on the 6th of April 1853 is appointed special commissioner for 
the Orange River Sovereignty, Hi 349 ; on the 8th of August 
arrives in Bloemfontein, ib. ; on the 9th calls upon the inhabi- 
tants of the Sovereignty to elect delegates to take over the 
government, Hi 351 ; on the 5th of September the delegates 
meet in Bloemfontein, but refuse to take over the government 
except under conditions to which the special commissioner cannot 
agree, ib. ; the republican party, however, offers to comply 
with his wishes, in 353 ; in December he has an interview 
with Moshesh, but makes no arrangements with him, Hi 355 ; 
he investigates charges against the emigrant farmers made by 
missionaries, Hi 356 ; on the 19th of January 1854 invites 
delegates from the republican party to meet in Bloemfontein, 
Hi 361 ; on the 23rd of February signs the convention by which 
the Orange River Sovereignty ceases to exist, Hi 364 ; he is 
unable to induce Adam Kok to come to any arrangement, 
Hi 366; on the 11th of March with the British troops and 
officials he leaves Bloemfontein for Capetown, Hi 367 ; and he 
then declares the treaty with Adam Kok null and void, Hi 368 

Cloete, Captain Abraham Josias : 

is commandant at Tristan da Cunha from November 1816 to 
May 1817, i 304; (Lieutenant-Colonel) in June 1842 is sent 
from Capetown with troops to succour the British force be- 
leaguered in Natal, ii 428 ; and succeeds in that object, ib. ; 
calls upon the farmers to submit to the queen's authority, 
ii 438 ; on the 15th of July receives the submission of the 
volksraad, ii 439 ; and then returns to Capetown, leaving Major 
Smith in command of the troops in Natal, ib. 



216 History of South Africa. 

Cloete, Advocate Henry : 

on the 12th of May 1843 is sent to Natal as a commissioner to 
collect information, ii 444 ; on the 8th of August receives the 
submission of the volksraad to the conditions imposed by the 
secretary of state for the colonies, ii 451 ; on the 1st of 
October visits Panda, ii 454 ; and obtains that chief's consent 
to a new boundary between Zululand and Natal, ib. ; at the 
same time obtains from Panda the cession of St. Lucia Bay 
to the queen of England, ii 455 ; on the 13th of November 
1845 is appointed recorder of Natal, ii 462 ; on the 8th of 
November 1855 becomes third puisne judge in the supreme 
court of the Cape Colony, Hi 148 

Cloete, Pieter Laurens : 

is one of the first unofficial members of the legislative council 
of the Cape Colony established in 1834, ii 48 

Coast tribes of Bantu at the beginning of the nineteenth 

CENTURY : 

enumeration of, » 428 

Coat of arms of the city of Capetown : 
in July 1804 ia adopted, t 174 

Coat of arms of the Orange Free State : 
description of, m 430 

Coat of arms of the South African Republic : 
description of, iv 436 

Cobbe, Captain : 

in 18G5 is stationed with the Fingos in the Transkeian territory, 
iv 53 ; further mention of, iv 59 ; in May 1849 is withdrawn, 
iv 60 

Cock, William: 

makes great efforts to improve the mouth of the Kowie river, 
ii 200 and Hi 169 ; in October 1847 becomes a member of 
the legislative council of the Cape Colony, ii 240 ; when 
assisting in the preparation of the constitution urges the separa- 
tion of the two provinces or the removal of the seat of govern- 
ment to the east, Hi 127 

Cockburn. Major James, aide-de-camp to Sir George Yonge : 

evidence against at the investigation into the governor's conduct, 
i 83 



Synoptical Index, 217 

Cockburn, Rear Admiral Sir George : 

commands on the Cape station from October 1815 to June 1816, 
* 302 

Coffee : 

cultivation of in Natal, Hi 261 and iv 163 ; see Exports, m 265 

Cold Bokkeveld : 

description of, i 160 

Cole, Eldred Mowbray: 

on the 1st of May 1847 is appointed Tembu commissioner, and 
is stationed at Shiloh, Hi 59 ; (auditor general) in 1871 signs 
a memorandum in antagonism to the introduction of responsible 
government in the Cape Colony, iv 118 

Cole, Sir Galbraith Lowry : 

on the 20th of March 1828 is appointed governor of the Cape 
Colony, and on the 9th of September assumes the duty, i 509 ; 
after an administration of nearly five years resigns, and on the 
10th of August 1833 embarks for England, it 29 ; on the 4th 
of October 1842 dies, ii 232 

Colebrooke, Major : see Commissioners of inquiry 

COLENBRANDER, T. W. : 

is the head of the Dutch settlement at New Gelderland in Natal, 
it; 158 

COLENSO, THE RIGHT REVEREND Dr. JOHN WlLLIAM 1 

on the 30th of January 1854 arrives in Natal as first bishop of 
the English church, Hi 262 ; particulars of the celebrated case 
of, iv 172 and 173 

COLESBERG, DISTRICT IN THE CAPE PROVINCE : 

on the 6th of February 1837 is created, ii 164 

COLESBERG, VILLAGE OF : 

in November 1830 is founded, i 406 ; in March 1836 is first 
provided with a resident clergyman, t 405 ; on the 19th of 
June 1840 becomes a municipality 

Collector, privateer : 

slave dealing by in 1799 and 1800, i 84 

Colley, Lieutenant George Pomeroy : 

in 1855 lays out the Pensioners' village in King-Williamstown, 
in 193 ; from September 1858 to May 1860 is special magis- 
trate at Idutywa, iv 45 



218 History of South Africa. 

Collins, Lieutenant-Colonel Richard : 

in 1808 and 1809 visits various parts of South Africa, and sends 
in some valuable reports and recommendations, i 231 et seq. 

Collis, James : 

in August 1831 settles at Port Natal, ii 342 ; in 1835 is killed 
there by an explosion of gunpowder, ii 343 

Colonial bank: 

in 1844 is established in Capetown, ii 242 

Colquhotjn, Archibald : 

is the first administrator of Mashonaland, v 155 ; further mention 
of, v 157 

Commando law : 

particulars concerning the ordinance of June 1833, which was dis- 
allowed by the imperial government, ii 27 

Commandos entering Kaffirland to make reprisals for stolen 
cattle : 
account of one in 1813 under Captain Fraser, i 322 ; of one 
in 1817 under the same officer, i 328 ; of one under Major 
Jones towards the end of 1821, i 363 ; of one in November 
1824 against Makoma under Captain the honourable John 
Massey, ii 1 ; of one in December 1825 against Susa, ii 2 ; 
and of one in June 1830 against some petty captains under 
Makoma and Tyali, ii 53 

Commerce at Delagoa Bay in 1823 : 
description of, v 130 

Commerce with the Xosas : 

in April 1817 it is arranged by Lord Charles Somerset and Gaika 
that twice a year parties of Xosas may visit Grahamstown for 
trading purposes, * 324 ; from 1821 to 1830 trade is carried on 
by means of fairs at Fort Willshire, i 364 ; and by illicit 
dealers, ib. ; but after 1830 traders are licensed to enter Kaffir- 
land, * 365 ; description of the method of conducting barter, 
ii 52 

Commercial Advertiser, the South African.* 

on the 7th of January 1824 is first published in Capetown, » 417 ; 
on the 8th of May is suppressed by order of Lord Charles 
Somerset, i 418 ; with Earl Bathurst's permission, on the 31st 
of August 1825 is commenced again, t 420 ; on the 10th 
of May 1827 is suppressed by the government for the second 
time, ii 14; but on the 3rd of October 1828 is again issued, 
ii 15 ; during the war of 1834-5 creates irritation on the 



Synoptical Index, 219 

frontier of the Cape Colony by advocating the Kaffir cause, 
ii 93 ; is the organ of the party opposed to Sir Benjamin 
D'Urbans arrangements after the close of the war, ii 136 ; 
supports the measures carried out by Lieutenant-Governor 
Stockenstrom, ii 155 ; note upon, ii 156 ; in the war of 
1846-7 advocates the same principles as all other colonial 
newspapers, Hi 63 

COMMERCIAL CRISIS IN NATAL IN 1865: 

particulars concerning, iv 171 

Commercial exchange in Capetown: 
in 1819 is founded, i 366 

Commission on Basuto laws and customs: 

in August 1872 is appointed, t; 78; in December sends in a 
report, which afterwards serves as a handbook, v 79 

Commission to carry out improvements in agriculture and stock- 
breeding : 
in May 1804 is appointed, i 158 ; account of its proceedings, 
i 159 et seq. 

Commissioner-General for the eastern province or the Cape 
Colony : 
in January 1828 this office is created, i 492 ; but from the 1st 
of January 1834 it is abolished, ii 84 

Commissioners of inquiry : 

are sent out by the imperial government, and in July 1823 arrive 
in South Africa, i 397 ; accoimt of then proceedings, ib. 

Communal responsibility : 

Bantu ideas regarding, Hi 244 

Comparison of the military strength in 1865 of the Orange 
Free State and the Basuto tribe, iv 228 

Concordia copper mine : 
account of the, Hi 87 

Condition of the Bantu tribes between the Limpopo and tbdb 
Zambesi in 1854, Hi 411 

Conference at Jammeeberg Drift on the 7th of October 1864, 
at which the Free State and Basuto commissioners lay 
statements of their cases before Sir Philip Wodehouse, 
iv 219 

Consistories of the Dutch reformed church : 
constitution of, ii 222 



220 History of South Africa. 

CONSTANTLY WINE : 

for a long time sixty aams are claimed every year by the govern- 
ment at a fixed price, % 74 

Constitution of the Cape Colony : 

proceedings connected with the framing of the, iii 119 to 134; 
particulars concerning, Hi 135 

Constitution amendment act (introduction of responsible govern- 
ment) : 
particulars concerning its adoption by the house of assembly and 
rejection by the legislative council of the Cape Colony in 1871, 
iv 126 ; in April 1872 it is again brought before the Cape 
parliament, iv 13C ; in June is passed by both houses, iv 139 ; 
in August is approved by the queen, and on the 28th of November 
is promulgated by proclamation, iv 146 

Constitution of the Orange Free State : 

in March and April 1854 is framed by the volksraad, Hi 443 ; 
in 1864 is amended, iv 211 

Constitution of nine articles : 

on the 6th of June 1837 is adopted by the emigrant farmers at 
Winburg, ii 306 

Constitution of the South African Republic : 

in December 1856 is framed by an assembly of delegates repre- 
senting the districts of Potchefstroom, Rustenburg, and Pretoria, 
Hi 423 

Constitution of Natal : 

particulars concerning, iii 268 

Construction of roads in the Cape Colony by convict labour: 
particulars of the system introduced in 1843, H 230 

Convention of Bloemfontein of the 23rd of February 1854 : 
terms of, iii 364 

Convicts : 

successful resistance by the Cape colonists to the introduction of, 
Hi 72 

Coode, Sir John : 

designs as a marine engineer the harbour works in Table Bay, 
iii 168 and iv 10 ; in 1870 furnishes plans for the improve- 
ment of East London, Port Alfred, and Algoa Bay, iv 111 

Cooke, Launcelot : 

is a formidable opponent of Lord Charles Somerset, i 424 



Synoptical Index. 221 

Cooper, Lieutenant-Colonel Henry : 

from the 3rd of March 1855 to the 5th of November 1856 acts 
as lieutenant-governor of Natal, Hi 228 

Copper : 

in 1837 is procurable at the Zoutpansberg, ii 280 ; is found in 
great abundance in Little Namaqualand, Hi 84 ; wild specula- 
tion in mining there, Hi 85 ; progressive exportation of copper 
ore, Hi 87 

Copper coin : 

value of in 1800 in South Africa, i 2 

Cornells Oasib, chief of the red nation (Hottentots) in Great 
Namaqualand : 
mention of, v 97 

DA Costa, Jose Marques, captain of Sofala : 

in 1836 is killed in battle with the Matshangana, v 139 

COTTERILL, RIGHT REVEREND Dr. HENRY : 

in May 1857 becomes bishop of Grahamstown, Hi 144 

Cotton planting in Natal : 

account of experiments in, Hi 259 and iv 163 ; a small quantity 
is exported, Hi 265 

Cotton : 

experiments in the cultivation of in the Cape Colony, iv 112 ; 
quantities exported from 1867 to 1871, ib. 

Council of advice : 

in 1825 is created in the Cape Colony, t 398 ; constitution, 
powers, and duties of, ib. ; in 1828 two officials having seats 
in this council are replaced by two colonists nominated by the 
governor and approved of by the secretary of state for the 
colonies, i 494 ; in 1834 the council of advice is superseded by 
the creation of distinct executive and legislative councils, ii 47 

County Councils : 

in 1854 are created in Natal, Hi 267 ; in 1857 are abolished, 
iv 165 

Court of commissioners for the trial of petty cases in the Cape 
district : 
in March 1809 is abolished, and a court of landdrost and heem- 
raden is substituted, i 225 

Courts of appeal in the Cape Colony: 
particulars eoneerning, i 33 



222 History of South Africa. 



COUETS OF JUSTICE IN NaTAL : 

particulars concerning, iv 165 

Courts or landdrost and heemraden in the Cape Colony : 

in 1797 have their powers enlarged, i 33 ; on the 1st of January 
1828 are abolished, and in their stead civil commissioners and 
resident magistrates are appointed, i 492 

Court of Vice Admiralty: 

in 1797 is established in Capetown, i 34 ; and again in 1806 ; 
on the 1st of January 1828 it is abolished, and its duties are 
transferred to the chief justice of the colony, i 490 

Cowan, Dr. : 

with Lieutenant Donovan in 1808 leads an exploring expedition 
into the interior, and perishes, i 228 

Cowie, Dr. : 

with Mr. Benjamin Green in 1829 travels from the Cape Colony 
by way of Natal to Delagoa Bay, ii 340 ; and perishes of 
fever when trying to return, ib. 

Cowie, William : 

in May 1838 is appointed fieldcornet of Port Natal, ii 377 ; on 
the 22nd of December 1844 is appointed first postmaster at 
Durban, »»' 461 

Cox, Major William: 

in January 1835, during the sixth Kaffir war, commands the 
patrol that commences operations against the Xosas, ii 96 ; 
in March commands one of the four divisions of the army which 
enters Kaffirland, ii 102 ; five months later assists in the con- 
ference by which the war is brought to an end, ii 124 

Cradock, district in the Cape province : 

on the 6th of February 1837 is created, ii 164 

Cradock, village of : 

in July 1812 a deputy landdrost of Graaff-Reinet is stationed at 
this place, t 257 ; which in January 1814 receives the name 
Cradock, ib. ; in June 1818 a congregation of the Dutch re- 
formed church is established, * 258 ; in March 1825 the sub- 
drostdy is abolished, i 394 

Cradock, Lieutenant-General Sir John Francis : 

is appointed governor of the Cape Colony, and in September 
1811 assumes the duty, » 249; in 1813 makes a tour through 
the colony, t 266 ; requests permission to return to England, 
i 274 ; in April 1814 transfers the government to Lord Charles 
Somerset, and on the 1st of May leaves South Africa, ib. 



Synoptical Index. 223 

Craig, Major- General James Henry : 

is appointed by Admiral Elphinstone and General Clarke com- 
mandant of the town and settlement of the Cape of Good 
Hope, i 6 ; and on the loth of November 1795 becomes head 
of the Cape government with this title, ib. ; in May 1797 
transfers the administration to Lord Macartney, and proceeds 
to Bengal, i 27 

Craig, John Moore : 

from the 10th of June 1841 to the 23rd of April 1843 acta as 
secretary to government in the Cape Colony, ii 214 

Crown land in Natal : 

in 1856 is offered to settlers on military tenure, Hi 257 

da Cruz, Joaqulm Jose : see Xyaude 

da Cruz, Antonio Vicente : see Bonga 

CuMMiNG, Thomas A. : 

in October 1869 is appointed superintendent at Idutywp, iv 60 

CUNGWA, CHIEF OF THE GUNUKWEBE CLAN OF XOSAS : 

in January 1812 is killed in war, i 255 

CUNYNGHAME, GENERAL SlR ARTHUR : 

in 1875 accompanies a military force sent to the diamond-fields 
to restore order, iv 417 

Currie, Sir Donald : 

in 1876 assists very materially in the arrangement of matters 
between Great Britain and the Orange Free State, iv 421 

Currie, Sir Walter : 

in 1855 is appointed commandant of the frontier armed and 
mounted police, in 148 ; in August 1857 breaks up a Tembu 
robber band, in 215 ; mention of, iv 47, 48, and 49 ; in March 
1861 visits the Pondo chief Faku, who offers to cede Nomans- 
land to the Cape government, iv 66 ; in March 1862 visits 
Nomansland to try to arrange the western boundary of Natal, 
iv 67 ; in 1865 assists in laying down the southern boundary 
of Natal, iv 166 ; on the 14th of March 1868 is appointed 
high commissioner's agent in Basutoland, iv 304 ; in 1869 with 
one hundred and fifty of the frontier armed and mounted 
police is sent to the northern border to conduct operations 
against the Koranas, iv 98 ; where his health breaks down, so 
that he is forced to retire, iv 99 ; in June 1872 dies, ib. 



224 History of South Africa. 

Cubits, Vice Admiral Sir Roger : 

in December 1799 assumes command of the fleet on the Cape 
station, i 71 

Customs duties : 

as levied under the government of General Craig, t 31; as 
levied during the remainder of the first British occupation, i 32 ; 
as levied under the Batavian administration, i 106 ; as estab- 
lished in 1806, i 214; as established in 1808, 1810, and 1813, 
i 272 ; as established in 1822, i 373 ; particulars concerning 
various changes between 1834 and 1850, ii 205 ; particulars 
concerning the great changes that came in force on the 4th 
of May 1855, Hi 149 ; in 1864 they are increased to ten per 
cent, ad valorem, iv 35 ; particulars concerning the customs 
duties of British Kafir-aria, Hi 224 ; particulars concerning the 
customs duties of Natal, Hi 264 and iv 161 ; customs duties 
at Portuguese ports on the eastern coast after 1853, v 142 

Cuyler, Captain Jacob Glen : 

in January 1806 becomes landdrost of Uitenhage, i 212 ; in 1815 
commands the combined military and burgher forces against a 
party of insurgents, i 295 ; acts as public prosecutor at the 
trial of the insurgents, i 298; on the 14th of April 1854 
dies at Cuyler Manor in Uitenhage 



Dalasile, head of the Amakwati clans op the Tembu tribe : 
particulars concerning, iv 56 and 58 

DAMAR ALAND : 

the coast is examined in 1879 by her Majesty's ship Swallow 
without finding a landing place north of Walfish Bay, v 118 

Damara tribe : see Hereros 

Dane, Union Company's steamer : 

on the 1st of December 1865 is wrecked near Cape Recife, iv 78 

Daniell, Lieutenant Richard : 

is one of the early breeders of merino sheep in the district of 
Albany, ii 40 

Daniell, Samuel, artist : 

in 1801 visits the Batlapin country, and makes portraits of animals 
and pictures of scenes there, i 99 

Danser, David, Bushman captain : 

in 1839 sells a tract of land containing the present diamond mines 
at Kimberley and Dutoitspan to David Stephanus Fourie ii 



Synoptical Index. 225 

496 ; in 1849 is provided by the Sovereignty government with 
a location along the southern bank of the Vaal river, Hi 310 ; 
on the abandonment of the Sovereignty by the British govern- 
ment in February 1854 is left in an independent position, Hi 
442 ; disposes of farms in the location assigned to him, Hi 445 ; 
in September 1854 is at. war with the Korana captain Goliath 
Yzerbek, Hi 455 ; expels his opponent from their joint location, 
ib. ; is compelled by the Free State government to restore 
his booty and permit Goliath to return, ib. ; in 1858 aids the 
Free State against Scheel Kobus and Goliath Yzerbek, Hi 487 

Danser, Jan : 

in 1859 sells to the Free State the location along the Vaal 
assigned by the Sovereignty government to his deceased father 
David Danser, iv 183 

Darala, Tembu chief : 

particulars concerning, iv 50 and 54 

Darling, Charles Henry, Esqre. : 

is appointed lieutenant-governor of the Cape Colony, Hi 107 ; on 
the 24th of March 1852 arrives in Capetown, Hi 108 ; acts as 
head of the Cape government from the 26th of May to the 
5th of December 1854, Hi 140 and 145 

Daumas, Kev. Mr., of the Paris evangelical society : 

in 1837 commences a mission at Mekuatling with the Bataung 
under Molitsane, ii 464 ; action of in 1869 in association with 
Mr. D. D. Buchanan, iv 323 

David Christian, captain of the |Amaqua, an immigrant Hottentot 
clan living at Bethany in Great Namaqu aland : 
mention of, v 95, 102, and 112; on the 11th of November 1880 
is killed in battle with the Hereros at New Barmen, v 122 

Davids, Peter: 

succeeds Barend Barends as captain of a clan of Griquas, i 481 ; 
and in December 1833 is induced by Wesleyan missionaries to 
settle with his people at Lishuane, * 482 ; in 1834 while hunting 
along the Vaal river is surprised by a party of Matabele soldiers, 
who carry off his daughter and a nephew, * 484 ; in January 
1837 assists the emigrant farmers against the Matabele, ii 300 ; 
complains of the injustice done to him by the treaty of 1843 
between Sir George Napier and the Basuto chief Moshesh, 
ii 483 ; in June 1846 assists Major Warden to disperse the 
adherents of Jan Kock, ii 500 ; shortly after this event the 
members of his little clan move away in different directions, 
and he ceases to be of any importance, ii 501 

VOL. V. Q 



226 History of South Africa. 

Davidson, J. C, treasurer- general : 

in 1871 signs a memorandum in antagonism to the introduction 
of responsible government in the Cape Colony, iv 118; in 
December 1872, upon the introduction of responsible government, 
retires on pension, iv 147 

David Witbooi, captain of the Hottentot clan at Gibeon in 
Great Namaqualand : 
mention of, v 103 

Da vies, Lieutenant David, of the 90th regiment: 

in January 1847 is appointed superintendent of Kaffir police, and 
is stationed at Alice, Hi 43 

Davis, Rev. W. J., Wesleyan missionary at Clarkebury: 

iD April 1835 during the Kaffir war is rescued by a military 
patrol, ii 111 

Dawson, William : 

in July 1822 arrives from Scotland, and is appointed teacher of 
the high school at George, i 371 

Debt, colonial public : 

is paid off during the government of Sir George Napier and Sir 
Peregrine Maitland, ii 198 

De Caen, General : 

on the 3rd of December 1810 surrenders the island of Mauritius 
to an English force, i 243 

Defensive force of the Cape Colony in 1872 : 
particulars concerning, iv 149 

Delagoa Bay : 

events in 179G and 1797 at, * 20 ; in 1829 is visited by an 
exploring expedition from the Cape Colony, ii 310 ; condition 
of the Bantu on its shores in 1823, v 129 ; commerce in 1823 
at, v 130 ; is considered by Captain Owen as of much impor- 
tance to Great Britain, v 131, 132, and 135; in October 1833 
the Portuguese fort is destroyed by the Matshangana and the 
whole garrison is murdered, v 138 ; account of the arbitration 
case between Great Britain and Portugal concerning the owner- 
ship of, v 149 and 150 ; see Lourenco Marques 

Delancey, Captain Peter : 

in January 1836 is sent on a diplomatic mission to the chiefs 
Kreli, Vadana, Faku, and Ncapayi, ii 132 

Delport, Petrus Jacobus : 

in 1798 is banished from the Cape Colony by Lord Macartney, 
i 30 ; effect of this act, i 49 



Synoptical Index. 227 

Denyssen, Daniel: 

from 1803 to 1806 is a judge in the high court of justice, i 
118; in August 1812 becomes fiscal; on the 1st of January 
1828 retires with a pension, * 491 ; on the 18th of February 
1855 dies 

Denyssen, Advocate Pieter Jan : 

is the first secretary of the municipality of Capetown, ii 168 

De Pass, Daniel : 

acquires extensive concessions in Great Namaqualand, v 125 

Destruction op life in the country along the Drakenseero 
by the early zulu wars : 
estimate of, * 447 

Devereux, the right reverend Aid an : 

in 1847 becomes the first Roman catholic bishop in Grahams- 
town, Hi 72 ; on the 11th of February 1854 dies, ib. 

Diamonds : 

account of the first found in South Africa, iv 91 ; in 1867 a 
trader named O'Reilly obtains from a farmer named Schalk 
van Niekerk a pebble — afterwards proved to be a diamond — found 
in the district of Hopetown in the Cape Colony, iv 344 ; search 
is then made, and several others are found in the Hopetown 
district and along the northern bank of the Vaal, ib. ; in March 
1869 the " Star of South Africa ' : is obtained from a Bantu 
witchfinder, ib. ; by the close of 1869 it is ascertained that 
diamonds in large numbers are to be found above the junction 
of the Hart and Vaal rivers, iv 345 ; diggers then proceed to 
that locality from all parts of South Africa, ib. ; early in 1870 
diamonds are found on the Free State side of the river, iv 
349 ; in June 1870 the diggings at Pniel are opened, ib. ; a 
little later in the year the dry diggings at Dutoitspan are dis- 
covered, iv 350; and in June 1871 the present Kimberley 
mine is opened, iv 352; value of exports of, iv 412; sensa- 
tional thefts of, iv 401 and 402 ; account of diamond digging 
in 1871, iv 394 to 396 

DIAMOND FIELDS : 

riots at, iv 397, 403, 416, and 417 

Diamond fields horse : 

in 1878 perform excellent service in the war between the Xosas 
and the Cape Colony, iv 426 

Diamond mines : 

condition in 1877 of, iv 423 



228 History of South Africa, 

Diamond steamship company : 
particulars concerning, iv 38 

DlNGANA (BY EUROPEANS TERMED DlNGAN) t 

on the 23rd of September 1828 with two others murders his 
brother Tshaka, ii 335 ; shortly afterwards with his own hand 
assassinates one of his fellow conspirators, ii 338 ; and then 
becomes chief of the Zulu tribe, ib. ; in which capacity he 
displays the vilest qualities, ii 338 ; description of his habits, 
ii 336 ; a few months after his accession to power he causes 
Matiwane, the Amangwane chief, to be starved to death, i 454 ; 
he invites the Europeans at Port Natal to remain there for 
trading purposes, ii 338 ; in October 1830 sends an embassy 
with a present of ivory to the governor of the Cape Colony, 
but it is not received, ii 340 ; which greatly irritates him, ii 
341 ; in September 1832 sends an army against Moselekatse, 
but it is defeated and obliged to retreat, i 475 ; in 1834 to 
give confidence to the Europeans at Port Natal he withdraws 
his soldiers from the southern side of the lower Tugela, ii 342 ; 
in June 1835 makes Captain Gardiner chief of the Natal people 
and gives him permission to establish two mission stations, 
ii 347 ; also gives the American missionaries leave to form 
stations in his country, ii 348 ; claims dominion over the whole 
territory between the Drakcnsberg and the sea as far south as 
the Umzimvubu, ii 349 ; during the winter of 1837 sends an 
expedition against Moselekatse, which secures much spoil, ii 317 ; 
receives a letter from Sir Benjamin D'Urban, ii 341 ; in 
November 1837 promises Pieter Retief a tract of land on con- 
dition of recovering some cattle stolen from the Zulus by 
Sikonycla's Batlokua, it 355 ; a large body of emigrants then 
goes down into Natal, ii 356 ; the condition being fulfilled, 
on the 4th of February 1838 he cedes to the emigrant farmers 
the territory between the Tugela and Umzimvubu rivers, ii 
359 ; having succeeded in throwing Retief and his companions 
off their guard, on the 6th he causes them all to be murdered, 
ii 360 ; immediately afterwards sends his warriors to exterminate 
the emigrants in Natal, ii 364 ; and on the 17th another 
dreadful massacre takes place, ib. ; some of the emigrants, how- 
ever, receive warning in time, and successfully defend themselves 
in lagers, ib. ; on the 11th of April his army defeats an emigrant 
commando under Hendrik Potgieter and Pieter Uys, ii 371 ; 
and on the 17 th of the same month in a desperate battle 
almost annihilates the Englishmen and blacks of Natal, ii 373 ; 
the army afterwards destroys everything of value at Durban, 
ii 374 ; in August it is again sent against the emigrants in 



Synoptical Index. 229 

Natal, but is beaten back with heavy loss, ii 378 ; on the 
16th of December 1338 at the Blood river it suffers a crushing 
defeat from the emigrant farmers under Commandant -General 
Andries Pretorius, ii 381 ; Dingana then sets fire to his kraal 
and takes shelter in the thickets along the Umvolosi river, 
ii 382 ; in and after March 1839 he makes insincere overtures for 
peace to the emigrant farmers, it 387 ; in September of this 
year hi3 brother Panda conspires against him, ii 391 ; the 
emigrant farmers assist the rebel, ii 392 ; on the 30th of 
January 1840 Dingana's army is defeated with very heavy loss, 
and he then flees to the border of the Swazi country, ii 395 ; 
where he is shortly afterwards assassinated, ib. ; his downfall 
enables the remnants of defeated tribes to emerge from their 
hiding places and form themselves into settled communities, 
ii 463 

DlNGISWAYO, CHIEF OF THE ABATETWA : 

goes through some strange adventures before acquiring power, 
i 435 ; from his becoming chief to his death carries on aggres- 
sive war against his neighbours, t 436 ; is captured and put 
to death by Zwide, chief of the Nwandwe, ii 330 

Diocesan college at Rondebosch near Capetown : 
foundation of, in 71 

Discord at the beginning of 1858 in the Orange Free State, 
Hi 468 

Discord ln the South African Republic : 
result of, iv 453 

Diseases of cattle : see Cattle diseases 

Disputes concerning the ownership of the territory nr which 

THE PRINCIPAL DIAMOND MINES ARE SITUATED, IV 346, 355 et 

seq., 360 et seq. ; and v 24 et seq. 

Distress of the British settlers caused by the great flood 
of October 1823 : 
account of the, i 390 

Distress in the Cape Colony caused by severe drought : 
in 1867 reaches an acute point, iv 83 

District : 

this word is defined by a proclamation of Sir George Napier 
on the 5th of February 1839 to mean the area under the 
jurisdiction of a resident magistrate, ii 228 



230 History of South Africa. 

District secretary : 

before the appointment of civil commissioners in 1828 the duties 
of the oincer who held this title were to keep the records of 
the district, to prepare the yearly statistical returns of popula- 
tion, cattle, produce, &c, to receive the local taxes, to take 
minutes of the proceedings of the board of landdrost and heem- 
raden, and to draft the correspondence of that board. Except 
in the Cape and Stellenbosch districts, the secretaries were the 
only auctioneers allowed, and were responsible to government 
for the duties on sales. After the establishment of the circuit 
court, another officer was appointed at each drostdy, with the 
title of district clerk. He was required to have some know- 
ledge of law, as it was his duty to prepare all the proceedings 
in criminal cases before the arrival of the judges, and to 
summon the parties and witnesses in civil cases to attend 

Division : 

this word is defined by a proclamation of Sir George Napier on 
the 5th of February 1839 to mean the area under the adminis- 
tration of a civil commissioner, ii 228 

Division of the Cape Colony into two provinces in January 
1828: 
details of the, t 492 

Divisional councils : 

in 1855 are created in the Cape Colony, Hi 149 

Dock in Table Bay : 

particulars concerning, iv 10 ; on the 17th of May 1870 is opened 
for use, iv 111 

DONCASTER, THE : 

on the 17th of July 1836 is wrecked near Cape Agulhas, ii 243 

Donker Malgas : 

in 1878 is a leader of the insurgents in Griqualand West, iv 
427 ; on the 5th of June of that year his stronghold in the 
Langcbcrgen is taken by storm, iv 428 

Donkin, Sir Rufane Shawe : 

on the 12th of January 1820 becomes acting governor during the 
absence on leave of Lord Charles Somerset, i 320 ; overturns 
Lord Charles Somerset's frontier measures, t 361 ; alters the 
plan of Fort Wiltshire, i 3G3 ; does not meet Lord Charles 
Somerset after his resumption of the government in November 
1821, i 369 ; but returns to England and engages there in 
bringing the faults of the Cape government to notice, ib ; on 
the 1st of May 18-11 dies, ii 232 



Synoptical Index. 231 

DORDRECHT, VILLAGE DT THE CaPE PEOVTNCE : 

in 1857 is founded, iv 131 ; in 1871 becomes the seat of magis- 
tracy of the district of Wodehouse, ib. 

Douglas, Sir Percy : 

in November 1863 succeeds Lieutenant-General Wynyard as com- 
mander-in-chief of the British forces in South Africa, ii 48 

Doyle, Major-Geneeal : 

during Major-General Craig's absence in August 1796 commands 
the troops in Capetown, i 15 

Deeyee, Hendrik Oostewald, chalrman of the yolkseaad or THE 
Orange Fkee State : 
on the 29 th of March 1866 is killed in action with the Basuto, 
iv 272 

Deeyee, Thomas : 

takes part in the battle of Boomplaats against the British forces, 
is afterwards captured, and is punished with death, Hi 292 

Deostdles : 

during the governments of Sir George Napier and Sir Peregrine 
Mr.itland all except the one at Worcester are sold to aid in 
the extinction of the colonial debt, ii 237 

Drought in the Cape Colony in 1859 : 

particulars concerning, Hi 176 ; effects of severe drought, iv 21 

Duckitt, William : 

in September 1800 arrives from England as superintendent of the 
agricultural department, » 75 

Dugmoee, Rev. Mb., Wesleyan missionary at Mount Coke : 

at the beginning of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 takes refuge at 
Wesleyville, and is there rescued by a party of volunteers, 
ii 99 

Dundas, Major-General Francis : 

in May 1797 becomes lieutenant-governor and commander of the 
forces in the Cape Colony, t 27; in November 1798 on the 
retirement of Lord Macartney becomes acting governor, % 48 ; 
and until December 1799 carries on the administration, ib. ; 
from April 1801 to February 1803 again acts as governor, i 80 ; 
on the 21st of February 1803 transfers the colony to the 
Batavian commissioner-general De Mist, i 111 ; on the 5th of 
March 1803 sails for England, i 113 



232 History of South Africa. 

Dundas, Captain William Bolden : 

in January 1S25 is appointed lancldrost of Albany, i 391 ; in 
January 1828 becomes civil commissioner of Albany and Somerset, 
i 492 ' 

Duplessis, Fieldcornet Daniel: 
mention of, i 4 

Duplooy, Commandant Jacobus : 

is head of a party of emigrant farmers in the territory north of 
the Orange river, and assists in hostilities against the Griquas 
of Adam Kok, ii 488 ; on the 2nd of May 1845 takes part 
in the skirmish at Zwartkopjes against British troops and 
Griquas, ii 490 ; after the defeat flees to Winburg, ii 491 ; 
in September 1847 is sent from Winburg to Grahamstown to 
seek redress from Sir Henry Pottinger for some acts of Major 
Warden, in 250 ; but cannot even obtain an interview with 
the high commissioner, ib. 

Duprat, Chevalier, consul-general for Portugal in South Africa : 
objects to the boundaries of the South African Republic as defined 
in a proclamation issued by President Pretorius on the 29th 
of April 1868, v 16; is empowered by the government of 
Portugal to conclude a treaty with the South African Republic, 
v 22 ; which treaty is signed on the 29th of July 1869, ib. 

Durand, Commandant Jan : 

in December 1825 assists in an expedition against the chief tainess 
Susa, ii 2 ; on the 27th of August 1828 with one hundred and 
twenty burghers assists in defeating the Amangwane, i 454 

DT: ban, Lady : 

in 1836 founds a girls' school of industry at Wynberg, ii 172 ; 
on the 23rd of August 1843 dies in Capetown, ib. 

D'Urban, Major-General Sir Benjamin : 

on the 16th of January 1834 assumes duty as governor of the 
Cape Colony, ii 29 ; on the 20th of January 1835 arrives in 
Grahamstown and assumes command of the forces collected to 
oppose the Xosas, ii 97 ; after the cessation of resistance by 
the Rarabe clans, on the 15th of April crosses the Kei into 
the Galeka territory, ii 108 ; on the 30th of April concludes 
peace with Hintsa, ii 112; and on the 19th of May, after 
Hintsa's death, with the young chief Krcli, ii 117 ; on the 
10th of May issues a proclamation annexing to the British 
dominions the territory from the frontier of the Cape Colony 
to the Kei river, ii 114; on the 11th of June transfers the 
direct command of the forces in the field to Colonel Smith, 



Synoptical Index. 233 

U 121 ; and on the 17th of September brings the war to an 
end by receiving the Rarabe clans as British subjects, ii 125 ; 
forms an excellent plan for the government of the Kaffirs in 
the province of Queen Adelaide, ii 129 ; on the 14th of October 
extends the north-eastern boundary of the colony to the Kraai 
river, ii 133 ; on the 30th of December reaches Capetown again, 
ii 135 ; is greatly esteemed by the colonists, ib. ; but is very 
unfavourably regarded by Lord Glenelg, secretary of state, 
ii 145 ; as they hold different views on many subjects, ii 169 ; 
and the tone of his despatches gives great offence, ii 171 ; in 
January 1837 he becomes a lieutenant-general, ii 172 ; but a 
few months later is dismissed from office as governor, ii 171 ; 
on the 22nd of January 1838 transfers the duty to his successor, 
ii 172 ; but remains until April 1846 in South Africa, ib. ; 
is then appointed commander-in-chief of the forces in British 
North America, ib. ; and acts in that capacity until the 25th 
of May 1849, when he dies at Montreal, ib. 

D'Ueban, Major W. J. : 

account of the relief of the British troops at Port Natal in June 
1842 given by, ii 429 et seq. 

D'Ubban, W. S. M., Esqre. : 

presents a very valuable collection of documents to the Union 
of South Africa, ii 275 

Durban gold mining company : 
disastrous fate of, v 11 

Durban, town of : 

on the 23rd of June 1835 is laid out and named by some English- 
men living at Port Natal, ii 344 ; in May 1854 becomes a 
municipality, in 267 ; description of in 1872, iv 174 

DUSHANE, MINOR SON OF THE XOSA CHIEF NDLAMBE : 

upon the death of Cebo, right hand son of Rarabe, without 
leaving an heir, is chosen to succeed that chief, i 328 ; for 
a long time takes no part in the contest for power between 
Gaika and Ndlambe, ib. ; as he advances in years displays 
greater ability than any other chief in Kaffirland, ib. ; ' is not 
on good terms with his father, owing to his mother being ill- 
treated, i 329 ; but early in 1818 a reconciliation takes place, 
and thereafter their clans act in alliance, though remaining 
distinct, ib. ; on the 22nd of April 1819 is the leader of one 
of the columns that attack Grahanistown, i 337 ; in January 
1S24 concludes an agreement of friendship with the colonial 
government, ii 6 ; in 1828 dies, ii 50 



234 History of South Africa, 

Dutch reformed church in the Cape Colony : 

in July 1804 is placed under control of the civil authorities by 
an ordinance of Commissioner- General De Mist, * 154 ; in 
November 1824 the first synod meets, i 404 ; in 1862 establishes 
a mission among Bantu in the South African Republic, iv 467 ; 
further particulars concerning, i 103, 269, and 370; ii 11, 18, 
216, 221, and 246; in 144, 206 et sea., and 309; iv 215, 436, 
466, and 477 

Dutch reformed church in the Cape Colony : 

extension of, the first elders and deacons are approved by the 
government on the 

O 

31st of May 1798 for the congregation at Swellendam, % 41 ; 
27th of May 1811 for the congregation at Caledon, i 227 ; 
9th of February 1813 for the congregation at George, i 226 ; 
19th of June 1816 for the congregation at Uitenhage, i 315 ; 
10th of June 1818 for the congregation at Cradock, i 258 ; 
10th of August 1819 for the congregation at Somerset West, 

i 316; 
16th of May 1820 for the congregation at Beaufort West, i 309 ; 
25th of January 1821 for the congregation at Worcester, i 310 ; 
28th of July 1825 for the congregation at Colesberg, i 405 ; 
26th of October 1825 for the congregation at Somerset East, 

i 406; 
12th of July 1826 for the congregation at Durbanville, * 406 ; 
17th of August 1826 for the congregation at Clanwilliam, % 406 ; 
17th of July 1829 for the congregation at Glen Lynden, ii 23 ; 
2nd of September 1829 for the congregation at Wynberg, ii 23 ; 
for the congregation of Riebeek East on the 9th of March 
1830 the oivil commissioner of Albany was directed by the 
secretary to government to nominate elders and deacons for 
the governor's approval. The next letter on the subject to be 
found in Capetown is from the reverend Alexander Smith, of 
Uitenhage, stating that he had ordained the elders and deacons 
in January 1831, and that on the 22nd of April 1831 the 
presbytery of Graaff-Reinet had appointed the reverend Mr. 
Morgan, of Somerset East, consulent of the new congregation. 
The church at Stockenstrom was founded by the reverend 
William Ritchie Thomson, government missionary, who in July 
1830 was introduced to the members of the Dutch church there 
by the reverend Mr. Morgan, of Somerset East, but who found 
no persons competent to fill the offices of elders and deacons. 
On the 2nd of June 1831 Mr. Thomson joined the Dutch re- 
formed church. Provisional officers acted until the 5th of 



Synoptical Index. 235 

April 1834, when elders and deacons nominated by the civil 
commissioner of Albany were ordained by Mr. Thomson, though 
they were not formally confirmed by the governor until the 
11th of December 1834. The church at Piketberg was organised 
by the reverend William Robertson, of Clanwilliam, in accordance 
with a recommendatior of the presbytery of the Cape in 1831, 
which received the full approval of the governor. Elders and 
deacons nominated by the civil commissioner of the Cape were 
ordained by Mr. Robertson about or before the 17th of October 
1833, but none were formally a/pproved by the governor until 
the 23rd of October 1834, when the clergyman of Malmesbury 
was appointed consulent. On the 27 th of April 1839 elders 
and deacons were approved by the governor for the church in 
Riversdale ; on the 27th of April 1839 for the church in Bredas- 
dorp ; on the 22nd of June 1840 for the church in Wellington ; 
on the 24th of November 1842 for the church in Prince Albert; 
on the 2nd of November 1843 for the church in Richmond. 
For Victoria West a list of names for approval of elders and 
deacons was submitted by the presbytery of Beaufort to the 
governor, who on the 3rd of November 1843 declined to con- 
firm them on the ground that the establishment of a congrega- 
tion there had not been sanctioned by him. To a further 
communication the secretary to government was directed to 
reply to the presb3 T tery clerk, 12th of December 1843, that 
" his Excellency saw no occasion for submitting the names of 
any consistories for his approval, and much less the names of 
consistories in congregations not supported by government." 
The churches from this date forward were free of control in 
the appointment of their elders and deacons, though as a matter 
of courtesy the governor approved on the 9th of May 1845 
of the names submitted to him for the consistory of the new 
congregation at French Hoek. See Burghersdorp, Kruisvallei, 
Mossel Bay, and Victoria West. After the 14th of May 
1845 the salaries of church clerks, sextons, organists, and bell- 
ringers ceased to be paid by government, and the churches 
were left free in the appointments to these offices 

Dutoit, Andbies : 

in the war of 1846-7 is commandant of the Worcester burghers, 
Hi 22 

Dutoit, Rev. A. F. : 

in June 1840 becomes the first resident clergyman of Wellington, 

a 219 



236 History of South Africa, 

Dutoit, Jacobus Johannes : 

is one of the first unofficial members of the legislative council of 
the Cape Colony established in 1834, ii 48 

Dyason, George : 

in March 1848 becomes resident magistrate of Bathurst, Hi 70 



Earthquake, shocks of : 

are felt in Capetown in December 1809 and June 1811, i 246; 
and on the 11th of November 1835, ii 169 

Eastern districts court of the Cape Colony: 
in 1865 is established, iv 37 

Eastern province of the Cape Colony: 

the English inhabitants desire to have a government separate from 
that of the western province, ii 240 ; but in November 1847 
the last lieutenant-governor is withdrawn, ii 242 

Eastern Provisce, Diamond company's steamship : 

on the 26th of June 1865 is wrecked near the mouth of Ratel 
River, iv 38 

Eastern Province bank : 

in 1839 is founded in Grahamstown, ii 226 

Eastern Province fire and life assurance company: 
in 1839 is founded in Grahamstown, ii 226 

East London (at the mouth of the Buffalo river) : 

on the 14th of January 1848 is annexed to the Cape Colony, 
m 66 ; in October 1856 the construction of harbour works is 
commenced, Hi 190 ; on the 9th of July 1859 is restored to 
British Kaftraria, Hi 223 ; particulars concerning the improve- 
ment of the harbour of, iv 131 ; on the 26th of May 1872 in 
a gale seven vessels are wrecked at, iv 150 

Ebden, John Bardwell : 

is one of the first unofficial members of the legislative council of 
the Cape Colony established in 1834, ii 48 ; is chairman of 
the anti-convict association, Hi 11 

Ebden, Advocate John Watts : 

on the 22nd of September 1852 is appointed assistant commis- 
sioner in the Orange River Sovereignty, Hi 330 ; on the 7th 
of October 1851 becomes second puisne judge in the supreme 
court of the Cape Colony, Hi 147 



Synoptical Index. 237 

Ecclesiastical statistics of the Cape Colony : 

in 1825, i 410 ; see Dutch reformed, English episcopal, Roman 
catholic, Wesleyan, &c. 

Ecclesiastical mattees in the Orange Feee State: 
particulars concerning, iv 215 and 216 

ECCLESLISTICAL MATTERS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC: 

particulars concerning, iv 436 and 466 

Edeman, Cornelis : 

seditious conduct of, t 50; is publicly flogged and banished from 
the colony, i 74 

Edenburg, village in the Orange Free State : 
in February 1862 is founded, iv 208 

Edgar, Rev. James : 

in May 1828 becomes the first resident clergyman of Dnrbanyille. 
* 406 

Education in the Cape Colony: 
progress of, iv 149 ; see Schools 

Education in Natal : 

particulars concerning, iv 164 

Edwards, Rev. Roger : 

in 1852 is a missionary of the London society residing with the 
Bakatla clan at Mabotsa, Hi 402 ; is brought to trial for libel 
and sentenced to banishment from the South African Republic, 
Hi 403 

Edwards, William: 

particulars concerning his career in South Africa and his opposition 
to Lord Charles Somerset, i 417 

Ed ye, W. M: 

in March 1848 becomes resident magistrate of Fort Peddie, Hi 70 

Efforts to improve the breed of horses, horned cattle, and 
sheep in the Cape Colony : 
particulars concerning, i 76 and 158 

Egan, Dr. Charles James : 

is a physician in the Grey hospital in King-Williamstown, Hi 191 

Eighth Kaffir war : see War 

Eksteen, Hendrik Oostewald : 

treatment of by Lord Macartney, i 31 



238 History of South Africa. 

Electoral districts of Natal: 
particulars concerning, Hi 268 

Electors: 

number of in each province of the Cape Colony in 1872 and 1873, 
iv 141 

Electric telegraph : 

in 1863 is opened between Durban and Maritzburg, iv 172 

Elephant hunting : 

particulars concerning, iv 454 

Elim, Moravian mission station in the Cape Colony: 
in 1824 is founded, i 409 

Elizabeth and Susan, a small schooner : 

in 1828 is built on the southern shore of Port Natal, ii 332 ; 
in December of the same year is seized at Algoa Bay and 
detained by the authorities for being without a license, it 339 

Elphinstone, Admiral Sir George Keith : 

in August 1796 captures a Dutch fleet of nine ships of war in 
Saldanha Bay, i 16 

Elton, Captain : 

in 1870 explores the central course of the Limpopo river, v 150 
and 151 ; on the lDth of December 1877 dies 

Ely, military village near Alice in the Cape province : 

in January 1848 is founded, but in 1850 is abandoned, in 69 

Emigration of British settlers to the Cape Colony in 1820: 
particulars concerning, i 349 et seq. 

Emigration of Dutch-speaking people from the Cape Colony in 
and after 1836 ! 
causes of, ii 266 et seq. 

Emigration of white people from the Cape Colony to New 
Zealand and America : 
particulars concerning, iv 22, 39, and 96 

Encroachments by the Basuto tribe on Free State territory, 
iv 202 and 209 

England, Lieutenant-Colonel Richard : 

in 1834 is in command of the garrison of Grahamstown, it 86 ; 
on the 11th of February 1835 with a division of the British 
forces attacks the hostile Xosas in the thickets along the Fish 
river, ii 101 ; when the army enters Kaffirland in the following 
month he is left in command of the line of defence, iv 103 



Synoptical Index. 239 

English East India Company: 

privileges of in the Cape Colony from 1796 to 1803, i 33 ; in 
1803 its property in Capetown is confiscated, i 133 

English episcopal church : 

in October 1811 the first clergyman who is not a military chaplain 
is appointed in Capetown, i 270 ; its clergymen are under the 
superintendence of an ecclesiastical board in London, and to 
some extent also under the supervision of the senior chaplain 
in Capetown, ii 223 ; at the beginning of 1844 has nine con- 
gregations with clergymen in the Cape Colony, ib. ; further 
particulars concerning, i 105, 237, 317, 355, and 407, ii 17 
and 249, in 71, 144, and 225, iv 216, 282, and 466, v 80 

English language : 

after 1824 supersedes Dutch in the public offices of the Cape Colony 
and after 1827 in the courts of law, i 377 ; for a short time 
even jurymen are disqualified by two of the judges for not 
understanding it, i 495 

Englishmen in Natal before 1838 : 

particulars concerning, ii 324 et seq. ; some of them are obliged 
to assist the Zulus in war, ii 330 

English weights and measukes : 

since the 1st of January 1861 have been alone legal in the Cape 
Colony, iv 6 

Eno (correct Kaffir spelling Nqeno), chief of the Amambala 
clan of xosas : 
in 1826 takes possession of the western bank of the Keiskama, 
above the Gwanga, ii 5 ; in November 1834 is implicated in a 
theft of horses from the colony, ii 87 ; but upon Colonel 
Somerset's demand gives redress for this and other acts of 
violence by his people, ii 88 ; in December 1834 sends his 
followers to lay waste and plunder the frontier districts of 
the Cape Colony, ii 90 ; in January 1835 is attacked by a 
patrol under Major Cox, and suffers some loss, ii 96 ; con- 
tinues the conflict until the 17th of September, 1835, when he 
agrees to become a British subject, ii 125 ; on the 5th of 
December 1836 is released from his allegiance and enters into 
a treaty with the British government, ii 150 ; on the 2nd of 
December 1840 agrees to certain modifications of the treaty 
proposed by Sir George Napier, ii 187 ; on the 2nd of January 
1845 enters into a new treaty framed by Sir Peregrine Maitland, 
it 259 ; on the 1st of April 1846 dies, and is succeeded by 
his son Stokwe, Hi 7 



240 History of South Africa. 

Enon, Moravian mission station in the Cape Colony: 

in 1816 is founded, i 317 ; in the Kaffir war of 1819 is pillaged 
and destroyed, i 317 and 336; but is subsequently reoccupied 
% 317 

Enslin, J. A. : 

in January 1851 is appointed commandant-general of the western 
border of the South African Republic, Hi 375 

Enterprise, the first steamship that plies between England 
and India : 
in October 1825 puts into Table Bay, i 395 

Eole, the, French ship : 

on the 12th of April 1829 is wrecked on the coast of Kaftraria 

Erasmus, Daniel Jacobus : 

in November 1871, upon the resignation of Mr. M. W. Pretorius, 
is appointed by the volksraad acting president of the South 
African Republic, v 47; on the 25th of November 1871 issues 
a protest against the Keate award and a proclamation declaring 
the inviolability of the territory of the republic, v 48 

Erasmus, (Fieldcornet) Pieter : 

in June 1830 leads an expedition against the Xosa captain Sigcawu, 
who is killed, ii 53 and 54 ; (Commandant) in 1848 assists the 
British forces under Sir Harry Smith against the emigrant 
farmers in the Orange River Sovereignty, m 285 ; in September 
of the same year is appointed a member of the war tribute 
commission, m 294 

Erasmus, Stephanus : 

is attacked by a band of Matabele warriors in 1836 while on a 
hunting excursion north of the Vaal, when four white men 
and a number of coloured servants are murdered, ii 290 

Erebus and Terror, exploring ships : 
in April 1843 visit Simon's Bay, ii 228 

Erskine, Major D. : 

in June 1878 is appointed resident at Walfish Bay, v 116 

Erskine, Rev. Thomas : 

in October 1818 becomes chaplain at Simonstown, but resigns in 
the following year, i 317 

Ethiopian movement : 

in 1872 first shows itself at the mission station Hermon in 
Basutoland, v 80 



Synoptical Index* 241 

Eueopean fabmees in Tembuland : 
account of, iv 56 

EUROPEAN IMMIGEANTS : 

early plans for the introduction into the Cape Colony of, i 267 

EUEOPEAN IMMIGEANTS INTO NATAL : 

particulars concerning, iv 156 to 158 

EUEOPEAN INHABITANTS OF THE Op.ANGE RlVEE SOVEEEIGNTY : 

particulars concerning, Hi 327, 332, 349, and 362 

Eueopeans : 

number of in 1865 in the Cape Colony, iv 42 

Evans, Rev. John : 

in June 1817 assumes duty as first clergyman of Cradock, % 257 ; 
early in 1823 dies, i 407 

Evatt, Captain : 

in February 1825 is appointed resident magistrate of Port Elizabeth, 
i 392 

Executive council of the Cape Colony : 

in 1834 is established in place of the previously existing council 
of advice, ii 47 ; on the 26th of June 1840 it is enlarged by 
a seat being given to the collector of customs, ii 214 

Executive council of the Oeange Feee State : 

consists of the government secret ar}-, the landdrost of Blcem- 
fontein, and three unofficial members chosen by the volksraad, 
Hi 444 

Executive council of the South Afeican Republic : 

according to the constitution framed in December 1856 consists 
of the president, the government secretary, two burghers ap- 
pointed by the volksraad, and the commandant-general when- 
ever military matters are under discussion, Hi 424 ; by the 
agreement of union, 4th of March 1840, Lydenburg is entitled 
to elect two additional members, iv 442 ; by later alterations 
made in the constitution, the executive council was made to 
consist of the commandant-general, the state secretary, the 
superintendent of native affairs, two unofficial members, and 
any head of a department whom the president might invite 
to assist 

Expedition of Messes. Teuter and Somebydile in 1801 to the 
Betshuana countrYj * 99 

VOL. V. R 



242 History of South Africa. 

Expedition op Messrs. Van de Graaff and Lichtenstein in 1805 
to the betshtjana country, t 184 

Expedition of Messrs. Cowan and Donovan in 1808 to the 
Betshuana country : 
unfortunate fate of the, i 227 

Expenditure of the Cape colonial government : 

particulars concerning, after 1823, ii 33 ; in 1854 and 1855, 
Hi 141 ; comparison between 1854 and 1886, iv 80 ; items 
of in 1871 and 1872, iv 153 

Expenditure of Basutoland : 
in 1872, v 79 

Expenditure of British Kaffrarly : see British Kaffraria 

Expoets of South African produce : 

during the first British occupation, i 40 ; from 1806 to 1835, 
ii 36 to 43; from 1836 to 1850, ii 207; in 1853, 1854, and 
1855, in 142 ; from 1856 to 1861, in 171 ; from 1862 to 
1867, mi 94; from 1868 to 1872, iv 151 and 152 

Exports of Natal: 

in 1845, ii 462; from 1815 to 1856, in 264 to 266; from 1857 
to 1872, iv 176 and 177 

Exports through East London : 

from 1855 to 1858, in 220; in 1861, iv 18; from 1862 to 1865, 
iv 76 

Extension of the Cape Colony : 

on the 14th of July 1798 the colony is extended by Lord Macart- 
ney to the Fish river from its mouth up to Esterhuis's Poort 
at the end of the Kaga mountain, the Kaga mountain to the 
Tarka mountain, the Tarka mountain to the Bamboes mountain, 
the Bamboes mountain to the Zuur mountain, the Zuur moun- 
tain to Plettenberg's beacon on the Zeekoe river, Plettenberg's 
beacon to Great Table mountain, thence to the Nieuwvcld 
mountains, along the Nieuwveld mountains to the source of 
the Riet river, the Riet and Fish rivers behind the Roggeveld 
mountain, the Spioen mountain, the Kabiskow peak, the Long 
mountain, the northern point of the Kamies mountain, and the 
river Koussie or Buffalo to the Atlantic, i 39 ; on the 20th 
of February 1805 is extended by Governor Jassens and the 
council to the Koussie or Buffalo river from its mouth to its 
source in the Koperberg, thence southeastward in as nearly as 
possible a straight line — but following the mountains — to the 



Synoptical Index. 243 

junction of the Zak and Riet rivers, thence the Zak river to 
its source in the Nieuwveld mountains, thence the Nieuwveld 
mountains to the Sneeuwberg, and thence northeastward a line 
enclosing the Great Table mountain to the Zeekoe river at 
Plettenberg's beacon ; the eastern boundary to remain as fixed 
by Lord Macartney, i 180 ; on the 9th of September 1824 is 
extended by Governor Lord Charles Somerset to the Zwart Kei 
and Klaas Smit's rivers and the Stormberg spruit on the north- 
east, thence the Orange river to about longitude 24° 20', thence 
a straight line to the Pramberg, and thence an irregular curve 
cutting the junction of the Zak and Riet rivers and continuing 
to the mouth of the Buffalo river on the shore of the Atlantic, 
i 394 ; on tbe 11th of March 1825 is extended by Governor 
Lord Charles Somerset to the Koonap river on the east, ib. ; 
in April 1829 without a formal proclamation it is extended to 
the watershed between the upper Tyumie and Kat rivers, an 
irregular line from the Tyumie to the Kat a little below Fort 
Beaufort, and the Kat river to its junction with the Fish, 
ii 9 ; on the 14th of October 1835 it is extended by Governor 
Sir Benjamin D' Urban to the Kraai river on the northeast, 
ii 133 ; but on the 5th of December 1836 is contracted again 
by Lieutenant-Governor Stockenstrom to the Stormberg spruit, 
ii 150 ; on the 17th of December 1847 it is extended by 
Governor Sir Harry Smith to the Keiskama, Tyumie, Klipplaate. 
Zwart Kei, Klaas Smit's, and Kraai rivers on the east, and to 
the Orange river on the north, Hi . 56 ; on the 7th of March 
1854 letters patent are issued annexing the Bontebok flats, 
Hi 188 ; in 1865 British Kaffraria is annexed, iv lb ; in 1873 
the Guano islands off the coast of Great Xamaqualand are 
annexed, ii 236 ; at various times between 1879 and 1894 the 
territory between the Kei river and Natal is annexed ; in 1880 
the province of Griqualand West is annexed ; and in 1895 
Botshuanaland south of Ramathlabama Spruit and the Molopo 
river is annexed, completing the area of the Cape province as 
in 1910 it became part of the Union of South Africa 

Eyke, Lieutenant-Colonel : 

in December 1851 commands one of the columns that invade 
Galekaland, in 105 



Faber, Cornelis : 

is one of the leaders of the insurrection on the frontier of the 
Cape Colony in 1815, i 292 ; after the failure of the insunec- 



244 History of South Africa. 

tion flees towards Kaffirland, but is followed by a party of 
Hottentot soldiers, and is overtaken and seized after being 
wounded, * 297 ; is sentenced to death by a commission of 
the high court of justice, i 298 ; and on the 9th of March 
1816 is executed at Van Aardt's post on the Fish river, i 299 

Faber, Martha, wife of Jan Bezuideneout : 

aids her husband in resistance to the pandours sent to arrest 
him after the Slachters Nek rebellion in 1815, i 297 ; is 
banished for life from the districts of Graaff-Reinet, Uitenhage, 
and George, i 299 

Failure of an attempt made by the French frigate Prudentb 

IN 1799 TO CONVEY AID TO THE NATIONALS OF GrAAFF-ReINET, 

» 64 

Fairbairn, John : 

with Mr. John Pringle edits the Commercial Advertiser shortly 
after its first appearance, i 417 ; in August 1825 becomes sole 
editor, i 420 ; after the suppression of the Commercial Advertiser 
in May 1827 proceeds to England and induces Sir George 
Murray to promise that the press in South Africa shall be freed 
from the control of the governor and council, ii 14 ; returns 
to Capetown and resumes the editorship of the Commercial 
Advertiser, ii 15 ; takes a very active part in the improvement 
of the public school system, ii 210 ; in 1849 is secretary of 
the anti-convict association, Hi 81 ; he is violently assaulted, 
and his house is wrecked by a band of rioters, ib. ; on the 23rd 
of July 1850 he is appointed a member of the legislative council, 
Hi 122 ; on the 20th of September resigns his seat, Hi 124 ; 
and in October leaves for England to secure support for a 
particular draft constitution, Hi 125 ; on the 5th of October 
1864 dies, iv 39 

Fairs for trade with Kaffirs : 

from 1821 to 1330 are held at Fort Wiltshire, i 364 

Faku, paramount chief of the Pondo tribe : 

in July 1S28 is visited by Major Dundas, ii 405 ; his country 
has recently been overrun by Tshaka's army, and he and his 
people are living in the valley of the Umgazi river in great 
poverty, ib. ; he sends messengers to Tshaka to beg to bo 
received as a vassal, and they reach then* destination on the 
very day of the Zulu chief's assassination, ib. ; in May 1829 
he is visited by the reverend William Shaw, ib. ; he is then 
in better circumstances than in the preceding year, ib. ; imme- 



Synoptical Index. 245 

diately afterwards missionaries of the Wesleyan society settle in 
his country, ib. ; his tribe is then weak, is entirely confined 
to the western side of the Umzimvubu, and is living in constant 
turmoil, ib. ; in 1835 he promises friendship to the Cape Colony 
during the war with the Xosas, ii 104 ; in February 1836 he 
is visited by Captain P. Deiancey, ii 132 ; early in 1838 in 
alliance with the Baca chief Ncapayi he sweeps the Tembu 
country of cattle, ii 468 ; he exchanges friendly messages with 
the emigrant farmers immediately after they enter Natal, ii 
407 ; on the 10th and 11th of March 1838 he and his people 
cross the Umzimvubu and build new kraals on the Umzimhlava, 
ii 408 ; early in 1839 he is informed by the reverend Mr. 
Jenkins — without authority — that Sir George Napier guarantees 
to him the whole territory northward to the Umzimkulu, ib. ; 
by the close of this year he and his people are in a fairly 
prosperous condition, ii 409 ; in April 18-10 he makes war 
with Ncapayi, ib. ; in December 1840, owing to an attack by 
the emigrant farmers upon the Bacas of Ncapayi, he calls the 
missionaries in his neighbourhood together to give him advice, 
ii 411 ; in his name and with his consent the missionaries 
write to Sir George Napier craving protection and claiming the 
territory northward to the Umzimkulu, ib. ; a body of troops 
is then sent to form a camp on the Umgazi for his defence, 
t» 412 ; on the 7th of October 1844 he enters into a treaty 
with Sir Peregrine Maitland, in which all the territory south of 
the Umzimkulu is assigned to him, tt 457 ; after which he 
puts forward claims of supremacy over other chiefs which per- 
petuate the old wars and confusion, ii 458 ; he makes constant 
efforts, but ineffectually, to subdue the Xesibes, Hi 231 ; compels 
the Xolo clan to submit to his supremacy, Hi 232 ; in 1850 
is compelled to make good to Natal losses from thefts of cattle 
by Bushmen, Hi 238 ; offers to cede to Natal the territory 
between the Umtamvuna and Umzimkulu rivers, and on the 
1st of January 1866 it is annexed to that colony, Hi 239 ; 
further particulars concerning, iv 61, 62, and 66 ; dealings of 
the Natal government -with, iv 64 and 65; mention of, iv 165; 
offers Nomansiand — now Grioualand East — to Moshesh, iv 180; 
on the 29th of October 1867 dies, iv 69 

Fall of large masses of rock from Table Mountain, »' 103 

Fallowes, Rev. Fearon : 

in August 1821 arrives at the Cape as first astronomer royal, 
i 365 



246 History of South Africa. 

Farewell, Feancis George : 

in 1823 visits Natal on a trading expedition, ii 323 ; is so im- 
pressed with the capabilities of the country that he resolves 
to establish himself there, ii 324 ; induces about twenty-five 
individuals to join him in the enterprise, ib. ; in June 1824 
settles on the northern shore of the inlet, ii 325 ; shortly 
afterwards is abandoned by all of the adventurers except four, 
ii 326 ; in July visits Tshaka, ib. ; on the 7th of August 
receives from Tshaka a grant of a large tract of land round 
Port Natal, ii 327 : on the 27th of August 1824 declares Natal 
a British possession, though he has no authority to do so, 
ii 328 ; on the 1st of December 182S leaves Natal to procure 
goods in the Cape Colony, ii 338 ; a second time induces a 
number of people to proceed to Natal, ii 339 ; when returning 
overland in September 1829 is murdered by the Amakwabi, ib. 

Faunce, Captain, of the 73rd regiment : 

on the 20th of December 1852 is made prisoner by the Basuto 
in the battle of Berea, Hi 339 ; and is put to death by them, 
Hi 341 

Faure, Abraham : 

in January 1828 is appointed resident magistrate of Stellenbosch, 
i 493;. in April 1831 is deprived of office for not quelling a 
disturbance, ii 70 

Faure, Anthony Alexander: 

in November 1795 is restored to his office as landdrost of Swel- 
lendam, t 4; in January 1810 retires on a pension, i 271 

Faure, Rev. Philip Eduard : 

at the end of 1818 goes on a mission to the emigrants north 
of the Orange, Hi 297 ; has an interview with the reverend 
Dr. Livingstone at Magalisberg, of which he gives an account, 

m 393 

Fauresmith, village in the Orange Free State : 
early in 1850 is founded, Hi 349 

Fawn, the : 

from 1842 to 1844 serves as a floating fort at Port Natal, ii 439 

Federation of the different colonies and states in south 
Africa : 
views of Sir George Grey concerning, Hi 179 ; it is desired by 
the Orange Free State, in 182 ; views of the imperial govern- 
ment in 1859 concerning, Hi 182 and 185; in June 1871 a 



Synoptical Index, 247 

commission is appointed by the governor of the Cape Colony 
to inquire into and report upon, iv 128 ; in March 1872 the 
commission sends in a report, iv 130 ; after which the question 
ceases to engage public attention, iv 131 

Fever : 

in 1867 causes great loss of life in the Cape Colony, iv 83 and 84 

Fick, J. I. J. : 

at the commencement of the Basato war in 1865 is elected com- 
mandant-general of the Free State forces, iv 230 ; on the 20th 
of July 1865 crosses the Caledon, and proclaims the whole 
territory north and west of that river part of the Orange Free 
State, iv 240 

FlCKSBURG, VILLAGE IN THE ORANGE FREE STATE .' 

in 1869 is founded, v 57 

Fleldcorxets : 

in October 1805 have their qualifications and duties strictly defined 
by an ordinance, i 183 

Field, William: 

in 1857 is appointed emigration commissioner for the Cape Colony 
in England, Hi 173 

Fifth Kaffir war : see War 

Fiftieth ordinance : 

particulars concerning (relating to the Hottentots), i 502 ; in 
January 1829 is ratified by the imperial government, i 507 

Financial condition of the Orange Free State : 
at the close of 1871, iv 384 ; see Paper Money 

Financial condition of the South African Republic: 
particulars concerning, iv 500 ; see Paper Money 

Fingos : 

in 1824 the first of the refugees so called appear in western 
Kaffirland, i 450 ; the}' differ in disposition from Xosas, ii 
110; in 1835 are found living in a miserable condition among 
the Galekas, ib. ; individuals among them being often subject 
to oppressive treatment, though the}- are not slaves, ib. ; some 
of them are taken under British protection, ib. ; these are 
attacked by the Galekas, but are not destroyed, as Hintsa is 
compelled by Sir Benjamin D'Urban to recall his warriors, 
ii 113; they are removed to a block of land between the 
Fish and Keiskama rivers, ib. ; a location in the Zitzikama is 
given to some of them, ii 156 ; in August of the same year 



248 History of South Africa. 

those around Fort Peddie are attacked by Xosas and pillaged, 
ii 157 ; they give Sir George Napier a good deal of trouble, 
ii 177 ; in the war of 1846-7 they take part with the Europeans 
against the Xosas, Hi 9 ; in January 1847 about three thousand 
more are brought from Butterworth and located west of the 
Tyumie, Hi 39 ; in 1848 they have large tracts of land in 
Victoria East given to them, Hi 67 ; in January 1852 seven 
thousand are brought from Galekaland into British Kanraria, 
Hi 106 ; in 1853 they have extensive grants of land made to 
them, Hi 115 ; particulars concerning the apprehensions of the 
frontier colonists in 1854 and 1855 of danger from these people, 
Hi 195 ; further particulars concerning them, Hi 215 ; they 
increase in number very rapidly, iv 53 ; in 1865 have a great 
tract of land, afterwards called Fingoland, beyond the Kei 
given to them, iv 53 ; where they prosper greatly under the 
guidance of Captain Blyth, iv 60 ; see Gubela, Jama, Jokweni, 
Mabandla, Madikane, Matomela, Umhlambiso, and Umsutu 

Finnish evangelical society : 

in 1869 establishes a mission with the Ovambo, v 125 

Fire in Capetown : 

in the night of the 22nd of November 1798 causes much damage, 
i 50 

First circuit of judges of the high couet of justice in the 
Cape Colony : 
particulars concerning, i 259 

Fiscal: 

before the appointment of an attorney-general in 1828 the fiscal 
was the adviser of the government in points of legal difficulty. 
He was the public prosecutor in all criminal offences committed 
in Capetown and in some special offences committed in other 
parts of the colony — ordinary cases being prosecuted by the 
respective landdrosts, — and he conducted all civil cases for the 
government. He could interfere with the landdrosts in any 
part of the colony in cases where they might be suspected of 
showing partiality, and in exceptionally difficult or important 
matters. Before the appointment of a police magistrate in 
Capetown he exercised summary jurisdiction over slaves, vaga- 
bonds, and runaway sailors in petty offences ; and he had 
control of the constabulary arrangements 

Fischer, J. H. : 

on the 1st of January 1810 becomes deputy landdrost at Clan- 
william, i 225 ; in July 1812 becomes landdrost of Graaff- 
Beinet, t 271 ; in May 1815 is transferred to Tulbagh, i 290 



Synoptical Index. 249 

Fishing company, the South African chartered : 
account of the, i 211 

FlTSGERALD, Dr. J. P. : 

in February 1856 takes charge of the Grey hospital in King- 
Williamstown, iii 191 

Fitzpatrick, James Coleman : 

in November 1861 becomes judge of the supreme court of British 
Kafrraria, iii 226 ; upon the annexation of British Kafiraria in 
1865 is transferred to the eastern districts court, iv 75 

Flag of the Orange Free State: 
description of, iii 430 

Flag of the South African Republic: 
description of, iii 426 

Flax: 

experiments in the cultivation of in the Cape Colony, iv 112; 
experiments in the cultivation of in Natal, iii 261 ; see Exports, 
iii 265 

Fleck, Rev. Mr. : 

on the 26th of October 1820 dies 

Flood of October 1823 m the eastern districts of the Cape 
Colony : 
account of, i 390 

FODO, SON OF THE HLANGWENI CHIEF NoMBEWU ! 

after the death of his father roams about until a tract of land 
south of the Umzimkulu river is given to him by the emigrant 
farmers, ii 410 ; in December 1840 he assists the emigrant 
farmers against Ncapayi, ii 411 

Forbes, Captain Patrick William : 

in November 1890 takes decisive action against the Portuguese at 
Umtasa's kraal, v 157, 158, and 159 

Fordyce, Lieutenant-Colonel : 

on the 6th of November 1851 is killed in a skirmish in the 
Waterkloof, iii 114 

Foreign banks : 

in January 1866 are expelled from the Orange Free State, iv 216 

Form of government of the Cape Colony : 

from 1796 to 1803 under the first English administration, i 26 
ei seq. ; from 1803 to 1806 under the Batavian Republic, i 106 ; 



250 History of South Africa. 

from the English conquest in 1S08 to the creation of a council 
of advice in 1825, i 218 et seq. ; from 1825 to the establishment 
of the supreme court in 1828, * 398; from 1828 to 1834, when 
distinct executive and legislative councils are established, ii 47 

Fort Armstrong (at first called Fort Adelaide) : 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is a place of refuge for the 
Hottentots of the Kat river, ii 97 ; at the commencement of 
the war of 1850-52 is seized and occupied by the rebels, iii 
104; on the 22nd of February 1851 is recovered, ib. 

Fort Beaufort, district in the Cape province : 

in March 1848 is created, iii 70 ; at the same time is made a 
division, to include the districts of Fort Beaufort and Stocken- 
strom, iii 71 

Fort Beaufort, village of : 

in 1823 is founded, * 326 ; on the 7th of January 1851 is 

attacked by a mixed horde under Hermanus Matroos, but the 

assailants are beaten off, iii 103 

Fort Beresfoed : 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is built on the upper Buffalo 
river, ii 119; in September 1836 is abandoned, ii 149 

Fort Cox: 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is built on the upper Keiskama 
river, ii 119; in December 1836 is abandoned, ii 150; at the 
beginning of August 1846 is again occupied, iii 20 ; and is one 
of the positions at which troops are stationed after the annexa- 
tion of British Kaffraria to the queen's dominions, iii 60 

Fort Dacres : 

is built at the mouth of the Fish river and occupied during the 
war of 1846-7, but not afterwards, iii 17 

Fort Frederick : 

in 1799 is built on the shore of Algoa Bay, i 62 

Fort Glamorgan : 

in April 1847 is built on the western bank of the mouth of the 
Buffalo river, iii 45 ; is one of the positions occupied by troops 
after the annexation of British Kaffraria to the queen's dominions, 
iii 60 

Fort Grey : 

in December 1847 is occupied as an outpost of Fort Glamorgan, 
iii 60 



Synoptical Index. 251 

Fort Hare : 

in August 1847 is built on the eastern bank of the Tyuniie, 
$ti 50 ; is one of the stations occupied by troops after the 
annexation of British Kafrraria to the queen's dominions, ib. 

Fortifications of Capetown : 

reference to those constructed by General Craig, i 23 

Fort Montgomery Williams : 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is built on the western bank of 
the Keiskama river, H 119 ; in January 1837 is abandoned, 
ii 152 

Fort Murray : 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is built on the western bank of 
the Buffalo river, ii 119 ; in September 1836 is abandoned, 
ii 149 ; in April 1847 is rebuilt, Hi 45 ; and is one of the 
positions at which troops are stationed after the annexation of 
British Kaffraria to the queen's dominions, Hi 60 

Fort Napier : 

in 1843 is built at Maritzburg, ii 452 

Fort Peddle : 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is built in the centre of the 
ground allotted to Fingos between the Fish and Keiskama 
rivers, ii 120 ; upon the abandonment of the territory east of 
the Fish river a garrison is retained in this fort for the defence 
of the Fingos, ii 152 ; on the 28th of May 1846 it is attacked 
by the Kaffirs, but without success, Hi 13 

Fort Sao Sebastiao, on the island of Mozambique : 

state of in the early years of the nineteenth century, v 127 

Fort Thomson : 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is built near the junction of the 
Gaga and Tyumie rivers, ii 119; in March 1837 is abandoned, 
ii 151 

Fort Warden : 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is built near the Kei river, ii 119$ 
in September 1836 is abandoned, ii 149 

Fort Waterloo : 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is built near the Nahoon river, 
ii 119; in October 1836 is abandoned, ii 149; in 1847 is 
reoccupied, and troops are stationed in it after the annexation 
of British Kaffraria to the queen's dominions, Hi 60 



252 History of South Africa, 

Fort Wellington: 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is built near the source of the 
Gonubie river, ii 119; in September 1836 is abandoned, ii 149; 
the old fort is never again occupied, but in December 1847 one 
is built on the Tshalumna river, to which this name is given, 
Hi 58 ; and in which troops are stationed after the annexation 
of British Karlraria to the queen's dominions, Hi 60 

Fort White : 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is built on the Debe river, it 
119; in December 1836 it is abandoned, ii 150; in July 1847 
it is rebuilt, Hi 50 ; and is one of the stations occupied by 
troops after the annexation of British Kafrraria to the queen's 
dominions, Hi 60 

Fort Willshire : 

in 1819, after the fifth Kaffir war, is commenced on the right 
bank of the Keiskama, i 344 ; Lord Charles Somerset's designs 
regarding it are greatly altered by Sir Rufane Donkin, » 368 ; 
on the outbreak of war in December 1834 is abandoned by its 
feeble garrison, ii 92 ; at the end of January 1835 it is reoccu- 
pied, ii 100 ; but in March 1837 is finally abandoned, ii 152 

Fourie, David Stephanus : 

in 1839 purchases a tract of land containing the present diamond 
mines of Kimberley and Dutoitspan from the Bushman captain 
David Danscr, ii 496 

Fourth Kaffir war: see War 

Franchise in the Cape Colony : 

as fixed by the constitution of 1853, in 137 

Franchise in Natal : 

particulars concerning, Hi 268 

Francis Spaight, the : 

on the 7th of January 1846 is wrecked in Table Bay, n 253 

Fraser, Rev. Colin : 

in December 1824 arrives from Scotland, and is appointed clergy- 
man of the Dutch reformed church at Beaufort West, i 370 

Fraser, Colonel George Sackville : 

on the 19th of October 1823 dies, t 386 : see Commandos 

Fraserburg, district in the Cape province : 

is named after the reverend Colin Fraser, i 371 



Synoptical Index, 253 

Fraser, Dr. : 

on the 5th of September 1853 is elected chairman of the assembly 
of delegates in Bloemfontein, Hi 351 ; is afterwards sent to 
England by the delegates to protest against the abandonment 
of the Sovereignty, Hi 353 

Fredericksburg : 

account of the intended settlement between the Fish and Keiskama 
rivers so called, i 361 et seq. ; the scheme is a failure, i 374 

Frederick Huth, British barque : 

in April 1847 discharges a cargo of military stores at the mouth 
of the Buffalo river, Hi 45 

Free church of Scotland missions : 
particulars concerning, Hi 99 

Freedom of conscience in the South African Republic : 

by the constitution of January 1S57 is restricted, Hi 425 ; but 
in June 1870 the restrictions are removed by the volksraad, 
v 23 

French Hoek, Dutch reformed church at : 

in May 1845 the first consistory commences duty, ii 248 

French Hoek pass through the Drakenstein mountains : 
in 1824 a waggon road is completed through the, i 388 

de Freyn, Jan : 

in 1797 is skipper of the Dutch brig Haasje, i 20 : see Haasje 

Friend of the Free State newspaper : 

on the 10th of June 1850 the first number is issued at Bloemfontein, 
Hi 310 

Frontier armed and mounted police : 

in May 1852 is organised, in 111; particulars concerning, Hi 148; 
in 1855 is greatly enlarged, ib. ; in 1858 is again enlarged by 
one hundred men, Hi 162 ; further particulars concerning, Hi 
186; strength of in 1872, iv 149 

Frontier commercial and agricultural bank : 
in 1847 is established in Grahamstown, ii 243 

Fruit in great variety : 

production of in Natal, Hi 261 ; see Exports, in 265 

Ftnn, Henry Francis : 

in April 1824 settles at Natal, ii 325 ; in July visits Tshaka, 
ii 328 ; whose favour he secures by skilful surgical treatment, 
ii 327 ; he collects a number of blacks together, and with 



254 History of South Africa. 

Tshaka's consent becomes their chief, ii 331 ; receives from 
Tshaka a grant of a large tract of land, ii 332 ; early in 1831 
flees from Natal to Buntingville, being in fear of Dingana, ii 
341 ; but in August returns, ii 3-12 ; in September 1834 
leaves Natal and retires to the Cape Colony, ii 343 ; a few 
months later guides a party of volunteers to Wesleyville to 
rescue some refugees, ii 99 ; in March 1835 is sent by Sir 
Benjamin D' Urban on a mission to Faku, chief of the Pondos, ii 
103 ; in December 1836 is appointed British agent with the 
Tembu chief Mapasa, ii 153 ; after the outbreak of war in 1816 
his office is abolished, Hi 36 

Fynn, William Macdowell: 

in 1828 joins his brother in Natal, ii 335 ; early in 1831, being 
apprehensive of danger from Dingana, retires from Natal to 
Buntingville, ii 341 ; but in August returns, ii 342 ; in 
September 1834 removes to the Cape Colony, ii 343 ; in 
January 1836 acts as interpreter to the expedition under Captain 
P. Delancey, it 132 ; in December of this year is appointed 
British agent with Kreli, ii 153 ; in November 1844 is sent 
to Pondoland to obtain the signature of the chief Faku to a 
treaty, it 457 ; in April 1846 is obliged to flee from Butter- 
worth to Clarkebury, and a little later to take refuge at Bunting- 
ville, Hi 23 ; in December 1847 is appointed assistant com- 
missioner in British Kaffraria, and is stationed at Fort Waterloo, 
Hi 59 

Fynn, William: 

in July 1865 is stationed as resident with Kreli, ii 54 ; mention 
of v M 57 



Gaika (correct Kaffir spelling Ngqika), son of Umlawu: 

in 1797 claims the chief tainship of the Rarabe clans, but is 
opposed hy his uncle Ndlambe, t 37 ; defeats Ndlambe in a 
battle and makes him prisoner, t 38 ; makes an agreement 
of friendship with the colonial authorities, ib. ; entices a young 
wife of Ndlambe from him, and thereby renews the intertribal 
quarrel, i 57 ; in June 1803 enters into an agreement of friend- 
ship with Governor Janssens, t 128 ; in 1809 is very poor, and 
is living on the banks of the upper Keiskama, t 233 ; refuses 
to assist the insurgents of 1815 against the colonial government, 
t 294 ; on the 2nd of April 1817 has an interview with Lord 
Charles Somerset at the Kat river, i 323 ; is treated by Lord 
Charles as the sole chief of the Xosas in alliance with the 



Synoptical Index. 255 

colony, i 324 ; agrees with Lord Charles that compensation 
can be demanded from any kraal to which stolen cattle are 
traced, ib. ; in 1818 is residing in the Tyumie valley, i 331 ; 
in the whiter of 1818 is defeated by Ndlambe with great loss 
in the battle of Amalinde, i 33-1 ; flees to the Winterberg, and 
sends to the nearest military post, ugently requesting aid, ib. ; 
being assisted by an armed European force, he is able to do 
much damage to Ndlambe, * 335 ; but upon the retirement 
of the commando is again obliged to flee, i 336 ; being once 
more restored to the position of principal chief of the Rarabe 
clans by the aid of European forces, he agrees — though very 
unwillingly — with Lord Charles Somerset that the land between 
the Fish and Keiskama rivers shall remain unoccupied except 
by soldiers, i 343 ; in June 1821 at a conference with Sir 
Rufane Donkin consents to the territory between the Fish and 
Keiskama rivers being given to European immigrants, i 361 ; 
is compelled by the colonial government to punish a murderer 
with death, i 382 ; in February 1822 an ineffectual attempt is 
made to arrest him, i 383 ; in January 1824 the colonial govern- 
ment reverses its policy and treats with Gaika's enemies as 
independent chiefs, ii 5 ; on the 13th of November 1829 
Gaika dies near Burnshill, on the Keiskama, it 51 

Galekas, the : 

in December 1834 assist the Rarabes to invade the Cape Colony, 
ii 90 ; in 1846-7 are at war with the Cape Colony, Hi 8 ; 
in 1851-2 are again at war with the Cape Colony, Hi 101 ; in 
February 1858 are driven over the Bashee into Bomvanaland, 
iv 44 ; in 1864 are permitted to return to the present districts 
of Kentani and Wifiowvale, iv 49 : see Kreli and Wars 

Game : 

in 1860 is still plentiful in the Orange Free State, iv 4 

Gangelizwe, paramount chief of the Tembu tribe : 

particulars concerning, iv 51, 55, and 56 ; in May 1866 takes as 
his great wife a daughter of the Xosa chief Kreli, who suffers 
brutal treatment from him, iv 57 ; Kreli complains to the 
governor of the Cape Colony, who fines Gangelizwe forty head 
of cattle, ib. ; but the Xosas are dissatisfied, and war between 
the tribes follows, t'6. ; on the 6th of October 1872 the Tembus 
are defeated in battle, when Gangelizwe flees to Clarkebury, 
iv 58 ; he then offers his country to the British government, 
ib. ; but when a commission is sent to conclude the arrange- 
ment he withdraws the offer, ib. ; in January 1873 formally 
concludes peace with Kreli, iv 59 



256 History of South Africa. 

Gardiner, Captain Allen F., late of the royal navy: 

in January 1835 arrives in Natal as a missionary, ii 343 ; on 
the 6th of May on behalf of the Europeans at Port Natal 
enters into a treaty with Dingana, ii 347 ; in accordance with 
which he shortly afterwards surrenders four fugitives to the Zulu 
chief, by whose orders they are starved to death, ib. ; he is 
now permitted to establish two mission stations, ii 348 ; and 
therefore returns to England to procure men to occupy them, 
ib. ; in June 1837 arrives in Natal again with the reverend Mr. 
Owen, and takes up his residence at the station which on his 
former visit he had named the Berea, ib. ; attempts to act as 
a magistrate under the Cape of Good Hope punishment act, 
but is repudiated by the Europeans in Natal, ib. ; in May 1838 
leaves the country, ii 374 ; in a volume termed Narrative of 
a Journey to the Zoolu Country in South Africa, undertaken in 
1835, he gives instances of Dingana' s ferocity, ii 338 

Garrison or the Cape Colony dueing the first British occupation 

from 1795 to 1803: 
8th light dragoons, in November 1796 arrive, t 24; in February 

1803 leave, i 111 
22nd regiment of the line : in May 1800 arrives, j 72; in 

November 1802 leaves, i 108 
28th light dragoons : in July 1798 arrive, t 12; in November 

1798 leave, i 46 
34th regiment of the line : in May 1800 arrives, i 72 ; in February 

1803 leaves, i 111 
Gist regiment of the line : in January 1799 arrives, i 49 ; in 

March 1801 leaves, i 108 
65th regiment of the line : in March 1801 arrives, i 107 ; in 

February 1803 leaves, i 111 
78th regiment of the line : in September 1795 the second battalion 

arrives and takes part in the conquest of the colony ; in May 

1796 the first battalion arrives, i 12 ; the two battalions are 

afterwards united, and in November 1796 the regiment leaves 

for India, i 23 
80th regiment ox the line : in July 1796 arrives, i 12 ; in December 

1796 leaves for India, i 24 
81st regiment of the line : in January 1799 arrives, t 49; in 

December 1802 leaves, i 108 
84th regiment : in September 1795 arrives, and takes part in the 

conquest of the colony ; in November 1798 leaves for India, 

% 46 
86th regiment of the line : in September 1796 arrives, t 24; in 

February 1799 leaves for India, i 49 



Synoptical Index. 257 

91st regiment of the line : in September 1795 arrives as the 98th 
and takes part in the conquest of the colony ; in October 1798 
changes its number 98th to 91st ; in March 1803 leaves for 
England, % 113 

95th regiment of the line : in September 1795 arrives, and takes 
part in the conquest of the colony ; is afterwards drafted into 
the 84th and 86th, i 24 

Scotch brigade : in September 1798 arrives, i 24 ; in November 
1798 leaves for India, i 4G 

Garrison op the Cape Colony under the Batavian Republic 
from 1S03 to 1808: 
particulars concerning, * 129 and 131 

Garrison of South Africa from 180G to 1872, provided by Great 

Britain : 
2nd regiment of the line : in August 1851 the first battalion arrives, 

iii 110; in March 1860 leaves, iii 186 
5th regiment of the line : in April 1863 the second battalion arrives 

from Mauritius, iv 41 ; in May 1867 leaves for England, iv 148 
6th regiment of the line : in November 1821 arrives, ii 85 ; in 

March 1825 leaves for India, ib. 
6th regiment of the line : in October and November 1846 the 

first battalion arrives, Hi 29 ; in December 1857 leaves for 

India, Hi 162 
7th dragoon guards : in June 1843 arrive, it 189 ; in April 1848 

leave, iii 68 
9th regiment of the line : hi October 1865 the first battalion 

arrives, iv 41 ; in August 1870 leaves for England, iv 14S 
10th regiment of the line : in February 1860 the second battalion 

arrives, iii 186 ; in November 1864 leaves for India, iv 41 ; in 

November 1864 the first battalion arrives, iv 41 ; in March 

1868 leaves, iv 148 
11th regiment of the line : in September 1861 the second battalion 

arrives from England, iv 15 ; in April 1865 leaves for China, 

iv 41 ; in July 1866 returns to South Africa, iv 148 ; in June 

1870 leaves for England, ib. 
12th regiment of the line : in February 1843 the second battalion 

on its way to the Mauritius is detained for three months at 

the Cape, ii 188; in August 1851 it arrives again, iii 110; 

in July 1858 leaves for India, iii 162 & 

12th Lancers: in October 1851 arrive, iii 110; in December 

1853 leave for India, Hi 197 
13th regiment of the line : in September 1856 the first battalion 

arrives, iii 198 ; in August 1857 one wing leaves for India, 
VOL. V. S 



258 History of South Africa. 

Hi 161 ; in December of the same year the other wing follows, 

Hi 162 ; in April 1859 the second battalion arrives, Hi 186 ; 

in March 1863 it leaves for Mauritius, iv 41 
20th regiment of the line : in May 1867 arrives, iv 148 ; in June 

1870 leaves for Mauritius, ib. ; in January 1871 one wing returns 

from Mauritius, and in December of the same year leaves for 

England, ib. 
20th light dragoons : in January 1806 arrive, and take part in 

the conquest of the colony, i 194 ; in August 1806 leave for 

South America, i 216 
21st light dragoons: in July 1806 arrive, i 216; in June 1817 

leave for India, i 327 
24th regiment of the line : in January 1806 arrives, and takes 

part in the conquest of the colon}'', % 197 ; in June 1810 leaves, 

i 243 
25th regiment of the line : in April 1840 arrives, ii 188 ; in 

April 1842 leaves for India, ib. 
27th regiment of the line : in August 1835 arrives from Cork, 

ii 124 ; in January 1848 leaves, Hi 67 
31st regiment of the line : in July 1858 arrives from England, 

and in October of the same year leaves for India, Hi 162 
32nd regiment of the line : in July 1869 arrives, iv 148 ; in 

October 1871 one wing leaves for Mauritius, ib. 
38th regiment of the line : in January 1806 arrives, and takes 

part in the conquest of the colony, * 194 ; in August 1806 

leaves for South America, i 216 ; in November 1818 arrives 

again, i 335 ; in March 1822 leaves, ii 85 
43rd regiment of the line: in December 1851 arrives, Hi 110; in 

December 1853 leaves for India, Hi 197 
45th regiment of the line : in May 1843 the first battalion arrives 

from Cork, ii 188 ; in July 1846 the second battalion arrive , 

Hi 28 ; in August 1850 the two battalions are united, and in 

April 1859 the regiment leaves, Hi 186 
49th regiment of the line : in March 1822 arrives, ii 85 ; in 

October 1828 leaves, ib. 
54th regiment of the line : in May 1819 arrives, i 339 ; in March 

1822 leaves, ii 85 
55th regiment of the line : in March 1822 arrives, ii 85 ; in 

September 1830 leaves, ib. 
59th regiment of the line : in January 1806 arrives, and takes 

part in the conquest of the colony, i 197 ; in February 1806 

leaves for India, i 216 ; in January 1859 arrives from China, 

Hi 162 ; in October 1861 leaves, iv 41 
60th regiment of the line : in July 1806 the fourth battalion 



Synoptical Index. 259 

arrives, and in March 1808 leaves for Barbadoes, i 217 ; in 

September 1811 the first battalion arrives, i 255; in January 

1819 leaves, i 335 
60th Rifles : in September 1851 the second battalion arrives, in 

110 ; in April 1858 one wing leaves for India, Hi 162 ; and 

in November of the same year the other wing follows, ib. 
62nd regiment of the line : in May and July 1847 one wing arrives, 

Hi 45 ; in January 1848 leaves, Hi 67 
67th regiment of the line : in April and September 1865 arrives, 

iv 41 ; in July 1866 leaves, iv 148 
71st regiment of the line : in January 1806 arrives, and takes 

part in the conquest of the colony, i 195 ; in April 1806 

leaves for South America, i 216 
72nd regiment of the line : in January 1806 arrives, and take? 

part in the conquest of the colony, i 195 ; in November 1810 

leaves, i 243 ; in February 1816 the first battalion arrives from 

India, i 327 ; in February 1822 leaves, H 85 ; in October 

1828 arrives again, ib. ; in April 1840 leaves for England, it 

188 
73rd regiment of the line : in August 1846 arrives, Hi 28 ; in 

March 1858 leaves for India, in 162 
74th Highlanders: in May 1851 arrive, it* 110; in December 

1853 leave for India, Hi 197 
75th regiment of the line : in August 1830 arrives, t» 85 ; in 

1834 is stationed on the eastern colonial frontier, ii 86 ; in 

June 1843 the skeleton leaves for England, more than half the 

men having taken their discharge in South Africa, ii 189 ; in 

October 1871 arrives again, iv 148 
80th regiment of the line : in September 1856 arrives, Hi 198 ; 

in November 1857 leaves for India, in 162 
83rd regiment of the line : in January 1806 arrives, and takes 

part in the conquest of the colony, i 197 ; in September 1817 

leaves for Ceylon, i 327 
85th regiment of the line : in June 1856 arrives from Mauritius, 

Hi 198 ; in May 1863 leaves for England, iv 41 
86th regiment of the line : in May 1867 one wing arrives from 

Gibraltar, and in December of the same year proceeds to 

Mauritius, iv 148 ; in October 1868 the other wing arrives, 

and in July 1870 the first one returns from Mauritius, ib. 
87th regiment of the line : in October 1806 arrives, i 217 ; in 

November 1810 leaves, i 244 
89th regiment of the line : in September 1856 arrives, Hi 198 ; 

in August 1857 leaves for India, in 161 
90th regiment of the line : in April 1846 one wing arrives from 



260 History of South Africa. 

Ceylon, Hi 10 ; in July 1846 the other wing arrives, Hi 16 ; 

in January 1848 leaves, Hi 67 
91st regiment of the line : in April 1839 a wing of the first 

battalion arrives, ii 178 ; in April 1842 the other wing arrives 

from St. Helena, ii 188 ; in January 1848 the first battalion 

leaves, Hi 67 ; in August 1842 the second battalion arrives 

from England, ii 188 ; in July 1855 leaves for England, Hi 197 
33rd regiment of the line : in January 1806 arrives, and takes 

part in the conquest of the colon}*, i 195 ; in May 1814 leaves, 

i 273 
96th regiment of the line : in March 1863 arrives, iv 41 ; in 

October and November 1865 leaves for India, ib. 
98th regiment of the line : in August 1824 arrives, ii 85 ; is 

in garrison in the Cape peninsula during the sixth Kaffir war, 

ii 94 ; in April 1837 returns to England, ii 175 
99th regiment of the line : in April and September 1865 arrives, 

iv 41 ; in July 1869 leaves for England, iv 148 
Rifle Brigade : in October 1846 one wing of the first battalion 

arrives, Hi 29 ; in November the oilier wing arrives, ib. ; in 

June 1850 leaves, Hi 109; in March 1852 it returns, Hi 110; 

in November 1853 it leaves, Hi 197 
Royal African corps : in Jul}- 1817 arrives, i 327 ; in June 1821 

is partly disbanded and partly drafted into the 60th, i 361 
In December 1872 the 75th, the 86th, and one wing of the 32nd 

are in South Africa, iv 148 

Gasela, captain of a Xosa clan.: 

takes part against the Cape Colony in the sixth Kaffir war, but 
on the 17th of September 1835 agrees to become a British 
subject, ii 125 ; on the 5th of December 1836 is released from 
his allegiance and enters into a treaty with the British govern- 
ment, ii 150 ; on the 31st of December 1840 agrees to certain 
modifications of the treaty proposed by Sir George Napier, ii 
188 ; on the 2nd of January 1845 enters into a new treaty 
framed by Sir Peregrine Maitland, ii 259 ; in March 1845 dies, 
and is succeeded by his son Toyise, ii 264 

Gasibone, chief of a clan of the Batlapin tribe in Betshuana- 

LAND : 

in 1858 during the Basuto war makes an unprovoked raid into 
the Orange Free State, Hi 487 ; on the 13th of August 1858 
is killed in battle, Hi 489 

Gasiyitsiwe : 

succeeds his grandfather Makaba as chief of the Bangwaketee tribe 
in Betshuanaland, v 83 



Synoptical Index. 261 

Gaslight : 

in 1846 is first used in Capetown to light the streets, ii 245 

Gawler, Major John Cox : 

in 1855 is appointed magistrate with Unihala, Hi 190 ; (lieutenant- 
colonel) in August and September 1858 is special magistrate at 
Idutywa, iv 45 

Gazette i 

in August 1800 is first published in Capetown, i 78 

Geary, Rev. William : 

cause of his opposition to Lord Charles Somerset, i 424 

Gebhard, Rev. J. W. L. : 

in June 1810 arrives in South Africa and is appointed clergyman 
of the Drakenstein congregation, i 269 

Gecelo, son of Tshopo, vassal Tembu chief: 
particulars concerning, iv 50 and 54 

Geij|khaus, Hottentot tribe in Great Namaqtj aland : 
particulars concerning, v 94, 111, 112, and 121 

Genadendal, Moravian mission station : 

description of in 1803, i 146 ; in January 1S0G receives its present 
name, ib. ; is very favourably regarded by Co: loner-General 

de Mist, ib. 

GEXTOO, the : 

on the 29th of April 1846 is wrecked near Cape Agulhas, ii 244 

George, district in the Cape province : 

in April 1811 is formed out of a portion of the old district of 
Swellendam, i 225 ; in 1834 for fiscal purposes is reduced to 
the rank of a sub-district of Uitenhage, ii 44 ; but in August 
1836 is again provided with its own civil commissioner, ii 166 

George, village of : 

in June 1811 is founded, i 225 ; in February 1813 a congregation 
of the Dutch reformed church is established there, i 226 

German immigrants : 

in 1848 thirty-five families arrive in Natal, Hi 254 ; in 1858 and 
1859 a considerable number of families of agriculturists arrive 
and are located in British Kafrraria, Hi 217 et seq. ; after 1859 
a good many arrive and settle in the Cape Colony, Hi 177 

German legion, British : 

particulars concerning the settlement in British Kanraria of part 
of, Hi 193, 216, and 219 



262 History of South Africa, 

German village in King-Williamstown : 
in 1857 is laid out and occupied, Hi 194 

Germany : 

in August 1884 takes possession of the coast of Great Namaqua- 
land and Hereroland, v 125 ; and shortly acquires an immense 
extent of territory to the eastward, v 126 

Gerotz, Carel David : 

in September 1796 is empowered by General Craig to act as 
landdrost of GraafE-Reinet, i 18 ; in July 1797 transfers the 
duty to Mr. Bresler, i 37 

Gethin, Captain : 

loses his life in the fifth Kaffir war, i 336 

Ghika, the : 

on the 17th of October 1847 is wrecked at the mouth of the 
Buffalo river, Hi 45 

Ghou Damup : see Berg Damaras 

Gibeon, Rhenish mission station in Great Namaqualand : 
in 18G6 is destroyed, v 99 

Giddy, Richard : 

is master of the supreme court of British Kaffraria, in 226 

GlLFTLLAN, WlLLIAM : 

in February 1837 is appointed civil commissioner and resident 
magistrate, of Cradock ii 165 

Ginger : 

cultivation of in Natal, Hi 261 

Girls' Training School : 

in 1871 is opened in Basutoland by the reverend Mr. Joussj, 
v 76 

Gladstone, right honourable William Ewart : 

on the 23rd of December 1845 becomes secretary of state for the 
colonies, ii 239 ; on the 7th of July 1816 is succeeded by 
Earl Grey, Hi 29 

Glasgow missionary society : 

in 1821 commences to work in South Africa, i 409 ; particulars 
concerning, ii 10, 51, and 131 

Glenbervie, Lord : 

in 1801 is appointed governor of the Cape Colony, but never 
enters upon the duty, i 79 



Synoptical Index. 263 

Glenelg, Lord : 

in April 1835 becomes secretary of state for the colonies in 
Viscount Melville's cabinet, ii 141 ; is in full sympathy with 
the party represented in South Africa by the reverend Dr. 
Philip, ii 142 ; on the 26th of December 1835 writes a despatch 
justifying the Xosas for making war upon the Cape Colony, 
and announcing that Sir Benjamin D'Urban's arrangements with 
regard to the province of Queen Adelaide must be reversed, 
ii 142 ; sends out Captain Stockenstrom as lieutenant-governor 
with instructions to undo all that Sir Benjamin D'Urban has 
done, ii 144 ; is the author of the act usually known as the 
Cape of Good Hope punishment bill, ii 143 ; refuses to annex 
Natal to the British dominions, ii 346 ; orders all the land east 
of the Fish and Kat rivers, except the Fingo locations, to be 
restored to the Xosas, ii 151 ; d ss Sir Benjamin D'Urban 

from office as governor of the Cape Colony, ii 171 ; after 
causing unbounded discontent and inflicting severe losses upon 
the Cape Colony, on the 8th of February 1S39 he is forced 
by his colleagues to resign as secretary of state, ii 181 ; on 
the 23rd of April 1866 dies at Cannes. He was unmarried, 
and the title is extinct. 

Glen Grey location in the Cape province : 

in 1852 is formed, ii 113; unsuccessful efforts of Sir Philip 
Wodehouse to obtain it for European settlement, iv 45 and 50 

Goats : 

number of in 1865 in the Cape Colony, iv 43 

Gobabis, in Great Namaqu aland : 

the Rhenish mission station at is plundered and destroyed by the 
Gei||khauas under the captain Lambert, v 99 

Godeeich, Viscount : 

from April to September 1827 is secretary of state for the colonies, 
i 426 ; in November 1830 again becomes secretary of state for 
the colonies, i 489 ; in April 1833 retires from office, ii 28 

GODLONTON, THE HONOURABLE ROBEKT : 

on the 23rd of July 1850 is appointed a member of the legislative 
council of the Cape Colonj-, Hi 122 ; when assisting in the pre- 
paration of the constitution urges the separation of the two 
provinces or the removal of the seat of government to the 
east, Hi 127 ; proceedings in the Cape parliament of, iv 74, 
128, and 139 ; hi 1871 he is a member of the federation 
commission, iv 128 



264 History of South Africa. 

GOEDGEDACHT, MISSION STATION OF THE DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH : 

in 1862 is established in the location of Michicl Buys in the 
district of Zoutpansberg, iv 4H1 ; in July 1865 is temporarily 
abandoned on account of the war, iv 481 

Goes (corruption of Leghoyas) : 

take refuge in the Cape Colony in a famishing condition, and are 
apprenticed to farmers, i 446 

Gold : 

in 1836 is seen in the form of rings of native manufacture in 
possession of Bantu at the Zoutpansberg, ii 288 ; in 1867 is 
discovered by Carl Alauch at the Tati, v 4 ; also near the 
Zambesi, v \\ ; in 1SG9 and 1870 is found by Mr. Edward 
Button in various parts of the South African Republic, and in 
1871 at Eersteling near Marabastad, Hi 212 

Gold mixing : 

was carried on in ancient times in the territory south of the 
Limpopo as well as between that river and the Zambesi, v 3 ; 
account of operations at the Tati, v 8 and 9 ; in 1872 is 
favourably regarded by the government of the South African 
Republic, v 12 

GOLIATn YZERBEK, PETTY KORANA CAPTAIN t 

in 1849 is provided by the Sovereignt}*- government with a location 
along the southern bank of the Vaal river, Hi 310 ; on the 
abandonment of the Sovereignty by Great Britain in February 
1854 is left in an independent position, Hi 442 ; in September 
1854 is at war with David Danser, Hi 455 ; in 1857 sells his 
share of the mixed Korana and Bushman reserve to the Orange 
Free State, Hi 485 ; in 1858 assists Scheel Kobus in plundering 
the Free State, ib. 

GOMAPERI : 

action of the 16th of July 1S78 between Hereros and Hottentots 
at, iv 429 

GONTSE, CAPTAIN OF A BAROLONG CLAN! 

in 1811 moves from Thaba Ntshu over the Vaal river, ii 466 ; 
and has a tract of land assigned to him by Hendrik Potgietcr, 
ib. ; upon which he lives as a favoured subject of the emigrant 
farmers, ib. ; subsequently wanders from one place to another 
until his death, when he is succeeded by Masisi, ii 467 ; see 
Barolong tribe 

Gosling, James : 

in 1818 introduces a few English boys as immigrants into the 
Cape Colony, i 347 



Synoptical Index, 265 

Gosselin, Constant, of the Paris evangelical society : 

in June 1833 with his colleagues founds the mission station Morija 
in Basutola.nd, i 469 

Gouveia : 

performs important services for the Portuguese government in 
South Africa, v 156 ; transactions in 1890 of, v 157 and 158 ; 
eminent services of, v 165 ; in 1892 is killed in battle with 
the chief Makombi, v 168 

Government bank : 

this bank conducted business under three headings. 1. Mortgages. 
In this branch money was advanced on landed property, with 
collateral personal security. Payment usually commenced upon 
the expiration of two years from the date of the loan, and 
was made at the rate of ten per cent per annum. 2. Temporary 
loans. In this branch money was lent for six months on 
security of slaves or other movable property. 3. Discount. 
In this branch bills and notes of hand payable within three 
months were discounted, if the security was considered sufficient ; 
on the 31st of December 1842 the bank was closed, ii 203 

Governors of the Cape Colony : 

succession of : see Heads of the Cape government 

VAN DE GRAAFF, HeNBY : 

in August 1801 is appointed first landdrost of the district of 
Tulbagh, i 152 

Graaff-Reinet : 

conduct of the people of in 1795 after the conquest of the Cape 
Colony by the English, i 6 ; description of the village in 1803, 
i 128; and in 1804, i 149 

Graham, Lieutenant- Colonel John : 

upon the conquest of the Cape Colony in 1806 is instructed to 

form a regiment of Hottentots, i 203 ; commands the united 

military and burgher forces in the fourth Kaffir war, i 252 ; in 

October 1820 is appointed first landdrost of the district of 

Albany, but is unable to assume the duty, » 359 ; in March 
182 1 dies, ib. 

Graham, Robert : 

on the 24th of December 1864 becomes governor's deputy in 
British Kanraria, iv 71 ; as collector of customs and a member 
of the executive council, in 1871 signs a memorandum in 
antagonism to the introduction of responsible government in the 
Cape Colony, iv 118 



266 History of South Africa. 

Grakamstown : 

in March 1812 the head- quarters of the troops on the frontier 
occupy this place, i 258 ; in July a deputy landdrost of 
Uitenhage is stationed here, ib. ; and in August the name 
Grahamstown is given to the encampment in honour of Lieutenant- 
Colonel John Graham, of the Cape regiment, ib. ; on the 22nd 
of April IS 19 it is unsuccessfully attacked by a great horde 
of Xosas, i 337 ; in February 1622 is made the seat of magis- 
tracy of the district of Albany, i 374 ; in 1834 it contains six 
hundred houses, ii 83 ; further particulars concerning, ib. ; 
during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 presents a scene of great 
misery, ii 93 ; the session of the Cape parliament in 1864 is 
held in, iv 35 ; population in 1865, iv 42 ; a town hall 
including a memorial tower of the British settlers is erected in, 
iv 110 

Grahamstown Journal : 

on the 30th of December 1831 is first issued, and is still published, 
ii 16 ; note on, ii 156 

Grand, George Francis : 

occupies a vague position in the government of the Cape Colony 
under the Batavian Republic, i 177 ; on the 17th of January 
1820 dies in Capetown 

Grant, J. Murray : 

in January 1872 visits Nomansland on a commission, iv 68 and 09 

Graving dock in Table Bay : 
in 1882 is completed, iv 143 

Great emigration of Dutch-speaking people from the Cafe 
Colony : 
causes of, ii 266 et seq. ; imaginary grievance of some of the 
emigrants, ii 283 ; causes of as given in a letter written by 
Pieter Uys, ii 312 

G itEAT Namaq cr aland : 

in 1814 mission work is commenced in, i 410 ; description of, 
v 111 ; in 1884 becomes a German possession, v 125 

Great storm of July 1822 : 
account of the, i 380 

Green, Benjamin : 

with Dr. Cowie in 1829 travels from the Cape Colony by way of 
Natal to Delagoa Bay, ii 340 ; and perishes of fever when 
trying to return, ib. 



Synoptical Index, 267 

Green, Frederick : 

assists the Hereros in their war of independence, v 98 ; in May 
1868 narrowly escapes being killed by Hottentots, v 100 

Green, Henry : 

is in charge of the commissariat train that accompanies Sir Harry 

Smith's expedition to restore British authority north of the 

Orange, in 285 ; on the 23rd of July 1852 becomes British 

resident in the Orange Biver Sovereignty, Hi 331 ; and retains 

that office until the abandonment of the country by the British 
government, in 365 

Grey college at Bloemfontein : 

particulars concerning, iv 16 and 17 

Grey, Earl : 

on the 7th of July 1846 succeeds Mr. Gladstone as secretary of 
state for the colonies, Hi 29 ; is in favour of granting to the 
Cape Colony a representative government, Hi 119 ; on the 27th 
of February 1852 is succeeded by Sir John Pakington, Hi 132 

Grey hospital in King-Williamstown : 

is erected by Sir George Grey to • break the belief of the Kaffirs 
in witchcraft, Hi 191 

Grey institute at Port Elizabeth : 
particulars concerning, iv 15 and 16 

Grey library in Capetown : 

particulars concerning, iv 19 and 20 

Grey, Lieutenant-General Henry George : 

from January to May 1807 is acting governor of the Cape Colony, 
i 218; and again from July to September 1811, i 248 

Grey, Sir George : 

on the 5th of December 1854 becomes governor of the Cape 
Colony and high commissioner, Hi 146 ; particulars concerning 
his previous career, ib. ; is desirous of preventing war between 
the Orange Free State and the Basuto tribe, Hi 457 ; arranges 
for a meeting in October 1855 of President Boshof and Moshesh, 
ib. ; is the means of a treaty being entered into between the 
Free State and the Basuto tribe, which, however, is not observed 
by Moshesh, Hi 458 ; by means of agents scattered throughout 
Kamrland is kept informed of Moshesh' s intrigues, Hi 464 ; 
in August and September 1858 arranges conditions of pea^e 
between the Free State and the Basuto tribe, Hi 492 ; in 



268 History of South Africa. 

1858 intends to remove Jan Letele and Lehana to Nomansland, 
but his design is frustrated by Moskesh, iv 180 ; offers the 
Griqua captain Adam Kok part of Nomansland, iv 195 ; on 
the 4th of June 1859 is recalled by the secretary of state for 
the colonies, Hi 183 ; on the 20th of August transfers the 
administration to Lieutenant- General Wynyard, and leaves for 
England, Hi 185 ; is reappointed governor of the Cape Colony 
and high commissioner, and on the 4th of July 1860 arrives 
at Capetown again, Hi 1ST ; accompanies Prince Alfred on a 
tour through South Africa, ii 2 to 5 ; in July 1881 sends 
all the troops in Capetown to Natal, where an attack by 
Ketshwayo is feared, iv 15 ; on the 15th of August 18G1 leaves 
South Africa to assume the government of New Zealand, iv 
18 ; presents a valuable library to the Cape Colony, iv 19 
and 20 

Grey, the right reverend Dr. Robert : 

in 1848 arrives as the first bishop of the Anglican church in 
South Africa, Hi 71 ; hi the same 3-ear accompanies Sir Harry 
Smith to British KaiTraria, Hi 66 

Gbeylxng, Commandant Pieter : 

selects the site of Pietermaritzburg, ii 378 

Griffith, Lieutenant Charles : 

is one of the early breeders of merino sheep in the district of 
Albany, ii 40 

Griffith, Lieutenant Valentine : 

in 1820 brings a party of settlors to the Cape Colony, and is 
located on the river Zonder End, i 352 ; subsequent movements 
of the port}-, i 355 

Griffith, Inspector Charles Duncan : 

in September 1857 assists in breaking up a Tembu robber band, 
Hi 215 ; on the 22nd of November 1865 holds an important 
meeting with the Tembus in Glen Grey, ii 51 ; in August 187 1 
becomes chief magistrate and governor's agent in Basutoland, 
v 70 ; in January 1872 visits Nomansland on a commission, 
iv 68 and 69 

Griffith, the right reverend Patrick Raymond, first bishop of 
the Roman catholic church in the Cape Colony: 
on the 14th of April 1833 arrives in Capetown from Europe, 
ii 225 

Griffith, William Downes : 

on the 20th of March 1866 becomes attorney -general of the Cape 
Colony, iv 80; in 1871 draws up a memorandum in antagonism 



Synoptical Index* 269 

to the introduction of responsible government in the Cape 
Colony, iv 117; is excused from drawing up the constitution 
amendment act in 1871, as he does not approve of it, iv 126 ; 
in December 1872, upon the introduction of responsible govern- 
ment, retires on pension, iv 147 

Griquas : 

the people so called are composed of various races who were 
collected together by missionaries of the London society and 
induced to settle near the junction of the Vaal and Orange 
rivers, i 185 ; in 1805 their settlements are visited and described 
by a government commission, ib. ; in 1813 the reverend John 
Campbell gives them the name Griquas, which they adopt, 
i 272 ; some of them become marauders, and commit great 
atrocities upon the Basuto, i 468 ; further particulars concerning, 
t 474, 470, and 481, ii 57 ; short sketch of their history, 
ii 470; see Barends, Davids, Kok, and Waterboer 

Griqua clan under Nicholas Waterboer: 

history of, iv 331 et seq. ; in 1870 con-' of some five or six 
hundred individuals sunk in poverty and wretchedness, iv 336; 
cause of their rebellion in 1878, iv 424 and 425 

GRIQUALAND EAST : 

area of, iv 60 ; description of, iv 61 

Griqualand West : 

on the 27th of October 1871 is annexed to the British dominions, 
iv 372 ; is divided into the three magisterial districts of Kiip- 
drift, Pniei, and Griquatown, iv 373 ; receives a staff of British 
officials, ib. ; area, population, and other particulars concerning 
the territory, iv 371 ; on the 17th of July 1S73 is formed 
into a crown colony, iv 409 ; it is divided into the electoral 
districts of Kimberley, Barkly, and Hay, iv 409 ; constitution 
of the legislative council of, iv 409 and 410 ; public debt of 
in 1877, iv 424 ; in 1877 the Cape parliament passes an act 
annexing it, iv 423 ; in 1878 the Griquas, Koranas, and 
Betshuana residing in it rebel, iv 424 to 432 ; in October 1880 
the annexation to the Cape Colony is completed, iv 433 

Griqualand West land court : 

in 1875 is appointed, iv 419 ; proceedings of, iv 420 

Griquatown, district oe : 

description of, iv 334 and 335 

Griquatown, village of : 

in 1803 is founded as a mission station, ii 470 ; in 1813 receives 
its present name from the reverend John Campbell, ii 473 



270 History of South Africa. 

Grobbelaar, J. H. : 

in February 1860 becomes acting president of the South African 
Republic, iv 4:4:4: ; in November of the same year is succeeded 
by Stephanus Schoeman, ib. 

Groepe, Fieldcornet Christiaan : 

at the commencement of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 takes command 
of the half-breeds of the Kat river who rally to the support 
of the government, ii 97 ; and performs excellent service 
against the enemy, ii 101 ; in the war of 1846-7 is again 
commandant of the Kat river people, in 23 

Groote Post : 

in May 1804 the tract of land so named at Groenekloof with 
some other ground of less value is set apart as an experimental 
and stock-improving farm, i 158 ; which is continued by Major- 
General Baird, i 211 ; in March 1815 Lord Charles Somerset 
assumes personal control of it, i 281 ; and uses the estate as 
a preserve for game, i 411 ; in October 1827 it is divided into 
seven farms, which are disposed of by auction, i 496 

Gbout, Rev. Aldin, American missionary: 

in February 1836 assists to found the first mission station in 
Natal, ii 348; in April 1838 leaves Natal on account of dis- 
turbances caused by the Zulus, ii 374 ; in June 1840 returns 
and resumes mission work, ii 400 

Guano : 

particulars concerning the discovery of a vast quantity of guano 
on some small islands off the coast of Great Namaqualand, and 
its removal, ii 234 

Guano islands off the coast of Great Namaqualand : 

on the 5th of May 1366 are taken possession of for Great Britain, 
ii 236 ; and on the 16th of July in the same year are annexed 
to the Cape Colony, ib. ; see Ichaboe 

Gubela, wife of the Abasekunene chief Umjoli: 

acts in a very valiant manner against Tshaka's armies, but is 
ultimately beaten and killed, i 448 

Gungunyana : 

in 1884 succeeds his father Umzila as chief of the Matshangana, 
v 154 ; in 1894 sets the Portuguese government at defiance, 
v 166 ; but in December 1895 is made a prisoner and ia 
banished to Portugal, ib. ; in December 1906 dies, v 167 



Synoptical Index. 271 

Guns : 

illegal traffic in guns and ammunition in the South African 
Republic, iv 454 ; are sold freely to blacks at the diamond 
fields, iv 412 and 428 ; a large number are seized by the 
Free State authorities at Magersfontein, iv 412 ; the republican 
government is compelled by Sir Henry Barkly to restore them 
and to pay damages for the seizure, iv 413 and 414 

Gurney, Charles : 

in 1820 brings a party of settlers to the Cape Colony, and is 
located at Algoa Bay, % 353 

GWALANA POST : 

is formed by Sir Lowry Cole to overawe the Gunukwebes, and in 
March 1830 troops are stationed there, ii 12 ; at the com- 
mencement of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 it is abandoned, and is 
never again occupied, ii 92 

GWALI MISSION STATION : 

in June 1820 is founded by the reverend John Brownlee in the 
Tyumie valley, i 318 ; in February 1852 it is abandoned, and 
has never been reoccupied, Hi 98 

Haas, Rev. Jciian : 

from February 1799 to February 1802 is acting clergyman of the 
Lutheran chinch in Capetown, » 105 

Haasje, Dutch brig : 

in 1797 is sent from Batavia v.ith munitions of war to aid the 
nationals of Graaff-Reinet against the English, i 20 ; springs 
a leak at sea, and puts into Delagoa Bay to refit, ib. ; where 
she is seized by a combined force of English and Portuguese, 
i 21; and is sent as a prize to Simon's Bay, t* 22 

Hahn, Rev. Dr. C. H., Rhenish missionary in Great Namaqua 
land : 

in 1808 is almost alone at Otjirnbingue, v 100; in September 
1870 draws up a treaty of peace between the Hereros and the 

Hottentots, v 103 ; in 18S2 induces some of the clans in Herero- 

land and Great Namaqualand to agree once more to peace, 
v 123 

Halloran, Rev. Dr. Laurence : 
strange career of, i 23S 

Halse, Henry : 

on the 18th of August 1850 becomes a member of the legislative 
council of the Orange River Sovereignty, Hi 313 



272 History of South Africa. 

Ham, Rev. Pieter Nicolaas : 

is sent out by a society in Holland to minister to the emigrant 
farmers in Natal, but on his arrival there on the 8th of May 

1843 is not permitted by the English authorities to land, ii 
445 ; proceeds to Delagoa Bay, where his wife dies, ib. ; in 

1844 leaves Lourenco Marques and proceeds to Capetown, ii 456 ; 
early in 1845 becomes the first resident clergyman of French 
Hoek, ii 249 

Hamelberg, H. A. L. : 

in 1871 is appointed plenipotentiary of the Orange Free State in 
London, iv 372 ; but is not recognised in that capacity by the 
secretaries of state, ib. 

Hankey mission station: 

in 1825 is founded in the Cape Colony by the London society, 
♦ 409 

Hanoverian mission society : 

mention of, in 439 ; sends agents to Znluland, iv 457 

Hantam, the, tract of land in the Cape province : 
description of, i 167 

Hanto, Jan, Kokana captain : 

in December 1833 with his people is induced by some Wesleyan 
missionaries to settle at Merumetsu, i 480 

Harbour improvements : 

particulars concerning works in Table Bay, ii 199 ; concerning 
works at Algoa Bay, ii 200 ; concerning works at the mouth 
of tho Kowie river, ib. ; concerning works at the mouth of the 
Buffalo river, Hi 190 ; concerning works at Port Natal, iv 
162 ; mention of, Hi 143 

Harding, John William : 

sensational theft of diamonds by, iv 401 and 402 

Harding, William Walter: 

on the 15th of November 1826 is appointed deputy landdrost of 
Beaufort in succession to Mr. J. Baird ; in January 1828 
is appointed resident magistrate of Beaufort West, i 493 ; on 
the 13th of November 1845 is appointed crown prosecutor of 
Natal, ii 462; on the 11th of April 1850 on behalf of the 
Natal government concludes a treaty with the Pondo chief 
Faku, iv 64 

Hard road over the Cape flats : 

between July 1844 and September 1846 is opened for use in 
sections, ii 244 



Synoptical Index. 273 

Hare, Lieutenant- Colonel John, of the 27th regiment: 

on the 9th of August 1838 becomes acting lieutenant-governor 
of the eastern province of the Cape Colony, ii 180 ; in 
September 1839 is confirmed in the appointment, ii 184 ; in 
March 1846 calls upon Sandile to surrender some criminals, and 
as he meets with a refusal sends a military force to occupy 
the chief's kraal, which is the commencement of the seventh 
Kaffir war, Hi 2 ; in July and August 1846 commands the 
first division of the army of operations, Hi 18 ; in September 
1846 leaves South Africa to return to England, Hi 27 ; but 
dies at sea four days after embarking, ib. 

Hargreaves, Rev. Peter, Wesleyan missionary : 

in 1872 acts as a peacemaker between the Xosa and Tembu tribes, 
iv 58 ; 

Harker, Captain, R. C. : 

on the 15th of November 1826 is appointed resident at Pletten- 
berg's Bay in succession to Mr. W. W. Harding 

Harries, William Matthew : 

is the leader in the Cape parliament in the effort to separate the 
two provinces of the Cape Colony, iv 7 and 27 

Harris, Captain Cornwallis : 

in 1836 visits the Matabeie chief Moselekatse and hunts along the 
Limpopo river, ii 288 

Harrismith, district in the Orange Free State : 

in September 1854 is united to Winburg, Hi 450 ; in 1856 becomes 
a separate district again, Hi 461 

Harrismith, village of : 

in May 1849 is founded, Hi 299 

Hart, Robert : 

in 1817 succeeds Dr. Mackrill as superintendent of the Somerset 
farm, * 281 

Hartebeest Hoek, farm of Mr. Andrew Bain near Bloemfontein : 
account of Prince Alfred's hunt at, iv 4 

Haktebeest River, in the Cape province, territory drained by : 
description of, iv 30 

Hartley, Henry: 

is the first in our times to notice ancient mines in the territory 
south of the Zambesi, v 3 ; invites a German geologist named 
Carl Mauch to visit the country, v 4 

VOL. V. T 



274 History of South Africa. 

Harvey, William Henry: 

on the 18th of October 1836 becomes treasurer- general of the Cape 
Colony, ii 215 ; is author of three volumes of the Flora 
Capensis, ib. ; on the 7th of December 1841 leaves for Europe 
suffering from aberration of mind, ib. 

Hawkins, William: 

in October 1851 is appointed a member of the legislative council 
of the Cape Colony, in 128; on the 22nd of March 1852 
resigns, Hi 138 

Hay, Lieutenant- General Charles Craufurd : 

from the 20th of May to the 31st of December 1870 is head of 
the Cape government and her Majesty's high commissioner in 
South Africa, iv 109 ; in September 1870 opens a controversy 
with the government of the Orange Free State concerning the 
claim made by Mr. Arnot, on behalf of the Griqua captain 
Nicholas Waterboer, to the territory in which the principal 
diamond mines are situated, iv 355 ; in his despatches to the 
secretary of state uses expressions that cannot be justified by 
facts, iv 359 ; in September 1870 writes to President Pretorius, 
of the South African Republic, calling upon him to abstain 
from aggressions on Bantu tribes, v 35 ; on the 30th of 
November 1870 appoints Mr. John Campbell special magistrate 
in all the territory claimed by Mr. Arnot for Nicholas Waterboer, 
v 37 

Hayward, William: 

in May 1824 is appointed special commissioner in Albany, » 391 

Heads of the Cape government, succession of : 

Admiral Sir George Keith Elphinstone and Major- Generals Alured 

Clarke and James Henry Craig, conjointly, as commanders of 

the British forces, from 16 September to 15 November 1795 ; 
Major-General James Henry Craig, commandant of the town and 

settlement of the Cape of Good Hope, 15 November 1795 to 

5 May 1797 ; 
George, Earl Macartney, governor, 5 May 1797 to 20 November 

1798; 
Major-General Francis Dundas, acting governor, 21 November 1798 

to 9 December 1799 ; 
Sir George Yonge, governor, 10 December 1799 to 20 April 

1801; 
Lieutenant- General Francis Dundas, acting governor, 20 April 1801 

to 20 February 1803 ; 



Synoptical Index. 275 

Jacob Abraham de Mist, commissioner- general, 21 February 1803 

to 25 September 1804 ; 
Lieutenant- General Jan Willem Janssens, governor, 1 March 1803 

to 18 January 1808 ; 
Major-General David Baird, acting governor, 10 January 1806 to 

17 January 1807; 
Lieutenant-General Henry George Grey, acting governor, 17 January 

to 21 May 1807; 
Du Pre" Alexander, earl of Caledon, governor, 22 May 1807 to 

4 July 1811 ; 
Lieutenant-General Henry George Grey, acting governor, 4 July 

to 5 September 1811 ; 
Lieutenant-General Sir John Francis Cradock, governor, 6 September 

1811 to 6 April 1814; 
Lieutenant-General Lord Charles Henry Somerset, governor, 6 April 

1814 to 13 January 1820; 
Major-General Sir Rufane Shawe Donkin, acting governor, 13 

January 1820 to 30 November 1821 ; 
General Lord Charles Henry Somerset, governor, 30 November 

1821 to 5 March 1826; 
Major- General Richard Bourke, acting governor, 5 March 1826 to 

9 September 1828 ; 
Lieutenant-General Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole, governor, 9 September 

1828 to 10 August 1833; 
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Francis Wade, acting governor, 10 

August 1833 to 16 January 1834; 
Major- General Sir Benjamin D' Urban, governor, 16 January 1834 to 

22 January 1838 ; 
Major-General Sir George Thomas Napier, governor, 22 January 

1838 to 18 March 1844; 
Lieutenant-General Sir Peregrine Maitland, governor, 18 March 

1844 to 27 January 1847; 
Sir Henry Pottinger, governor and high commissioner, 27 January 

to 1 December 1847 ; 
Lieutenant-General Sir Henry George Wakelyn Smith, governor 

and high commissioner, 1 December 1847 to 31 March 1852 ; 
Lieutenant-General the honourable George Cathcart, governor and 

high commissioner, 31 March 1852 to 26 May 1854 ; 
Charles Henry Darling, Esquire, acting governor, 26 May to 5 

December 1854 ; 
Sir George Grey, governor and high commissioner, 5 December 

1854 to 20 August 1859; 
Lieutenant-General Robert Henry Wynyard, acting governor, 20 

August 1859 to 4 July 1860; 



276 History of South Africa. 

Sir George Grey, governor and high commissioner, 4 July 1860 

to 15 August 1881 ; 
Lieutenant-General Robert Henry Wynj^ard, acting governor, 15 

August 1861 to 15 January 1862 ; 
Sir Philip Edmond Wodehouse, governor and high commissioner, 

15 January 1862 to 20 May 1870; 
Lieutenant- General Charles Craufurd Hay, acting governor and high 

commissioner, 20 May to 31 December 1870 ; 
Sir Henry Barkly, governor and high commissioner, 31 December 

1870 

Hebron mission station : 

in 1847 is founded between Basutoland and the Orange river by 
the French evangelical society, ii 502 

Heemraden : 

in October 1805 have their qualifications and duties strictly defined 
by an ordinance, i 182 ; on the 1st of January 1828 the office 
is abolished, * 492 

VAN DEN HEEVER, LUKAS : 

in 1844 is one of the leaders of the emigrant farmers in the 
district of Philippolis who are favourable to British rule, ft 4S7 

Heidelberg, district in the South African Republic : 

in March 1866 is formed out of the eastern part of Potchefstroom, 
iv 499 

Heidelberg, village of : 

in 1865 is founded, iv 499 

van Heiningen, Rev. Mr. : 

in 1858 becomes clergyman of the Dutch reformed church at 
Lydenburg, iv 436 

Helmore, Rev. Holloway : 

in 1859 leads a mission party to Linyanti, and dies there with 
his wife and two of his children, v 90 and 91 

Henderson, Lieutenant-Colonel : 

endeavours to introduce Angora goats into the Cape Colony, ii 42 

Hercules, the, American ship: 

on the 16th of June 1796 is wrecked on the coast of Kafiraria 

Herero tribe (Cattle Damaras) : 

account of, v 93 et seq. ; in 1840 are reduced to servitude by 

the Hottentots under Jonker Afrikaner, v 94 ; in 1863 attempt 

to regain their independence, v 97; at Omukaru gain a decisive 



Synoptical Index. 277 

victory over the Hottentots, v 102 ; and in September 1870 
peace is concluded between the belligerents, v 103 ; in 1880 
war with the Hottentots recommences, v 121 

Hermansburg missionary society : 

employs agents among Bantu tribes in the South African Republic, 
iv 467 

Hermanus Matroos, a Kaffir for some time employed as an 
interpreter : 
during the war of 1846-7 assists the Europeans, Hi 8 ; in January 
1848 is rewarded by a grant of land near Fort Beaufort, on 
which he collects a number of retainers, Hi 63 ; he becomes 
disaffected and acts treacherously, Hi 102 ; on the 7th of 
January 1851 attacks Fort Beaufort, but is defeated and killed. 
Hi 103 

Hermanus van Wyk, leader of a party of mixed-breeds : 
in 1870 settles at Rehoboth in Great Namaqualand, v 102 

Hermon mission station : 

in 1847 is founded in Basutoland by the French evangelical 
society 

Herold, Rev. Tobias Johannes : 

in April 1813 assumes duty as first clergyman of George, i 226 

Herschel, Sir John, the eminent astronomer : 

in January 1834 arrives in South Africa, t* 29 ; takes a very 
warm interest in matters relating to education, ii 210 ; at 
the request of Sir George Napier draws up a plan for the 
improvement of the public schools, ib. ; in March 1838 returns 
to Europe, ii 212 ; at the governor's request selects teachers 
for the most important public schools, ib. 

Herschel system of schools : 

in 1839 is commenced in the Cape Colony, ii 211 

Hesse, Rev. F. : 

in September 1800 arrives in South Africa and assumes duty as 
clergyman of the Lutheran church in Capetown, i 105 ; in 
June 1817 leaves the colony to return to Europe, i 317 

Heyman, Captain, of the British South Africa Company's police : 
in May 1891 defeats a Portuguese force near Andrada, v 159 

Heyning, Margaretha Anna, widow of Hendrik Pieter Moller : 
in 1799 establishes a perpetual fund for the relief of helpless and 
distressed old women, i 284 ; in 1808 founds the South African 
orphan asylum, i 286 ; on the 6th of January 1815 dies childless, 
i 287 



278 History of South Africa. 

High commissioner : 

the office is first held in South Africa by Sir Henry Pottinger, 
Hi 42 

High court of justice : 

in 1797 is remodelled and made to consist of a president and 
seven members, i 33; in 1803 is made to consist of a president 
and six members, and is to be independent of the executive 
and legislative authority, * 106 ; in 1806 again becomes de- 
pendent upon the executive government, i 212 ; in December 
1819 various changes in its powers and duties are made, i 319 ; 
on the 1st of January 1828 it is abolished, and a supreme court 
of four qualified judges appointed by the crown is established, 
* 491 

Hill, Captain John Montgomery : 

in January 1839 becomes the first resident magistrate of Malmes- 
bury, ii 228 ; in March 1848 becomes resident magistrate of 
Piketberg, Hi 70 

HlNTSA, PARAMOUNT CHIEF OF THE XOSA TRIBE : 

is a minor when his father Kawuta dies, i 250 ; in 1809 is visited 
by Major Collins at his kraal between the Kei and Bashee 
rivers, i 233 ; is a very poor specimen of a Xosa, ii 109 ; in 
1818 assists Ndlambe against Gaika, * 333 ; in 1828 assists 
in the destruction of the Amangwane, i 454 ; further mention 
of, i 450 ; at the commencement of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 
professes to be a neutral, but really takes an active part against 
the Cape Colony, ii 108 ; in February and again in March 
1835 is called upon by Sir Benjamin D'Urban to cease aiding 
the Rarabe clans, but does not comply with the demand, ii 103 ; 
after the entrance of an army into his country declines to give 
satisfaction for his hostile conduct, ii 111 ; but after losing a 
large number of cattle, on the 29 th of April comes to the 
British camp to ask for peace, and there on the following day 
agrees to the governor's terms, ii 112; remains in the camp as 
a hostage for the fulfilment of the conditions of peace, ib. ; 
as the cattle which he agreed to surrender are not brought in 
by his people he proposes to go with a patrol of the British 
forces to collect them, ii 115; this offer being accepted, the 
patrol sets out, when he attempts to make his escape, and is 
killed in doing so, ib. ; he is succeeded in the chieftainship by 
his son Kreli, ii 117 

Hlangweni tribe : see Fodo and Nombewu 



Synoptical Index. 279 

Hlubi tribe : 

account of, iii 235 ; in 1848 a section of it seeks refuge in Natal, 
iii 235 ; and in 1849 has a location assigned to it at the 
sources of the Bushman's river, Hi 236 ; assists the Natal 
government against the rebel chief Matyana, Hi 245 ; see 
Amahlubi, Langalibalele, and Umpangazita 

Hoachanas, Rhenish mission station in Hereroland : 
in 1866 is destroyed, v 99 

Hodges, Sir William : 

on the 10th of February 1858 is appointed chief justice of the 
Cape Colony, iii 148 

van der Hoff, Rev. Dirk : 

in May 1853 arrives in the South African Republic from Holland, 
and for some time is the onty clergyman there, iii 408 

Hoffman, Josias Philip : 

in 1824 proceeds to Natal with Mr. Farewell, but does not remain 
there long, ii 324 ; in February 1854 is chairman of the assembly 
of delegates that takes over the government of the Orange 
River Sovereignty from Sir George Clerk, iii 361 ; is elected 
first president of the Orange Free State, iii 447 ; visits Moshesh, 
iii 451 ; makes him a present of gunpowder, iii 455 ; attempts 
to conceal this transaction from the volksraad, ib. ; becomes very 
unpopular, and in February 1855 resigns his office, iii 456 

VAN HOGENDORP, GySBERT KAREL : 

in 1803 endeavours to establish a settlement of Dutch working 
people in the neighbourhood of Plettenberg's Bay, i 134 et seq. ; 
but the attempt ends in utter failure and heavy loss to himself, 
* 137 

Hogg, Captain Willl\m S., of the 7th dragoon guards : 

in August 1846 commands an expedition against the Tembu chief 
Mapasa, iii 24 ; serves afterwards until the close of the war 
of 1846-7 as commandant of Hottentot levies, iii 38; in 1851 
is appointed assistant commissioner with large powers to deal 
with affairs north of the Orange river in conjunction with 
Mr. C. M. Owen, iii 372 ; on the 27th of November reaches 
Bloemfontein and at once enters into correspondence with Mr. 
A. W. J. Pretorius, ib. ; investigates matters in the Orange 
River Sovereignty, iii 325 ; ascertains the views of the people 
of the Sovereignty with regard to their future government, ib. ; 
arranges with Mr. Pretorius for a conference on the 16th of 
January 1852, Hi 374 ; on the 17th of January 1852 concludes 



280 History of South Africa. 

the Sand River Convention with delegates from the Transvaal 
emigrants, in 377 ; in February opens negotiations with Moshesh, 
Hi 328 ; but cannot bring that chief to do anything practical 
towards the restoration of peace, Hi 329 ; on the 9th of June 
1852 dies at Bloemfontein, in 330 

Hohne, F. K. : 

in September 1872 acts as president of the Orange Free State, 
iv 408 

Holland, John : 

in 1797 is appointed judge of the court of vice admiralty at 
Capetown, » 34 ; in 1798 becomes also postmaster-general, i 39 

Holloway, Major : 

is the designer of the road through the French Hoek pass, i 388 

Holstead, Thomas : 

in 1824 accompanies Mr. Farewell to Natal, ii 326 ; in October 
1830 is sent by Dingana with a present of ivory to the governor 
of the Cape Colony, but he is not allowed to proceed farther 
than Grahamstown, and the present is declined, ii 340 ; he 
returns to Natal, ii 341 ; in November 1837 accompanies Pieter 
Retief to Umkungunhlovu as an interpreter, ii 354 ; three 
months later again proceeds to Umkungunhlovu as interpreter 
to Pieter Retief, ii 358 ; and there on the 6th of February 
1838 is murdered with the others of the party, ii 360 

Hondeklip Bay, on the western coast of the Cape province : 
description of, Hi 86 

Hope, the, the first steamer employed on the South African 
coast : 
on the 8th of December 1838 arrives from England, ii 226 ; on 
the 11th of March 1840 is wrecked near Cape St. Francis, ib. 

Hope, the, Dutch schooner : 

in 1804 is wrecked near Walfish Bay, i 188 

Hope, Captain F. : 

in March 1848 becomes resident magistrate of Richmond, in 70 

Hope, William, auditor- general : 

is in favour of a nominated legislative council when assisting in 
the preparation of the constitution, in 126 

Hopetown, district in the Cape province : 
in January 1858 is created, Hi 160 

Horned cattle : 

number of in 1865 in the Cape Colony, iv 43 



Synoptical Index. 281 

Horses : 

the breed is greatly improved by animals imported by Lord 
Charles Somerset, i 282 ; value of horses exported from the 
Cape Colony from 1828 to 1835, ii 43; number of in I860 in 
the Cape Colony, iv 43 

HOESE SICKNESS : 

mention of, i 161, 162, and 171 ; ravages of in 1851-6, Hi 153 ; 
further mention of, Hi 420 

Hospital, old Somerset : 

in 1818 is opened in Capetown, i 365 

Hostile feeling of the Xosas towards the Cape Colony in 
1834: 
causes of, ii 56 

Hottentot regiment : 

in April 1796 a number of Hottentots are enlisted for service in 
the interior of the Cape Colony, t 10; in March 1799 they 
are sent to Graaff-Reinet to assist in suppressing an insurrection, 
* 54 ; in February 1803 the regiment is transferred to the 
Batavian authorities, i 125 ; in 1804 it is enlarged by General 
Janssens to six hundred men, i 132 ; on the English conquest 
in 1806 the regiment is reformed and placed under command 
of Lieutenant- Colonel Graham, t 206 ; in 1807 it is enlarged 
to eight hundred rank and file, i 217 ; it is very objectionable 
to the colonists, i 289 ; in September IS 17 it is disbanded, and 
in its stead a corps of seventy- eight cavalry and one hundred 
and sixt3 T -nine infantry — halfbreeds and Hottentots — is raised, 
i 327 ; in October 1819, after the fifth Kaffir war, the corps 
is enlarged to four hundred and fifty men, mixed cavalry and 
infantry, i 344 ; in 1823 it is enlarged to two hundred and 
sixty cavalry and two hundred and fifty infantry, i 385 ; in 
December 1827 the infantry are disbanded, and the cavalry — 
two hundred and fifty in number — take the title Cape mounted 
riflemen, ii 85 ; until June 1828 it is regarded as a colonial 
force and is a charge upon the colonial treasury, but after this 
date it is paid by the imperial government, ii 25; in 1837 
it is enlarged to four hundred and sixty-two horsemen, and three 
hundred footmen are attached to the corps, ii 158 ; on the 
19th of February 1838 a number of the men mutiny, ii 175 ; 
in June 1839 the regiment is reduced to four hundred and 
eighty rank and file, ii 178 ; in 1846 two companies of Hottentot 
levies are attached to the regiment provisionally for a short 



282 History of South Africa. 

time, Hi 16 ; in March 1847 four hundred men are added to 
it, Hi 44 ; in 1860 the regiment is nearly a thousand strong, 
Hi 186 ; see Cape mounted riflemen 

Hottentots : 

particulars concerning the insurrection in 1799 of those of GraafT- 
Reinet, i 55 et seq. ; further particulars concerning, i 126, 188, 
189, and 230 ; in 1809 a very important proclamation con- 
cerning these people is issued by the earl of Caledon, i 234 ; 
particulars concerning them from Lord Caledon' s proclamation 
in 1809 to the passing of the fiftieth ordinance in July 1828, 
% 499 et seq. ; further particulars concerning, ii 9 ; in 1848 
an attempt is made to form a settlement of Hottentots on the 
Beka river, but it fails, in 69 ; a large number join the 
enemies of the colony in the war of 1850-52, Hi 101 ; redress 
of grievances of, Hi 151 ; number of in 1865 in the Cape 
Colony, iv 42 ; particulars concerning those in Great Namaqua- 
land, v 95 and 96 ; in 1880 a number are murdered in Herero- 
land by order of the chief Kamaherero, v 121 

Hottentot levies : 

causes of dissatisfaction during the war of 1846-7, Hi 35 

Hottentot settlement at the Kat river : 

particulars concerning the formation and progress of, ii 9 ; at the 
commencement of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 the Hottentots of 
this settlement are in a very discontented condition owing to 
injudicious teaching, and are suspected of an intention to join 
the Xosas, ii 96 ; but under the judicious management of 
Captain Armstrong are led to commit themselves on the colonial 
side, ii 97 ; during the war it is necessary to maintain them 
and their families at the public expense, ii 98 ; also during 
the war of 1846-7, Hi 12 ; in the war of 1850-52 most of 
them go into rebellion and join the hostile Xosas and Tembus, 
Hi 101 

Hough, Rev. George : 

in September 1813 becomes the first clergyman of the English 
episcopal church at Simonstown, t 270; in February 1817 is 
removed to Capetown, i 317 

House duty act: 

in 1870 is passed by the Cape parliament, iv 108 

House of assembly op the Cape Colony: 

on its creation in 1853 consists of forty-six members, Hi 129 ; 
see Cape parliament 



Synoptical Index. 283 

Howell, James Michael, landdrost of Winburg : 

in 1858 takes part in the war against Scheel Kobus and other 
captains, Hi 487 

Hudson, Hougham: 

in January 1828 is appointed resident magistrate of Port Elizabeth, 
t 493 ; at the close of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is appointed 
agent-general for the province of Queen Adelaide and resident 
magistrate of Grahamstown, ii 129 ; in September 1836 becomes 
secretary to the lieutenant-governor of the eastern districts, 
ii 152 ' 

HUILEBALKEN AT FUNERAL PROCESSIONS : 

note concerning, i 280 

Hume, Da^id : 

in 1835 explores the countiy along the Limpopo river, ii 287 

HUSKISSON, THE RIGHT HONOURABLE Mr. : 

from August 1827 to May 1828 is secretary of state for the 
colonies, i 489 

Hut-tax : 

in 1849 is first levied upon the Bantu in Natal, Hi 235 



Ichaboe Island, off the coast of Great Namaqualand : 

description of, ii 235 ; on the 21st of June 1861 is taken pos- 
session of for Great Britain, ii 236 ; and on the 16th of July 
1866 is annexed to the Cape Colony, ib. 

Idutywa, district of : 

in August 1858 a settlement of Bantu, partly consisting of frag- 
ments of Umhala's clan, under a British magistrate, is formed 
at, Hi 213 and iv 45 ; it is regarded until the end of 1864 
as a dependency of the crown colony of British Kafir aria, iv 45 

lOQIBIBA MISSION STATION : 

in December 1850 is destroyed by the Xosas 

Illicit diamond buying : 

particulars concerning, iv 402 to 407, 410, 416, and 424 

Immigrants from Europe into the Cape Colony : 

in 1803 a few individuals are brought from Holland by Major 
Von Buchenroeder, i 136 ; in 1817 two hundred Scotch mechanics 
are brought out by Mr. Benjamin Moodie, i 346 ; in 1817 and 
1818 seven or eight hundred time expired soldiers are discharged 
in Capetown, who, however, associate with coloured people, i 
347 ; in 1818 and 1819 a few British immigrants are brought 



284 History of South Africa. \ 

out by Messrs. Gosling and Tait, ib. ; in 1820 and 1821 nearly 
five thousand individuals of British birth settle in the colony, 
i 352 et seq. ; in 1823 three hundred and thirty-six Irish labourers 
are brought out, i 389 ; between the years 1833 and 1839 
seven hundred and fifty destitute English children arrive, ii 76 ; 
particulars of a plan adopted in 1844 under which over four 
thousand individuals from Great Britain are added to the popu- 
lation of the Cape Colony, ii 238 ; particulars concerning immi- 
gration from Great Britain in and after 1857, in 172 et seq. ; 
particulars concerning immigration from Holland into the Cape 
Colony after 1855, Hi 171 and iv 23 ; particulars concerning 
immigrants from Northern Germany into the Cape Colony after 
1859, in 177 and iv 23 ; further particulars concerning immi- 
grants from Great Britain, iv 22 ; see British settlers, Christophers, 
and Juvenile immigrants 

Immigrants from Europe into Natal : 

particulars concerning those sent from Great Britain by Mr. Byrne 
between 1848 and 1851, Hi 254 to 257 ; the disproportion of 
the sexes causes unrest, Hi 256 

Immigrants from Europe into British Kaffraria : 

a considerable number of men of the British German legion are 
disbanded here, in 193, 216, and 219 ; in November 1857 a 
few arrive from Great Britain, in 217 ; in 1858 and 1859 a 
considerable number of families arrive from Germany, Hi 218 ; 
particulars concerning these people, Hi 220 ; prevention by the 
secretary of state of further immigration of Germans under the 
plan adopted by Sir George Grey, Hi 221 

Immigration of Europeans into the South African Republic : 

in 1855 is invited under certain conditions by the volksraad, 
Hi 414 

Immigrants of coloured blood into the Cape Colony : 

during the British occupation from 1795 to 1803 great numbers 
of negroes are introduced as slaves, i 31 ; during the adminis- 
tration of the Batavian Republic very few are introduced, » 
215 ; in 1806 and 1807 several hundred slaves are introduced, 
i 215 and 220 ; and after the suppression of the slave trade 
negroes taken in ships captured by British cruisers are brought 
here and liberated, i 224 and ii 197 ; some are brought from 
St. Helena, in 172 

Immigration act passed by the Cape parliament in 1857 : 
particulars concerning, Hi 172 et seq. 



Synoptical Index. 285 

Impafana location in Natal : 

in 1846 is set apart for the use of the Bantu, Hi 230 

Imparani mission station : 

in December 1833 is founded by the Wesleya,n society near 
Basutoland, i 482 

Imports from oversea into the Cape Colony : 

amount of during the English occupation from 1795 to 1803, 
i 40; from 1806 to 1835, ii 36; between 1835 and 1850, ii 
207; in 1854 and 1855, Hi 142; from 1862 to 1867, iv 93; 
from 1838 to 1872, iv 151 

Imports into Natal : 

in 1845, ii 462; from 1845 to 1856, Hi 266; from 1857 to 
1872, iv 175 

Imports through East London: 
from 1855 to 1858, Hi 219 

Imports of British Kaffraria: 
from 1862 to 1865, iv 76 

Inanda location in Natal : 

in 1846 is set apart for the use of the Bantu, Hi 230 

Income tax : 

rejection in 1869 by the Cape parliament of a proposal by the 
governor to levy, iv 100 

Indian Immigrants into Natal : 

particulars concerning, iv 159 ct seq. 

Indian mutiny : 

important services performed by Sir George Grey during the, 
Hi 160 

Indian plants found in Eastern Africa: 
mention of, i 460 

Indigo : 

cultivation of in Natal, Hi 261 

Industrial schools for Bantu : 

are encouraged by Sir George Grey, Hi 191 

Inglis, Rev. Walter: 

in 1852 is a missionary of the London society residing with a 
Bahurutsi clan near the Marikwa, in 402 ; is brought to trial 
for libel, and sentenced to banishment from the South African 
Republic, Hi 403 



286 History of South Africa. 

Ingram, John : 

in 1820 brings a party of Irish settlers to the Cape, % 352; 
and is located with them at Clanwilliam, i 354 ; subsequent 
movements of the party, i 355; in 1823 brings out another 
party of Irish labourers, i 389 

Inhambane, village in Portuguese South Africa : 

condition of in 1823, v 133; condition of in 1834, v 139; is 

destroyed by the Matshangana, ib. ; condition of in 1899, 
v 163 

Innes, James Rose, M.A. : 

in July 1822 arrives from Scotland, and is appointed teacher of 
the high school at Uitenhage, * 371 ; on the 11th of May 
1839 is appointed first superintendent of education in the Cape 
Colony, ii 211 ; in May 1840 proceeds to Scotland to procure 
teachers, ii 212 ; in March 1841 returns with several, ib. ; 
manages to thwart an attempt to wreck the new system of 
education, ii 213 

Innes, James Rose (son of the above) : 

is the last acting administrator of Griqualand West, iv 432 

Insurrection in 1799 or a party of farmers in the district 
of Graaff-Reinet, i 48 et seq. ; 
sentences passed upon the principal insurgents, i 73 

Insurrection in 1815 of a party of frontier farmers : 
account of, i 289 et seq. 

Intertribal wars among Bantu originating with Tshaka : 
account of, i 439 et seq. 

Invasion of the Orange Free State in April 1857 by a commando 
from the South African Republic, Hi 432 

Iron: 

abundance of in the territory between the Vaal and the Limpopo, 
v 2 

Isaacs, Nathaniel : 

in October 1825 becomes a resident at Port Natal, ii 329 ; is 
severely wounded while accompanying a Zulu military expedition, 
ii 330 ; in December 1828 leaves Natal, but in April 1830 
returns, ii 338; early in 1831 finally leaves Natal, ii 341 

Isizi : 

meaning of the word, iv 55 



Synoptical Index. 287 

van Jaarsveld, Adriaan : 

in March 1796 is one of the leading men of the party in the 
district of Graaff-Reinet that refuses to receive the landdrost 
appointed by Major- General Craig, i 7 and 9 ; but in August 
1796 signs a document promising fidelity to the English govern- 
ment, i 17 ; in January 1799 is arrested at Graaff-Reinet on 
a charge of having committed forgery, i 51; is rescued from 
the guard that is conveying him to Capetown by a party of 
farmers under the leadership of Marthinus Prinsloo, ib. ; in 
April is arrested again by a party of soldiers, and is sent a 
prisoner to Capetown, i 56 ; in September 1800 is brought to 
trial, and is sentenced to death, i 73 ; the execution of the 
sentence is suspended by the governor, ib. ; but the prisoner 
dies in confinement, i 119 

Jackalsfontein, near Griquatown : 

skirmish on the 21st of May 1878 at, iv 428 

Jackson, Lieutenant-General Sir James : 

on the 30th of December 1854 assumes duty as lieutenant-governor 
of the eastern province of the Cape Colony and commander 
of the troops in South Africa, Hi 147 ; on the 20th of May 
1859 is succeeded by Lieutenant- General Robert Henry Wynyard, 
Hi 185 

Jackson, Maximilian James : 

in October 1868 is appointed special magistrate of the northern 
border of the Cape Colony, iv 97 ; after Sir Walter Cume's 
retirement conducts the operations against the insurgent Koranas, 
iv 99 

Jacob, a Xosa : 

has been a convict on Robben Island, and is sent by the Cape 
government as an interpreter to Captain Owen in the surveying 
ship Leven, ii 323 ; in July 1823 is transferred by Captain 
Owen to Mr. Farewell, who is proceeding along the coast on a 
trading expedition, ib. ; runs away at St. Lucia Bay, proceeds 
to Tshaka's head quarters, and becomes a favourite of that 
chief, ii 326 ; in October 1830 is sent by Dingana with a present 
of ivory to the governor of the Cape Colony, but he is not 
allowed to proceed farther than Grahamstown, and the present 
is declined, ii 340 ; returns to Natal, ii 341 ; in 1831 by 
Dingana' s order is put to death, ii 342 

Jacob Bois, a Hottentot captain in Great Namaqualand : 

in May 1868 attacks some Englishmen near Walfish Bay and does 
much damage there, v 100 and 101 



288 History of South Africa. 

Jacobin faction in Capetown in 1803 : 
particulars concerning, i 120 

Jacobsdal, district in the Orange Free State : 
in February 1861 is established, iv 194 

Jacobs, Pieter : 

in 1837 is leader of a large party of emigrants from the Cape 
Colony, ii 309 

Jacobs, Simeon : 

is attorney-general of British Kafir-aria, Hi 226 

Jacobs, Willem : 

in October 1847 is elected landdrost of Winburg by the emigrant 
farmers who are opposed to the British government, ii 506 

Jacobus Izaak, captain op an immigrant Hottentot clan living 
at Beersheba in Great Namaqualand.: 
mention of, v 95, 102, and 112 

Jalusa, chief of a small Xosa clan : 

career of, ii 216 ; towards the close of 1835 with a band of 
turbulent characters moves to the neighbourhood of Thaba 
Bosigo, where he leads the life of a robber, ii 295 ; in September 
1836 the band is annihilated by the Basuto, ib. 

Jama, chief of a fugitive remnant of the Amakuze tribe : 

in April 1835 at Butterworth solicits Sir Benjamin D'Urban to 
give him protection against the Xosas, ii 110; his request is 
complied with, and he has land assigned to him between the 
Fish and Keiskama rivers, ii 113 

Jameson, Dr. Leander Starr (now Sir Starr) : 

succeeds Mr. Colquhoun as administrator of Rhodesia, v 158 

Jane Davies, the: 

on the 26th of May 1872 is wrecked on the coast near East 
London, iv 150 

Jan Jonker Afrikaner: 

in June 1863 succeeds his brother Christian as captain of a 
Hottentot clan in Great Namaqualand, v 97 ; in September 
1865 attacks Otjimbingue, v 98 ; at Omukaru sustains a crushing 
defeat from the Hereros, v 102 ; on the 23rd of September 
1870 concludes peace on humiliating terms, v 103 ; tries to 
bring about a coalition of Hottentot clans to renew the war, 
v 104; but does not succeed in that object, v 117; further 
mention of, v 112, 117, 122, and 123 



Synoptical Index. „ 289 

Jan Kivido, Korana captain living on the banks of the Orange 
river : 
account of, iv 97 ; in 1869 is at war with the Cape Colony, iv 
98 ; in November 1869 is captured and sent as a prisoner to 
Capetown, iv 99 

Janssens, Lieutenant-General Jan Willem : 

is appointed governor of the Cape Colony, i 108 ; in December 

1802 arrives from the Netherlands, i 107 ; on the 1st of March 

1803 is installed, % 118; on the 3rd of April sets out on a 
tour through the colony, i 121 ; with the scanty means at his 
disposal he is not able to assemble a large force when at the 
beginning of 1806 a powerful English army lands on the shore 
opposite Robben Island, i 196 ; with a mixed force of rather 
over two thousand men, however, he marches from Capetown, 
ib. ; on the 8th of January 1806 meets the British army, and 
is defeated in battle, i 198 ; retires to the mountains of 
Hottentots-Holland, ib. ; but finding it impossible to hold out, 
on the 18th enters into a capitulation for himself and the troops 
with him, i 20-1 ; and on the 6th of March leaves for Holland, 
% 207 

Jantje, son of the Batlapin chief Mothibi : 

on the annexation of Griqualand West to the British dominions 
moves from Likatlong to Manyiding by way of protest, iv 425 

Jenkins, Rev. Thomas, Wesleyan missionary : 
mention of, iv 66 

Jenkins, Mrs., wife of the reverend Thomas Jenkins : 

in 1838 goes to reside in Pondoland, and gives a description of 
the Pondo tribe at that time, ii 407 

Jennings, Matthew : 

is resident magistrate and collector of customs at East London 
at the time of the annexation of British Kaffraria to the Cape 
Colony, Hi 226 

Jervis, Captain Henry : 

in January 1839 is left in command of the troops at Port Natal, 
ii 386 ; attempts to bring about peace between the emigrant 
farmers and the Zulus, ii 387 ; on the 24th of December 1839 
when the British troops are withdrawn he leaves Natal, ii 391 

John and Lucy, emigrant ship : 

on the 9th of October 1859 is wrecked off the coast of Brazil, 

Hi 175 
VOL. V. U 



290 History of South Africa. 



John Dunn, an Englishman living with the Zulus : 
mention of, Hi 241 

Jojo, chief of the Xesibes : 

in 1847 asks the government of Natal for protection from the 
Pondos, Hi 231 ; in January 1872 asks to be taken under the 
authority of the Cape Colony, iv 69 

JOKWENI, CHIEF OF A FUGITIVE REMNANT OF THE AMAZIZI TRIBE : 

in April 1835 at Butterworth solicits Sir Benjamin D'Urban to 
give him protection against the Xosas, ii 110; his request is 
complied with, and he has land assigned to him between the 
Fish and Keiskama rivers, ii 113 ; in December 1836 as an 
independent chief enters into a treaty with the British govern- 
ment, ii 152 ; on the 29th of December 1840 consents to 
certain modifications of the treaty proposed by Sir George Napier, 
ii 187 ; on the 2nd of January 1845 enters into a new treaty 
framed by Sir Peregrine Maitland, ii 259 ; becomes disaffected, 
Hi 196 

Jones, Major James : 

in May 1821 is appointed by Sir Rufane Donkin landdrost of 
Albany, i 359 ; in December of the same year is dismissed by 
Lord Charles Somerset, i 374 

Jones, Rev. Robert : 

in October 1811 becomes the first resident clergyman of the 
English episcopal church in Capetown, i 270 ; in February 1817 
resigns, i 317 

Jonker Afrikaner, chief of a Hottentot clan in Great Namaqua- 
land : 
in 1840 reduces the Herero tribe to servitude, v 94 ; particulars 
concerning, v 95 

Josana, Fingo headman : 

particulars concerning, iv 316 

Jose, Amaro, a black trader : 

in 1806-11 crosses the continent from Angola to Tcte, v 144 

Joseph Fredericks : 

succeeds David Christian as captain of the Hottentot clan at 
Bethany in Great Namaqualand, v 123 ; in 1883 sells territory 
to the German merchant Luderitz, ib. 

Joubert, Gideon : 

in May 1838 visits the emigrant camps in Natal as a commissioner 
of the Cape government, ii 376 ; in November 1838 visits 
Natal again in the same capacity, ii 379 ; in July and August 



Synoptical Index. 291 

1845 is sent by Sir Peregrine Maitland on a tour of investiga- 
tion through the territory between the Orange and Vaal rivers, 
ii 495 ; in the war of 1846-7 i3 commandant of the Colesberg 
burghers, Hi 23 

JOUBERT, P. J., J. A., AND F. G. : 

in 1853 visit the Matabele chief Moselekatse, and conclude an 
agreement of amity with him, Hi 413 

Joubert, W. F. : 

in January 1851 is appointed by the volksraad commandant- 
general for Lydenburg, in 375 ; is one of the parties to the 
Sand River convention, ib. 

Journeys across the African continent : 
account of, v 144 and 145 

JUANASBURG, MILITARY VILLAGE IN THE Ti'UMIE VALLEY : 

in January 1848 is founded, Hi 68 ; on the 25th of December 
1850 is destroyed by a party of Xosas, Hi 97 

Judge, Rev. Edward, a clergyman of the English episcopal 
church : 
in May 1825 opens a high-class school in Capetown, i 422 

Judges : 

before the establishment of the supreme court of the Cape Colony 
in 1828, the judges, in addition to their judicial duties, had 
various tasks imposed upon them. Two in succession were 
required to hold a weekly court in the colonial secretary's office, 
for the purpose of passing and registering transfers of landed 
property, registering mortgages and other deeds of security, 
ascertaining the competency of the parties to the acts, and 
seeing that the deeds were legaHy prepared. The signature 
of a member of the high court of justice was requisite to 
the issue of each note of the paper currency. Two members 
were required to be present when defaced or worn-out notes 
were burned, and two attended to the stamping of fresh 
notes, the dies whereof were kept under the joint seals of 
the court and the governor. A member of the court was 
required to attend the impression of stamps, and his certificate 
of issue was the check upon the collector of stamp duties. 
The dies for the stamps were kept under the joint seals of the 
court and the governor. The judges were also required to 
execute the duties of coroners in Capetown and the Cape 
district 



292 History of South Africa. 

Julia, British cruiser : 

on the 2nd of October 1817 is wrecked at Tristan da Cunha, i 
306 

Jurymen : 

qualifications of in the Cape Colony under the ordinance of May 
1831, ii 45 

Justices of the peace : 

in January 1828 are first created in the Cape Colony, i 494 

Juvenile immigrants : 

account of those sent from England to the Cape Colony, ii 194 ; 
in 1839 cease to be sent out, owing to the collapse of the 
Children's Friend Society, ii 193 

Kaffir converts to Christianity: 
note upon, i 332 

Kaffir labour : 

cost of in 1872, ii 132 

Kaffir police : 

in 1835 after the close of the sixth Kaffir war a small body is 
enrolled to serve in the province of Queen Adelaide, ii 130; 
the men are employed by Lieutenant-Governor Stockenstrom in 
the Cape Colony, where they are worse than useless, ii 156 ; 
in January 1847 a hundred men are enrolled and are stationed 
at Alice, Hi 43 ; in March the number is increased by Sir 
Henry Pottinger to two hundred men, Hi 44 ; and a few months 
later to four hundred and forty-six men, Hi 58 ; in 1851, on 
the outbreak of war, most of them desert and join the enemy, 
Hi 99 

Kaffir servants : 

by an ordinance in July 1828 Xosas are permitted to enter the 
Cape Colony to seek service, ii 11 ; but in consequence of this 
liberty leading to extensive stockstealing, in August 1829 the 
ordinance is suspended, ib. 

Kaffir wars : see Wars 

Kaffraria, that is the whole territory occupied by Bantu in 
South Africa : 
condition of from 1826 to 1836, i 486 

Kama, Gunukwebe captain and a professed Christian : 

in the war of 1834-5 acts as a neutral, ii 98 ; on the 17th of 
September 1835 agrees to become a British subject, ii 126 ; 
on the 5th of December 1836 is released from his allegiance 



Synoptical Index. 293 

and enters into a treaty with the British government, ii 150 ; 
on the 19th of June 1838 enters into a closer treaty of alliance 
framed by Sir George Napier, ii 176 ; on the 29th of December 
1840 agrees to certain modifications in these treaties, ii 187 ; 
in June 1843 moves to the neighbourhood of Basutoland, ii 191 ; 
in the war of 1846-7 assists the Europeans, Hi 8 ; in January 
1848 is rewarded for his fidelity by a grant of the land still 
known as Kamastone, Hi 62 ; in the war of 1850-52 aids the 
colony, Hi 100 ; for which he has a large tract of land along 
the Keiskama given to him, Hi 115; in 1856 he refuses to 
kill his cattle at the bidding of Umhlakaza, Hi 200 ; further 
particulars concerning, Hi 214 

Kamaherero : 

in 1864 is elected paramount chief of the Ovaherero and Ovam- 
banderu clans in Hereroland, v 98 ; conducts himself in a 
despotic and irritating manner, v 105 ; in June 1874 applies 
to Sir Henry Barkly for assistance, v 106 ; in August 1880 
issues orders for a general massacre of Hottentots, v 121 ; 
further particulars concerning, v 109, 110, 113, 114, 117, 119, 
120, and 121 ; in June 1882 he makes peace with the southern 
Hottentot clans, v 123 

Kanye : 

is the chief kraal of the Bangwaketse tribe of Betshuana, v 83 

Kaoko, the, tract of ground in Hereroland : 
description of, v 111 

Karel Hendrik, captain op the Hottentot clan called the 
Veldschoendragers, in Great Namaqu aland : 
mention of, v 102 

Karoo, the, extensive tract of land in the Cape province : 
description of, i 162 

Kathlamba location in Natal: 

in 1846 is set apart for the use of the Bantu, Hi 230 

Katlakter, chief of a Bavenda clan in the South African 
Republic : 
takes part in the war from April 1865 to July 1868 against the 
Europeans in Zoutpansberg, iv 481 ; destroys the mission 
buildings at Goedgedacht, ib ; is attacked in May 1867 by a 
commando, but manages to hold his own, iv 484 ; sets fire to 
the village of Schoemansdal after its abandonment, iv 485 



294 History of South Africa. 

Kat river, upper valleys of the : 

in 1821 are surveyed for the reception of a party of Scotch 
people, who, however, do not come to South Africa, i 361 ; 

description of, ii 9 ; in 1829 a Hottentot settlement is formed 

there, ii 10; census of December 1833, ii 11; in 1851 most 

of the London society's congregation there go into rebellion, 
. Hi 102 

Kaufman, Rev. F. R. : 

in June 1817 becomes pastor of the Lutheran church in Capetown, 
i 317 

Kausop, Bushman captain : 

has a location assigned to him by Major Warden ; see Scheel 
Kobus (his son) 

Kawuta, paramount chief of the Xosa triee : 

takes as his wife a daughter of Tshatshu, a petty Tembu chief, 
i 449 ; in 1797 assists Ndlambe against Gaika, % 38 ; about 
the year 1804 dies, i 250 

Kay, Rev. Stephen, of the Wesleyan society : 

in August 1825 founds the mission station Mount Coke, ii 6 

Kaysee, Rev. Frederick, of the London society : 

upon the conclusion of peace in 1835 reestablishes the mission 
station Knappshope on the Keiskama river, ii 131 

Keate, Robert William, lieutenant-covernor of Natal : 

acts as arbitrator in the boundary dispute between the Orange 
Free State and the South African Republic, and in February 
1870 decides that the Klip river shall be the dividing line, iv 
497 ; as final umpire of the court of arbitration at Bloemhof, 
on the 17th of October 1871 signs an award which cuts off a 
great deal of territory from the South African Republic, v 43 ; 
is almost constantly at variance with the legislative council of 
Natal, iv 169 and 170 

Keiseama River : 

in December 1847 becomes the eastern boundary of the Cape 
Colony, Hi 56 

Kekewich, George : 

from 1806 to 1828 is judge of the vice-admiralty court in Cape- 
town ; on the 1st of January 1828 becomes a judge in the 
newly established supreme court of the Capo Colony, » 491 ; 
on the 12th of October 1843 retires on pension, ii 215 



Synoptical Index. 295 

van Kervel, Adriaan Gysbert : 

in April 1811 becomes landdrost of the new district of George, 
i 225 

Ketshwayo (correct Zulu spelling Cstshwayo, the first letter 
representing the dental click). son of the zulu chief 
Panda : 
quarrels with his brother Umbulazi, Hi 240 ; on the 2nd of 
December 1856 defeats his brother in a great battle on the 
bank of the Tugela, and is afterwards the virtual leader of 
the Zulu tribe, Hi 241 ; in May 1861 is acknowledged by the 
Natal government as lawful heir to the chieftainship, iv 14 ; 
in July 1861 causes a panic in Natal by massing his troops 
on the border, ib. ; but a few weeks later withdraws his 
regiments and declares he has no hostile intentions, iv 15 ; 
upon the flight of his brother Umtonga to Utrecht in February 
1861 he offers the people of that district a strip of territory 
along their border if they will surrender the fugitive, iv 459 ; 
the farmers of Utrecht consent to the proposal upon condition 
that the life of Umtonga is spared, ib. ; Ketshwayo agrees to 
this, and the arrangement is concluded, ib. ; Panda approves 
of what has been done by his son, iv 461 ; and in April 1861 
signs a deed of cession of the ground, iv 460 ; in December 
1864 the boundary of the ceded land is beaconed off by a 
commission from the South African Republic and delegates from 
Panda and Ketshwayo, iv 462 ; in February 1865 Umtonga 
flees from Zululand to Natal, when Ketshwayo, having lost what 
he had obtained for the ground, causes the beacons to be 
removed, iv 463 ; Panda then requests President Pretorius to 
alter the boundary so as to restore to Zululand some ground 
along the Pongolo, ib. ; the attitude of Ketshwaj-o is so threaten- 
ing that the farmers of Utrecht go into lager, ib. ; and a 
commando under Paul Kruger assembles at Wakkerstroom, ib. ; 
in July 1865 Ketshwayo gives Commandant- General Kruger 
assurances that he has no hostile intentions, and removes his 
army from the Utrecht border, iv 219 ; but a little later sends 
people to build kraals north of the Pongolo river, iv 494 ; and 
claims the ceded territory along the Utrecht border, ib. ; offers 
the ceded ground to Natal, iv 495 ; which leads to correspond- 
ence between the two governments concerning arbitration, ib. ; 
all the time Ketshwayo professes that he entertains no other 
feeling than friendship for the South African Republic, iv 496 ; 
but does not succeed in deceiving the burghers, who are aware 
that he is not to be trusted, but are not afraid of his power, 
iv 495 ; he succeeds, however, in skilfully playing off Natal 



296 History of South Africa. 

against the South African Republic, iv 498 ; after his father's 
death in 1872 conducts himself peaceably towards Natal, iv 
178 ; further particulars concerning, iv 13 and v 64 

Khama, chief of the Bamangwato tribe of Betshuanas 
particulars concerning, v 15 

Khaei, chief of the Bamangwato : 

is killed in battle with a Baroswi clan, v 84 

Kicheker, Rev. Johannes Jacobus : 

in March 1799 arrives in South Africa as an agent of the London 
missionary society, i 67 ; forms a station among the Bushmen 
on the Zak river, i 69 ; in 1801 is engaged in mission work 
north of the Orange river, i 100 ; in January 1806 leaves the 
service of the London missionary society and becomes clergyman 
of Graaff-Reinet, i 269 ; in December 1815 is transferred to 
Tulbagh; on the 1st of April 1825 dies, ii 220 

Kimberley, Earl, secretary of state for the colonies : 

in November 1870 writes a despatch which greatly irritates the 
people of the republics, iv 365 ; on the 18th of May 1871 gives 
the high commissioner power to annex Waterboer's country, on 
condition of the Cape parliament taking the entire responsibility, 
iv 366 ; upon the refusal of the Cape parliament to pass an 
act annexing the territory in which the diamond-fields arc 
situated, on the 2nd of October 1871 leaves the matter to the 
discretion of the high commissioner, iv 371 ; approves of the 
annexation by Sir Henry Barkly of the territory called Griqua- 
land West, iv 376 

Kimberley diamond mine : 

description of when it was first opened for working, iv 353 ; 
description of in 1872, iv 401 

Kimberley, town of : 

in July 1873 receives its present name, iv 409 

King, James Saunders : 

in 1823 visits Natal as master of a vessel, ii 323 ; proceeds to 
England and applies to Earl Bathurst for countenance in opening 
a trading establishment at Port Natal, ii 328 ; receives a letter 
of recommendation to Lord Charles Somerset, ib. ; returns to 
South Africa, and on the 1st of October 1825 reaches Natal, 
but loses his vessel in attempting to cross the bar, ii 329 ; in 
April 1328 leaves Natal with two of Tshaka's indunas as an 
embassy to the Cape government, ii 333 ; but is obliged to 



Synoptical Index. 297 

return as he came, the government declining to receive him as 
Tshaka's representative, ib. ; in September 1828 dies at Natal, 
ii 334 

King, Richard : 

in May 1842 rides express from Durban to Grahamstown to seek 
assistance for the British troops beleaguered there, ii 424 

KlNG-WlLLIAMSTOWN : 

on the 24th of May 1835 is founded on the eastern bank of the 
Buffalo river, ii 119; in December 1836 is abandoned, ii 150; 
during the war of 1846-7 it is reoccupied, Hi 39 ; hi December 
1847 Sir Harry Smith makes it the seat of government of the 
new province of British Kaffraria, Hi 58 ; and the headquarters 
of the troops in the province, Hi 60 ; description of in 1860, 
Hi 227 

Bjtghingman, Rev. Mr., of the London missionary society : 

in 1824 obtains an enlargement of the grounds of Bethelsdorp, 
i 500 

Klaas Lukas, captain of a Koeana clan : 

in 1871 commits depredations on the northern border of the Cape 
Colony, iv 100 

Klaas Sjiits river : 

in 1822 is made the eastern boundary of the Cape Colony, i 393 

Kleinschmidt, Rev. Mr., Rhenish missionary : 

is driven from his station in Great Namaqu aland and dies of 
hardship, v 99 

de Klerk, Theunis : 

is one of the leaders in the insurrection of 1815, i 293 ; after 
the failure of the insurrection surrenders to the authorities, 
i 296 ; is sentenced to death bv a commission of the high 
court of justice, i 298 ; and on the 9th of March 1816 is 
executed at Van Aardt's post on the Fish river, i 299 

Knox, Captain Robert : 

in 1825 submits to Lord Charles Somerset plans for the improve- 
ment of Table Bay, i 427 

Knysna, inlet on the coast of the Cape province : 

description of, * 310 ; the greater part of the land about the 
inlet comes into possession of Mr. George Rex, i 311 ; in May 
1817 the sloop of war Podargus enters the inlet, i 312 ; after 



298 History of South Africa. 

this date timber is frequently shipped there, i 313 ; in 
February 1818 a pilot is stationed at the entrance, ib. ; the 
formation of a village advances slowly, ib. 

Knysna, district of : 

in April 1858 is created, Hi 160 ; in February 1869 sustains great 
damage from fire in the forests, iv 104 and 105 

Kobe, captain of a Gtjnukwebe clan : 

during the war of 1834-5 of his own free will goes to Grahams- 
town as a hostage for the good conduct of his brothers Pato 
and Kama, ii 99 ; on the 17th of September 1835 agrees to 
become a British subject, ii 126 ; on the 5th of December 
1836 is released from his allegiance and enters into a treaty 
with the British government, ii 150 ; on the 19th of June 
1838 enters into a closer treaty of alliance framed by Sir George 
Napier, ii 176 ; on the 20th of December 1840 agrees to 
certain modifications in these treaties, ii 187 ; on the 2nd of 
January 1845 enters into a new treaty framed by Sir Peregrine 
Maitland, ii 259 ; in May 1846 joins the other Xosas against 
t\\e Cape Colony, Hi 8 ; and continues in arms longer than 
most of them, Hi 37 ; on the 7th of January 1848 takes an 
oath of allegiance to the queen of England, and has a tract 
of land in British Kafrraria assigned to him, Hi 61 

Kc ex, Commandant Jan : 

is one of the leaders of the emigrant farmers in the district of 
Philippolis who are opposed to British rule, ii 486 ; in July 
1843 strives to prevent the volksraad of Natal coming to an 
arrangement with Commissioner Cloete concerning the government 
of the country as a British colony, ii 449 ; but fails in his 
object, ii 450 ; on the 2nd of May 1845 takes part in the 
ekirmish at Zwartkopjes against British troops and Griqnas, 
ii 490 ; after the defeat flees to Winburg, ii 491 ; in June 
1846 is driven from Winburg by Major Warden, ii 500; on 
the 29 th of August 1848 commands the right wing of the 
emigrant army in the battle of Boomplaats, in 289 ; in 1859 
attempts to disturb the peace in the district of Winburg, iv 438; 
but docs not succeed, and is brought to trial and fined, iv 439 
and 440 ; takes part with Stcphanus Schoeman in the distur- 
bances in 1862 in the South African Republic, and is punished 
by sentence of confiscation of all his property, iv 447 

KODAS COPPER MINE, ON THE B.ANK OF THE ORANGE RIVER : 

account of the attempted working of, Hi 85 



Synoptical Index. 299 

Kok, Abraham, eldest son of Adam Kok II : 

in 1835 upon the death of his father is elected captain of Phiiip- 
polis, ii 476 ; in February 1837 through the efforts of the 
missionaries enters into close alliance with Andries Waterboer, 
ib. ; in September of the same year is driven from Philippolis 
by his younger brother Adam, ii 477 ; carries on hostilities 
with his brother until the beginning of 1841, when he is finally 
deposed, ib. 

Kok, Adam I, a half-breed : 

is allowed by the Dutch East India Company to collect together 
a band of Hottentots and people of mixed blood, and has a 
tract of land at the Kamiesberg granted to him by the colonial 
government, i 65 

Kok, Adam II, eldest son of the first Cornelis : 

early in the nineteenth century moves from Little Namaqualand 
to Griquatown with a few followers, ii 471 ; in 1S02 is visited 
by an expedition from Capetown, i 101 ; in 1820 moves away 
from Griquatown, ii 473 ; and sets up an independent govern- 
ment at Campbell, ii 474 ; in June 1S23 assists to defeat the 
Mantati horde, i 444 ; in May 1824 resigns, and is succeeded 
as captain of Campbell by his brother Cornelis Kok II, ii 471 ; 
for a time leads a wandering life, ib. ; but eventually is joined 
by a number of rovers who elect him to be their captain, ib. • 
in 1826 at the invitation of the rev. Dr. Philip he settles with 
these people at Philippolis, ii 475; in 1S35 visits Capetown, and 
when returning home in September of that year dies at the 
Berg river, ii 476 

Kok, Adam III, younger son of Adam Kok II : 

conspires against his elder brother Abraham, and in September 
1837 by the influence of the missionaries is elected captain of 
Philippolis, ii 476 ; in November 1838 enters into a treaty with 
Andries Waterboer, in which they divide on paper an immense 
region between them, ii 477 ; carries on hostilities with his 
brother until the beginning of 1841, when his success is com- 
plete, ib. ; in October 1842 applies for British protection against 
the emigrant farmers, ii 479 ; on the 29th of November 1843 
enters hito treaty alliance with the British government, ii 481 ; 
early in 1344 gives the emigrant farmers great provocation, 
ii 485 ; in January 1845 requests Sir Peregrine Maitland to 
establish a military post at Philippolis for his protection, ii 487 ; 
and receives a reply which prompts him to irritate the farmers 
into hostilities, ii 488 ; he attempts to have a farmer arrested, 
when his messengers commit acts of great violence, ib. : there- 



300 History of South Africa. 

upon the burghers take up arms, and the Griquas do the same, 
ib. ; some skirmishing follows, ib. ; the Griquas are supplied with 
muskets and ammunition by the civil commissioner of Coles- 
berg, ii 489 ; and two hundred soldiers are sent to occupy 
Philippolis, ib. ; as the leaders of the emigrant farmers decline 
the terms proposed by the civil commissioner of Colesberg a 
strong military force is sent to assist the Griquas, ib. ; on the 
2nd of May 1845 the emigrant farmers are completely routed 
at Zwartkopjes, ii 490 ; and their camp at Touwfontein is 
seized, ii 491 ; the farmers who are opposed to British authority 
then retire to Winburg, and those who are well affected come 
to the British camp and take an oath of allegiance to the 
queen, ib. ; at the close of June Sir Peregrine Maitland arrives 
at Touwfontein, where Kok has a conference with him and 
makes most extravagant pretensions as to his authority over 
residents in the territory, ii 492 ; subsequently, however, he 
moderates his tone and agrees to proposals of the governor, 
which are embodied in a treaty signed by both parties in the 
following February, ii 493 ; on the 25th of January 1848 he 
gives his consent to an arrangement proposed by Sir Harry 
Smith which greatly reduces the territory previously acknow- 
ledged as his, in 272 ; in August of this year he assists the 
British forces under Sir Harry Smith against the emigrant 
farmers in the Orange River Sovereignty, Hi 285 ; he finds 
it impossible to prevent his people selling their land, Hi 349 ; 
in 1854 he declines all proposals made to him by Sir George 
Clerk, whereupon that officer declares the treaty with him 
abrogated and he is left to his fate, Hi 366 ; he publishes his 
disapproval of the arrangements made in 1854 by Sir George 
Clerk, Hi 447 ; invites a party of blacks from the Cape Colony 
to settle in his district, Hi 448 ; wishes to renew negotiations 
with Sir George Clerk, but is informed that it is now too late, 
Hi 449 ; in September 1854 makes an arrangement with President 
Hoffman by which land in his reserve can be sold to Europeans, 
ib. ; acts as arbitrator between Nicholas Waterboer and Cornelis 
Kok, and in October 1855 lays down the boundary known as 
the Vetberg line between the districts of those captains, Hi 465 ; 
in 1861 moves from Philippolis with the intention of proceeding 
to Nomansland, iv 195 ; in December 1861 sells to the Orange 
Free State his sovereign rights and the whole of the unoccupied 
lands of the clan north of the Orange, iv 197 ; in 1863 is 
located with his Griquas in part of Nomansland, iv 67 ; drives 
Nehemiah Moshesh out of the territory, iv 67 and 68 ; in 
1865 fights on the Free State side against the Basuto, iv 237 



Synoptical Index. 301 

KOK, CORNELIS I, SON OF THE FIRST ADAM KOK : 

with a band of half-breeds and Hottentots follows his sons from 
Little Namaqualand to Griquatown, ii 471 ; in 1798 applies 
to the colonial government for assistance against the robber 
Afrikaner, * 68 

KOK, COENELIS II, SECOND SON OF THE FIRST CORNELIS : 

early in the nineteenth century moves from Little Namaqualand 
to Griquatown with a few folio wers, ii 471 ; in June 1823 
assists to defeat the Mantati horde, i 444 ; in May 1824 is 
elected captain of the Griquas at Campbell, ii 474 ; from 
September 1837 to the beginning of 1841 assists Abraham Kok 
against his younger brother Adam in the struggle for the 
captaincy of Philippolis, ii 477 ; by Sir Harry Smith his juris- 
diction is confined to the right bank of the Vaal, in 311 ; in 
April 1854 has his claim to ground above the junction of the 
Orange and Vaal rivers recognised by the government of the 
Orange Free State, in 447 ; submits his dispute with Nicholas 
Waterboer concerning ownership of territory to the arbitration 
of Adam Kok, and in October 1855 is awarded the land north 
of the Vetberg line, Hi 465 ; is recognised by the Free State 
government as possessing proprietary but not sovereign rights in 
the district north of the Vetberg line, Hi 466 ; cedes his chieftain- 
ship to his nephew Adam Kok, iv 213 

VAN DER KOLFF, ADRIAAN, A NOTORIOUS RUFFIAN: 

particulars concerning, Hi 375 

Kolver, Rev. A. : 

in 1797 dies, i 105 

KONA, ELDEST SON OF THE GAIKA CHIEF MaKOMA : 

in 1847 governs his father's clan during the elder chief's residence 
at Port Elizabeth, in 51 ; on the 7th of January 1848 takes 
an oath of allegiance to the queen of England, Hi 61 

Koonap river: 

in 1830 farms are given out between this stream and the Kat 
under tenure of military occupation, ii 13 

koranas, migratory hottentot clans living near the junction 
of the Orange and Vaal rivers : 
particulars concerning, i 186, 230, 466, 474, and 480, ii 465, 
Hi 304 and 347, iv 30 and 96 et seq. 

Korsten, Frederick : 

is the first breeder of Angora goats in the Cape Colony, ii 41 



302 History of South Africa. 

KOWIE HARBOUR IMPROVEMENT COMPANY : 

in July 1870 is dissolved, when the harbour works are transferred 
to the Cape government, iv 111 

KOWIE RIVER, MOUTH OF THE : 

in February 1825 is named Port Frances in honour of the wife 
of Lieutenant- Colonel Somerset, i 391 ; at the same time a 
magistrate is stationed there, ib. ; on the 9th of November 
1821 is first entered by a vessel, i 392 ; in July 1826 a custom- 
house is established, ib. ; in January 1823 the magistracy is 
abolished, i 493 ; efforts are made to improve it, Hi 169 ; 
see Port Alfred and Port Frances 

Kramer, Rev. Mr. : 

is one of the early missionaries to the Griquas, ii 470 

Kreli (correct Kaffir spelling Saeili), son of Hints a : 

during the war of 1834-5 is left by his father in the British camp 
as a hostage for the fulfilment of terms of peace, ii 115; 
upon the death of his father becomes paramount chief of the 
Xosa tribe, and on the 19th of May 1835 concludes peace with 
Sir Benjamin D' Urban, ii 117 ; under the terms of which he 
gives up over three thousand head of cattle, and on the 11th 
of December cedes a slip of territory to the British govern- 
ment, ii 133 ; the land, however, is restored to him by order 
of the secretary of state for the colonies, ii 150 ; in November 
1844 he enters into a treaty with Sir Peregrine Mai Hand, ii 257 ; 
in the war of 1846-7 takes part against the Cape Colony, Hi 8 ; 
in August 1846 completely outwits Sir Andries Stockenstrom, 
Hi 23 ; on the 17th of January 1848 concludes peace with 
the British government, Hi 62 ; in October 1848 has a friendly 
interview with Sir Harry Smith near King-Williamstown, Hi 
66 ; in the war of 1850-52 aids the enemies of the Cape Colony, 
Hi 101 ; suffers great loss in an engagement with burghers 
under Captain Tylden, Hi 109 ; by the invasion of his country 
in August 1852 is brought to terms, Hi 112; in February 
1853 peace is concluded with him, in 113; in 1854 and 1855 
shows himself hostile, Hi 197 ; takes a leading part in the 
self-destruction of the Xosa tribe, Hi 199 ; in February 1858 
is driven over the' Bashee into Bomvanaland, iv 44 ; gradually 
recovers importance, iv 47 ; is offered a large tract of land 
beyond the Umtata, which he declines to accept, ib. ; in May 
and June 1864 a panic is created on the colonial frontier by 
a rumour that he intends to attack the police, iv 48 ; in August 
1864 has a portion of the territory between the Kei and the 
Bashee restored to him, iv 49 ; carries on war with Gange- 
lizwe, iv 57 and 58 



Synoptical Index. 303 

Krige, Rev. W. A. : 

in October 1844 becomes the first resident clergyman of Victoria 
West, ii 248 

Kroonstad, district in the Orange Free State : 
in August 1859 is established, iv 185 

Kruger, Stephantjs Johannes Paulus : 

when a boy in October 1836 assists in the defence of the lager 
at Vechtkop against the Matabele, ii 292 ; in 1852 serves as a 
fieldcornet in the expedition against Setsheli, Hi 398 ; in 1853 
serves with a commando against Montsiwa, Hi 404 ; in 1854 
takes part in the expedition against insurgent clans in the 
district of Zoutpansberg, Hi 419 ; in April 1857 is a com- 
mandant in the force that invades the Orange Free State, Hi 
433 ; soon afterwards is sent to Bloemfontein on a friendly 
mission, Hi 437 ; in April 1858 takes Mapela's stronghold by 
storm, and suppresses the insurrection of that chief, iv 434 ; 
assists in framing the constitution of the South African Republic, 
Hi 422 ; in June 1858 visits Thaba Bosigo as a commissioner 
of the South African Republic, in 491 ; in 1858 commands an 
expedition against the Ratlapin, in 489 ; takes an active part 
in the civil strife in the South African Republic, iv 445 to 
453 ; in October 1862 commands the burgher force that drives 
Stephanus Schoeman from Pretoria, iv 446 ; and from Potchef- 
stroom, iv 447 ; in 1863 is elected commandant-general of the 
South African Republic, iv 450 ; in December 1863 calls out 
a force to oppose Jan Viljoen, who is heading an insurrection, 
ib. ; part of his force is obliged to surrender, and he retires 
to the Orange Free State for a short time, iv 451 ; on the 
5th of January 1864 defeats Jan Viljoen in an action at the 
ford of the Limpopo between Pretoria and Rustenburg, ib. ; in 
September 1865 commands an expedition against the Basuto, 
iv 252 ; in November 1865 visits Zoutpansberg, and endeavours 
in vain to restore peace, iv 481 ; in May 1867 with five 
hundred men attacks the captain Katlakter, but is obliged to 
retire without taking that rebel's stronghold, iv 484 ; appeals 
to the country to support him with fifteen hundred men, but 
without success, ib. ; in June 1867 abandons Schoemansdal, iv 
485 ; and shortly afterwards disbands the commando, ib. ; in 
June 1868 with a commando of nearly nine hundred men inflicts 
heavy losses on the insurgent chiefs Mapela and Matshem, iv 
488 and 489 ; in February 1870 visits Panda with a commission, 
and finds the Zulu people opposed to the occupation by 
Europeans of the ground ceded some time before by Ketshwayo, 
iv 494 



304 History of South Africa. 

Kruisvallei congregation : 

in 1843 is formed at Tulbagh in the Cape Colony, ii 220 

Kuane : see Jan Letele 

Kuisrp river in Great Namaqu aland : 
description of, v 108 and 109 

KURUKURU STREAMLET, A TRIBUTARY OF THE TYUMIE : 

is made by Colonel Wade the boundary of Kaffirland, ii 55 

KURUMAN MISSION STATION : 

in 1817 is founded by the London missionary society with the 
Batlapin tribe, t 472 ; in 1878 it is plundered and threatened 
with destruction by the Batlapin and the Batlaro, iv 429 ; but 
is relieved by a volunteer force from Kimberley, ib. 

KURUMAN, CLAIMANT TO THE CHIEFTAINSHIP OF THE MATABELE TRIBE : 

in 1870 is defeated by the partisans of Lobengula, v 8 ; resides 
subsequently at Shoshong and in the South African Republic, ib. 

Kuys, Rev. A. G. M. : 

in September 1852 becomes the first resident clergyman of Napier, 
ft 219 

Kuys, Rev. J. A. : 

in January 1799 dies, i 104 

Kwesha, chief of a Tembu clan : 

in 1856 and 1857 takes a leading part in the cattle-killing delusion, 
Hi 200 ; in 1857 is captured and sent as a prisoner to Capetown, 
Hi 215 



Labouchere, Right Hon. Henry : 

on the 21st of November 1855 becomes secretary of state for the 
colonies, Hi 167 

Labour tax : 

as imposed by the emigrant farmers upon some of their Bantu 
subjects, description of, ii 466 and in 405 ; particulars con- 
cerning the labour tax in Natal, Hi 248 

Ladybrand, village in the Orange Free State : 
in 1869 is founded 

Lady Kennaway, the: 

brings some immigrants from England to British Kaffraria, and 
after landing them, on the 25th of November 1857 is wrecked 
at East London, tit 217 



Synoptical Index. 305 

Ladysmith, village of : 

in 1850 is founded, and becomes the seat of magistracy of the 
Klip River division of Natal, Hi 263 

Laing, Rev. James : 

in 1831 arrives in South Africa as an agent of the Glasgow society 
and goes to reside at Burnshill on the Keiskama ; when 
leaving Kaffirland during the war of 1834-5 is accompanied to 
Grahamstown by Matwa and Tente, two sons of Gaika, ii 100 ; 
at the close of the war returns to Burnshill, ii 131 ; during 
the war of 1846-7 is again compelled to abandon his station, 
Hi 12 ; but as soon as peace is concluded resumes his work, 
Hi 60 

Lake Chrissie, in the South African Republic : 

in January 1867 a few Scotch families are located on the margin 
of, iv 470 

Lakeman, Stephen B. (afterwards Sir Stephen) : 

in June 1852 arrives from England to assist the Cape Colony 
against the Kaffirs, Hi 110 

Lake Ngami : 

in 1849 is discovered by the reverend Dr. Livingstone and Messrs. 
Oswell and Murray, v 87 

Lalande, M., French naturalist: 

in 1819 and 1820 resides in South Africa, i 366 

Lambert, Jonathan : 

in December 1810 occupies the island of Tristan da Cunha, i 303 

Lambert, Rear Admiral Sir Robert : 

in July 1820 assumes command on the Cape station, i 302 ; on 
the 6th of November 1821. leaves the Cape for England 

Lamsickness, cattle disease : 

mention of, i 159, 169, and 171, Hi 152 

Land commission of Griqualand West : 
account of, iv 288, 289, 418, and 419 

Land commission of Natal : 

in 1846 is appointed, and recommends that seven large locations 
be set apart for the exclusive use of the Bantu, Hi 230 ; hi 
February 1848 another land commission is appointed to allot 
farms to Europeans in Natal, Hi 253 

Land commission farms in Natal: 

particulars concerning, Hi 253 and 254 
vol. v. v 



306 History of South Africa. 

Land in Natal: 

after 1847 an upset price of four shillings an acre is placed upon 
it at government sales, Hi 255 ; on the 7th of July 1856 farms 
are offered in Natal on military tenure and payment of quitrent, 
Hi 257 ; in 1857 land is offered in Natal under quitrent tenure 
alone, ib. 

Landdrosts in the Cape Colony : 

by an ordinance of October 1805 have their duties strictly defined, 
i 181 ; on the 1st of January 1828 the office is abolished, 
% 492. Under the English administration the landdrosts were 
required to visit each ward or fieldcornetcy of their districts 
at least once a year, and to transmit to the governor a report 
upon its condition. They were political commissioners in the 
consistories, and presidents of the schoolboards. The board of 
landdrost and heemraden formed the matrimonial court of the 
district. Before it came in the first instance all disputes relative 
to boundaries of land, roads, or watercourses. To it were 
referred all applications for land within the district, which it 
reported upon, and assessed the value if the ground could be 
alienated without inconvenience. An officer entitled the inspector 
of lands and woods then commented upon this report and 
valuation for the governor's information. The board of landdrost 
and heemraden had the management of the district finances, 
and performed duties similar to those of the present divisional 
councils, but could not expend for any single purpose more than 
five hundred rixdollars without the express sanction of the 
governor. The district accounts were submitted annually to the 
examination of the colonial auditor, and were open to the in- 
spection of every ratepayer. The landdrost and two heemraden 
acted as coroner within the district 

Landdrosts in the Orange Free State : 

are provisionally appointed by the president, but all appointments 
must be confirmed by the volksraad, in 445 

Landdrosts in the South African Republic : 

before 1858 were elected by the burghers of each district, Hi 425 ; 
after 1858 are appointed by the executive council, but can be 
rejected by the people of the district within two months, iv 436 

Lander, Richard, African explorer: 
career of, i 427 

Landman, Carel Pieter: 

in April 1838 arrives in Natal as leader of a party of emigrants 
from the Cape Colony, H 375; immediately afterwards is sent 



Synoptical Index. 307 

by the volksraad to the port as a commissioner to arrange 
matters there, ii 377 ; in July of the same year becomes the 
head of all the emigrants in Natal, ii 378 

Land measure of the Cape Colony : 

in 1855 the standard is fixed, Hi 163 ; particulars concerning, 
iv 6 and 7 

Land question in Natal in 1846: 
particulars concerning, Hi 249 

Land tenure in the Cape Colony : 

particulars concerning the change made by Sir John Cradock, i 
264 ; in 1830 the system of holding land under military tenure 
is introduced by Sir Lowry Cole, ii 13 ; after May 1832 crown- 
lands are not otherwise disposed of than by sale at public 
auction, ii 13 ; form of tenure adopted on the frontier of the 
Cape Colony for a few years after 1853, Hi 115 

Langaltbalele, highest chief ln rank of a Hlubi clan : 
in 1848 seeks refuge in Natal from Panda, Hi 235 

de Lange, Jan : 

in July 1844 is killed in the district of Albany by Xosa robbers, 
ii 256 

Lanyon, Major William Owen : 

in 1875 becomes administrator of Griqualand West, iv 420 ; in 
March 1879 is removed in the same capacity to the Transvaal, 
iv 432 

Laubscher, J. : 

extent of farming operations in 1803, i 140 

Law of inheritance in the Cape Colony: 

proclamation of Lord Charles Somerset concerning, i 376 

Law of inheritance in Natal : 
ordinance concerning, Hi 358 

Laws relating to commerce and customs regulations in the 
Cape Colony from 1806 to 1835 : 
particulars concerning, ii 33 

Laws relating to the treatment of Bantu tribes in the South 
African Republic, iv 435 

Law of the Orange Free State adopted in May 1866 for the 
government of Molapo's clan, iv 276 

Laws and regulations put in force in Basutoland on the 1st 
of December 1871, v 71 et seq. 



308 History of South Africa. 

Laws on, Thomas : 

in January 1828 is appointed resident magistrate of Grahamstown, 
i 493 

Layard, Edgar : 

is the first curator of the South African museum, Hi 159 

Lebenya, chief of a Basuto clan : 

early in 1858 ravages several farms in the Orange Free State, 
Hi 470 ; after the capture of Vechtkop by the Free State 
forces in 1865 abandons Basutoland and retires to the Witte- 
bergen reserve for Bantu in the Cape Colony, iv 292 ; in 1867 
he moves into Nomansland, iv 68 ; where in 1869 he has 
a location assigned to him by Sir Philip Wodehouse, ib. ; in 
January 1872 he asks to be taken under the authority of the 
Cape Colony, iv 69 

Leghoyas : see Bataung 

Legislative council of the Cape Colony before the grant of 
a constitution : 

particulars concerning the creation in 1833 and the establishment 
in 1834 of, ii 47 ; in 1836 it unanimously approves of the 
measures adopted by Sir Benjamin D'Urban with regard to the 
Xosas, ii 146 ; under Sir George Napier's commission undergoes 
some important changes in its constitution, ii 214 ; has no 
claim to be regarded as representing the colonists, ii 239 ; 
after 1844 holds regular yearly sessions, ib. ; in 1846 is enlarged 
by the admission of the senior military officer in the garrison 
of Capetown, ii 240 ; succession of unofficial members of : 

Pieter Laurens Cloete, 25th February 1834, ii 48 ; retires ; 

John Bardwell Ebden, 25th February 1831, ii 48; in August 
1849 resigns, Hi 78 ; 

Michiel van Breda, 25th February 1834, ii 48 ; died 12th August 
1817, ii 2i0; 

Charles Stuart Pillans, 25th February 1834, ii 48 ; retires ; 

Jacobus Johannes Dutoit, 25th February 1834, ii 48 ; retires ; 

Henry Cloete, succeeds P. L. Cloete, ii 215 ; in August 1849 
resigns, Hi 78 ; 

Hamilton Ross, succeeds C. S. Pillans, ii 215 ; in August 1849 
resigns, Hi 78 ; 

Advocate Henry Cloete, succeeds J. J. Dutoit, ii 215; retires; 

Thomas Butterworth Charles Ba}dey, 10th December 1845, succeeds 
Advocate Henry Cloete, ii 239 ; retires, ii 240 ; 

William Cock, 26th October 1847, succeeds T. B. C. Bayley, ii 
240; 



Synoptical Index. 309 

Pieter Voltelen van der Byl, 11th September 1847, succeeds M. 

van Breda ; before January 1848 dies, Hi 78 ; 
William Matthew Harries, 19th January 1845, in 78 ; in August 

1849 resigns, Hi 78 ; 

ChristofM Josephus Brand, LL.D., 23rd July 1850, Hi 122; 

20th September 1850 resigns, Hi 124 ; 
Sir Andrie3 Stockenstrom, 23rd July 1850, Hi 122 ; 20th September 

1850 resigns, Hi 124 ; 

Francis William Reitz, 23rd July 1850, Hi 122; 20th September 

1850 resigns, Hi 124 ; 
John Fairbairn, 23rd July 1850, in 122 ; 20th September 1850 

resigns, Hi 124 ; 
Robert Godlonton, 23rd July 1850, Hi 122; 
William Hawkins, October 1851, Hi 128; 22nd March 1852 

resigns, Hi 133 ; 
Charles Arckoll, October 1851, Hi 128; 
Ewan Christian, October 1851, Hi 128 ; 
Benjamin Moodie, October 1851, Hi 128 ; 
On the 14th of October 1853 it concludes its last session, Hi 

138 

Legislative council of the Cape Colony under the constitution, 
Hi 13G ; 
in 1874 the colony is divided into seven provinces for the election 
of members of, iv 142 

Legislative council of Griqualand West : 

constitution of, iv 409 and 410 ; on the 30th of September 1S80 
meets for the last time, iv 433 

Legislative council of Natal : 

in March 1847 letters patent are issued creating a council of 
official members only, Hi 266 ; particulars concerning the charter 
of July 1856 creating a legislative council of twelve elected and 
four official members, Hi 268 ; which on the 23rd of March 
1857 meets for the first time, ib. ; names of the elected members, 
Hi 269 

Lehana : 

in 1856 upon the death of his father Sikonyela becomes regent 
of a remnant of the Batlokua tribe, Hi 354 ; in 1869 has a 
location in Nomansland assigned to him by Sir Philip Wodehouse, 
iv 68 ; in Januarj^ 1872 asks to be taken under the authority 
of the Cape Colony, iv 69 

Leitner, Rev. Mr., of the Moravian mission: 

in 1823 gees to reside at the leper asylum Hemel en Aarde, i 315 



310 History of South Africa. 

Lemue, Rev. Prosper, of the Paris evangelical society: 

in 1829 endeavours to form a mission station with the Bahurutsi 
at Mosega, i 468 ; in 1830 is obliged by the advance of 
Moselekatse to abandon Mosega, and with his colleagues founds 
the station Motito, ib. 

Leper asylum : 

in 1817 is founded at Hemel en Aarde, i 315 ; in 1846 is removed 
from Hemel en Aarde to Robben Island, ii 245 

Lepui, chief of a Batlapin clan : 

in 1833 is led by the reverend Mr. Pellissier southward to Betlmlie, 
and settles there, i 470 ; on the abandonment of the Sovereignty 
by Great Britain in 1854 is left in an independent position, Hi 
441 ; in October 1859 cedes the district of Bethulie to the Orange 
Free State, iv 184 

Lerothodi : 

on the 20th of November 1891 succeeds his father Letsie as head 
of the Basuto tribe, v 60 

Lesuto, the : see Basutoland 

Letele, Jan (Kuane) : 

is a grandson of Motlomi and representative of the most powerful 
family in the valley of the upper Caledon river before the rise 
of Moshesh, Hi 452 ; is the head of a gang of marauders, ib. ; 
is at enmity with Moshesh' s brother Poshuli, ib. ; in March 
1858 is received as a subject of the Orange Free State, Hi 
471 ; in January 1862 is robbed of all his cattle by Poshuli, 
iv 198 ; after which he sinks greatly in power and influence, 
iv 199 

Letshulatebe, chief of the Batawana tribe at Lake Ngami: 
in 1860 treats a distressed missionary very kindly, v 91 

Letsie, eldest son by the great wife of the Basuto cniEF 
Moshesh : 
in June 1833 is sent by his father with a large party of people 
to reside at the mission station Mori j a, i 469 ; has much less 
ability than his father, v 57 ; in April 1858 is defeated by the 
• Free State forces, when his kraal at Morija is destroyed, Hi 
479 ; for selfish reasons is disposed to carry out Sir Philip 
Wodehouse's award in October 1864, iv 222 ; in 1865 is at 
enmity with his brother Molapo, iv 229 ; in July 1865 his 
kraal of Matsieng is taken by Commandant Wepener, iv 240; 
he joins his father Moshesh in applying for British protection, 
iv 279 ; in April 1866 in order to save his crops, with the other 



Synoptical Index. 311 

Basuto chiefs agrees to peace with the Free State, iv 273 ; 
after signing the treaty of Thaba Bosigo renews his efforts to 
obtain British protection, iv 279 ; but the secretary of state 
for the colonies is unwilling to extend the British dominions, 
ib. ; Letsie then applies to be received as a subject by the 
Free State, ib. ; and receives permission to remain where he is 
until his crops are reaped, iv 280 ; in May 1867 he is received 
as a Free State subject and allowed to remain in his old district, 
iv 286 ; as soon as his crops are harvested and stored on 
fortified mountains he becomes defiant, iv 288 ; in the war of 
1867-8 he loses his stronghold the Kieme, iv 300 ; in March 
1868 is received as a British subject, iv 301 ; at a great 
meeting at Thaba Bosigo on the 22nd of December 1870 
expresses himself satisfied with the regulations drawn up by 
Sir Philip Wodehouse, i; 64; he consents to the annexation of 
Basutoland to the Cape Colony, v 69; on the 29th of November 
1891 dies, v 60 

Letsima, Basuto custom of : 
particulars concerning, v 76 

Levant, the, American trading brig : 

in August 18-41 discharges cargo at Port Natal, ii 414 

Levey, Charles J. : 

in 1869 acts for a short time as Fiiigo agent, iv 60 

Lewanika : 

in 1877 becomes chief of the Barotsi tribe on the Zambesi, v 93 

Lewis, Robert : 

in May 186S narrowly escapes being killed by Hottentots in Great 
Namaqualand, v 100 

Library, the South African public, in Capetown : 

in 1818 is founded, i 377 ; particulars concerning the progress of, 
i 378 ; on the 17th of November 1857 the first stone of the 
fine building devoted to it is laid, and on the 1st of April 
1860 one wing is opened for use, Hi 160 

Lieutenant-Governor of the Cape Colony ; 
in 1816 the office is abolished, i 320 

Lighthouses on the South African coast : 

in April 1824 the one at Green Point on the shore of Table Bay 
is first lit, i 387 ; on the 1st of July 1842 the one at Mouille 
Point on the shore of Table Bay is first lit, ii 199 ; on the 
1st of March 1849 one on Cape Agulhas is opened for use, 



312 History of South Africa. 

ii 244 ; on the 1st of April 1851 one on Cape Recife, ib. ; on 
the 1st of December 1852 one on the Bird island east of Algoa 
Bay, Hi 143 ; on the 1st of May 1860 one on the Cape of 
Good Hope, Hi 170 ; on the 25th of August 1860 one at East 
London, Hi 227 ; on the 1st of June 1861 one on the hill at 
Port Elizabeth, Hi 170 ; on the 16th of September 1861 one 
on the Roman rock in Simon's Bay, ib. ; on the 1st of January 
1865 one on Robben Island at the entrance to Table Bay, 
iv 10 ; in January 1867 one on the Bluff of Natal, iv 162 

Lightship in Simon's Bay : 

on the 10th of January 1845 first displays a light, ii 243 

db Lille, Lieutenant-Colonel : 

after the conquest of the Cape Colony by the English in 1795 
becomes barrack master in Capetown, i 29 

Limpopo River : 

in 1870 is traced for the first time along its central course by 
Captain Elton, v 150 and 151 

Lind, Christiaan Michiel : 

in January 1828 is appointed resident magistrate of Swellendam, 
i 493 

Linde, Frederick : 

on the 29th of December 1851 becomes a member of the legislative 
council of the Orange River Sovereignty, Hi 313 

Linde, Commandant Jacobus : 

though seventy-five years old takes an active part in the Kaffir 
war of 1834-5, ii 107 

Linde, Jan : 

in the war of 1846-7 is commandant of the Swellendam burghers, 
Hi 22 

Lindley, Rev. Daniel, American missionary : 

in June 1836 with two associates goes to reside with the Matabele 
in the valley of Mosega, ii 302 ; in January 1837 leaves that 
station with the emigrant farmers who have defeated the 
Matabele, ii 303 ; in July of the same year arrives in Natal, 
and commences to labour there ; in May 1838 leaves Natal in 
consequence of the Zulu disturbances, ii 374 ; in June 1839 
returns to Natal and becomes resident clergyman of the Dutch 
church at Maritzburg and consulent of churches at Weenen, 
Durban, Winburg, and Potchefstroom, ii 399 ; in the beginning 
of 1847 returns to mission work in Natal, in 230 



Synoptical Index. 313 

Lindsay, Lieutenant-Colonel Martin : 

during the Kaffir war of 1846-7 is in command of Fort Peddie, 
but acts very feebly, in 9 ; on the 26th of May 1846 causes 
a civilian named John Smith to be flogged for disobedience of 
his orders, in 26 ; for which a jury finds him guilty of assault, 
but the judge inflicts no punishment upon him, Hi 49 

Lise, the, French ship : 

on the 9th of March 1840 is wrecked on Cape Agulhas, ii 244 

LlSHUANE MISSION STATION : 

in December 1833 is founded by the Wesley an society near the 
border of Basutoland, i 482 

Literature of the period 1795-1803 : 
particulars concerning, i 116 

Lithako : 

action of the 24th of July 1878 at, iv 430 

Little Namaqualand, in the Cape province : 
description of, Hi 83 

Livingstone, Rev. Dr. David, of the London society : 

in 1845 establishes a mission with the Bakwena tribe, Hi 376 ; 
and acquires great influence with the chief Setsheli, Hi 390 ; 
adopts an unfriendly attitude towards the emigrant farmers, 
Hi 391 ; and is regarded by them with much dislike, Hi 392 ; 
in 1848 has an interview at Magalisberg with the reverend 
Messrs. Robertson and Fame, Hi 393 ; claims independence for 
the Betshuana tribes bordering on the Kalahari desert, v 19 ; 
in 1849 discovers Lake Xgami, v 87 ; in 1851 visits Linyanti 
and discovers the Zambesi river in the centre of the continent, 
ib. ; in August 1852, while he is absent from the mission, his 
property at Kolobeng is destroyed, Hi 398 ; in May 1853 he 
visits Linyanti again, v 88 ; between November 1853 and 
September 1855 travels to St. Paul de Loanda and back to 
Linyanti, and from November 1855 to July 1856 from Linyanti 
to Kilimane, v 89; in August 1860 reaches Linyanti again from 
the eastern coast, v 91 ; is the first European to cross Africa 
from coast to coast, v 145 

Lloyd, Captain W. : 

in March 1848 becomes civil commissioner of Port Elizabeth, 
Hi 70 

JiOBENGULA, SON OF MOSELEKATSE : 

particulars concerning, v 7 and 8 ; in January 1870 becomes chief 
of the Matabele tribe, v 7 ; is a friend of Europeans, ib. ; 
further mention of, v 153 and 154 



314 History of South Africa. 

Locations for Bantu in Natal: 

particulars concerning, iv 167 ; area of, ib. 

Locusts : 

in 1799 in vast swarms infest the eastern part of the Cape 
Colony, * 86 

Lombard, H. S. : 

in December 1840 commands a burgher force sent from Natal 
against the Bacas of Ncapayi, ii 411 

London and Limpopo mining company : 

in 1868 is formed, 1; 10; in 1872 obtains a large and important 
concession from Lobengula, v 11 ; account of its operations in 
South Africa, v 10 and 11 

London missionary society : 

in March 1799 commences work in South Africa, i 67 ; particulars 
concerning, i 68, 100, 123, 147, 184 et sen., 231, 270, 318, 325, 
409, 470, 471, 472, and 500, ii 10, 51, 57, 58, and 59 ; in 
1837 it is outlawed by the first constitution of the emigrant 
farmers, ii 307 ; particulars concerning, ii 470, Hi 101, 224, 
357, and 402, v 5, 38, 90 et scq., and 95 

Longmore, Major George : 

in January 1830 becomes the first resident magistrate of Wynberg, 
ii 228 ; in March 1848 becomes resident magistrate of Mossel 
Bay, Hi 70 

Lord Uawkesbury, English whaler : 

is captured by a French squadron, but is run ashore near Zoe- 
tendal's Vlei by an English sailor at the helm, i 13 

de Lorentz, the baron Charles : 

in April 1826 becomes superintendent of police in Capetown, i 491! ; 
in 1834 becomes police magistrate of Capetown, ii 45 

Losses op the Cape colonists in the seventh Kaffir war: 
amount of, Hi 65 

LouRENgo Marques : 

in 1829 fever rages here so severely that of forty European 
residents thirty-four die, ii 340 ; in 1864 the present town is 
founded, v 148 ; population in 1878, v 140 ; condition of in 
1899, v 152 and 153 

LOVEDALE MISSION STATION : 

in November 1824 is founded by the Glasgow society on the 
Ncera river, i 409 ; is named after Dr. Love, one of the 
founders of the Glasgow missionary society, ii 131 ; during the 
war of 1834-5 is of necessity abandoned, ii 111 ; after the war 



Synoptical Index. 315 

is reestablished by the reverend John Bennie near the junction 
of the Gaga and Tyumie rivers, ii 131 ; on the 21st of July 
1841 a school is opened here for the education of the sons 
of missionaries and select Kaffir pupils ; in April 1846 the 
mission premises are occupied by soldiers and converted into a 
fort, in 6 ; but on the conclusion of peace in December 1847 
the missionaries return and resume their work, Hi 60 ; in 1856 
industrial schools are opened here, Hi 192 

Lowen, Hector : 

in December 1851 is appointed civil commissioner and resident 
magistrate of Bloemiontein, Hi 325 

Lower Bokkeveld, in the Cape province : 
description of, i 189 

Lucas, Admiral Engelbertus : 

in August 1796 in Saidanha Bay surrenders a fleet of nine Dutch 
ships of war to Admiral Elphinstone, i 10 et seq. 

Lucas, Lieutenant Henry : 

in 1855 is appointed magistrate with Makoma, Hi 190 

Luderitz, F. A. E. : 

in 1883 establishes a trading station at Angra Pequena, v 123 ; 
in May 1883 purchases a small tract of land round the bay from 
the Hottentot captain Joseph Fredericks, of Bethany, ib. ; in 
August of the same year purchases a much larger tract from 
the same captain, ib. ; applies to the German government for 
protection, ib. ; claims the guano islands off the coast, but 
unsuccessfully, v 126 

LUDIDI, CHIEF OF A HLUBI CLAN : 

in 1869 has a location in Neman sland assigned to him by Sir 
Philip Wodehouse, iv 68 ; in January 1872 a^-ks to be taken 
under the authority of the Cape Colony, iv 69 

Ludorf, Rev. Joseph, Wesleyan missionary : 

in January 1850 goes to reside at Lotlakana with Montbiwa's 
Barolong, Hi 382 ; in September 1852 gives very pernicious 
advice to Montsiwa ; acts as agent for Montsiwa, v 28 ; devises 
an ingenious but fabulous history of the Barolong, v 29 ; from 
April to June 1871 conducts the case for the Barolong chiefs 
before the arbitration court at Bloemhof, v 40 et seq. ; admits 
that he is the author of a spurious treaty that has been used 
to draw President Pretorius into a snare, v 41 ; after the 
delivery of the Bloemhof award, in October 1871 draws up a 
pompous but absurd constitution for a united Barolong, Bang- 
waketse, and Batlapin state, v 47 ; in January 1872 dies, v 49 



316 History of South Africa. 

LUNGSICKNESS IN CATTLE : 

in 1854 is introduced into the Cape Colony, and causes great 
losses, Hi 151 ; particulars concerning, Hi 152 ; in 1855 it 
spreads to the cattle in British Kafiraria, where it is attributed 
by the Xosas to witchcraft practised by the Europeans, Hi 
198 ; in the same year it spreads to Natal, and causes great 
loss, Hi 261 

Lutheran church in Capetown : 

particulars concerning, i 105 and 317 

Lydenburg, district of : 

in December 1856 separates from the South African Republic and 
is declared by its representatives to be a sovereign and inde- 
pendent state ; in September 1857 negotiations are commenced 
by the government at Potchefstroom for a reconciliation, iv 
440 ; and are carried on until April 1860, when the union of 
the two states is completed, iv 442 

Lydenburg, village of : 
in 1846 is founded 

Lytton, Right Hon. Sir Edward Bulwer : 

on the 31st of May 1858 succeeds Lord Stanley as secretary of 
state for the colonies, Hi 181 



Maas, Cornelis : 

is severely punished for spreading false reports, i 213 

Mabandla, chief of a remnant of the Amabele tribe : 

in April 1835 at Butterworth solicits Sir Benjamin D'Urban to 
give him protection against the Xosas, ii 110; his request is 
complied with, and he has land assigned to him between the 
Fish and Keiskama rivers, ii 113 ; on the 2nd of January 1845 
he enters into a treaty with Sir Peregrine Maitland, ii 259 

Maboela, Basuto custom of : 
particulars concerning, v 77 

Mabotsa : 

reference to the reverend Dr. Livingstone's residence at, in 394 

Macartney, earl of : 

in May 1797 becomes governor of the Cape Colony, i 27 ; con- 
ducts the government without the slightest taint of corruption, 
i 29 ; but is very severe with republicans, i 30 ; resigns, and 
in November 1798 leaves South Africa, i 46; on the 31st of 
March 1808 dies, i 47 



Synoptical Index. 317 

McCleland, Rev. Francis, of the English episcopal church : 

in 1820 arrives in the Cape Colony with a party of Irish 
settlers, and is stationed at Clanwilliam, i 351 ; in November 
1825 is transferred to Port Elizabeth, i 355 

McCorkindale, Alexander : 

in September 1864 obtains a concession from the government of 
the South African Republic for introducing immigrants from 
Great Britain, iv 469 ; is unable to carry out his project in its 
entirety, but brings out a few Scotch families, iv 470 ; in May 
1871 dies at Inyaka Island, ib. 

McDiarmid, Rev. Alexander : 

is a missionary of the free church of Scotland at Macfarlan station, 
Hi 99 

McDougall, Donald : 

in 1848 obtains a lease of a copper mine on the bank of the 
Orange river from a Hottentot captain, Hi 85 

Macfarlan mission station : 

particulars concerning, Hi 99 

Mackay, William Macdonald : 

in January 1824 is appointed deputy landdrost at Cradock, t 394 ; 
in March 1825 is promoted to be landdrost of Somerset, ib. ; 
in January 1828 becomes civil commissioner of the Cape and 
Simonstown districts, t 492 ; prosecutes the reverend Dr. Philip 
for libel in the book Be searches in South Africa, and obtains 
judgment in his favour, i 508 ; in March 1848 becomes civil 
commissioner of Caledon, Hi 70 

McKenny, Rev. Mb. : 

in 1814 is sent to South Africa by the Wesleyan society, but is 
not permitted by Lord Charles Somerset to act as a clergyman, 
i 318 ; in consequence of which he returns to England, ib. 

Mackenzie, Rev. John : 

in 1860 at Lake Ngami rescues the survivors of the ill-fated 
Makololo mission, v 92 

McKtdd, Rev. Mr. : 

founds the first mission of the Dutch reformed church in the 
Zoutpansberg, iv 477 

Mackinnon, Lieutenant- Colonel George Henry : 

in September 1846 arrives in South Africa as a supernumerary 
officer, Hi 29 ; in December 1847 is appointed commandant 
and chief commissioner of British Kaffraria, Hi 58 ; on the 



31 8 History of South Africa, 

24th of December 1850 commands a patrol which is attacked 
by Xosas at the Boomah pass, Hi 94 ; in October 1852 resigns, 
Hi 117 

Machrell, Dr. : 

is the first superintendent of the Somerset farm, i 281 

Maclean, Captain John : 

in November 1845 succeeds Mr. Theophilus Shepstone as diplomatic 
agent at Fort Peddie, ii 261 ; in November 1846 is appointed 
commissioner with the clans near the sea between the Keiskama 
and Kei rivers, Hi 37 ; (Lieutenant- Colonel) in October 1852 
becomes chief commissioner of British Kaffraria, Hi 117; in 
October 1860 is appointed lieutenant-governor of that province, 
Hi 226 ; in December 1864 is transferred in the same capacity 
from British Kaffraria to Natal, iv 71 

Macmahon, Marshal, president of the French Republic: 

as arbitrator in 1875 awards Delagoa Bay to the Portuguese, 
v 150 

Macrorie, Dr. W. K. : 

in January 1869 is consecrated bishop of Maritzburg, iv 173 

Madikane : 

is leader of a Bantu horde driven westward by the armies of 
Tshaka, i 450 ; on the 20th of December 1824 is defeated and 
killed in a battle with the Tembus and Xosas, ib. ; his followers 
who disperse after his death are the first Fingos, ib. 

Madoor, a Bushman : 

in 1843 becomes nominal chief of a party of refugees from the 
Cape Colony, Hi 47 

Magadu, son of the Bavenda chief Ramapulana : 

quarrels with his brother Tabana, and after his father's death 
drives him from his kraals, iv 478 ; in April 1865 engages in 
war with the Europeans in Zoutpansberg, iv 481 

Magersfontein : 

seizure of guns and ammunition by the Free State authorities 
at, iv 412 

Magisterial divisions of Natal: 
account of, Hi 263 

Magwamba tribe : 

these people are termed Knobnoses by Europeans, ii 289 

Mahlapo tribe : 

mention of, % 465 



Synoptical Index, 319 

Mahura, chief of a Batlapin CLA2T : 

in 1858 protects his relative Gasibone from a commando of the 
South African Republic, Hi 489 ; makes an agreement of peace, 
in which he undertakes to pay the expenses of the commando 
within three months, ib. ; but pays nothing when called upon 
to do so, iv 455 ; in May 1864, in reply to a letter of demand 
from President Pretorius, refers the government of the republic 
to his agent, Mr. David Arnot, ib. ; in February 1869 with other 
Batlapin chiefs and several Korana captains has a conference 
with a commission from the South African Republic, v 26, 
at which he and the others admit their indebtedness and under- 
take to pay three thousand head of cattle within two months, 
ib. ; but they fail to carry out their agreement, ib. ; shortly 
after this Mahura dies and is succeeded by Mankoroane as head 
of the clan, v 27 

Mail packet sep v vice : 

in 1815 is first established between England and South Africa, 
i 282 ; in 1864 begins to be conducted twice a month by 
different routes, iv 38 ; in April 1868 is established bimonthly 
by the Atlantic route, iv 96 

Maitland, Sir Peregrine : 

is a military officer of distinction, ii 233 ; on the 19th of December 
1843 receives a commission as governor of the Cape Colony, 
ii 232 ; on the 18th of March 1844 takes the oaths of office 
in Capetown, ib. ; in the following September proceeds to the 
eastern frontier, ii 256 ; and makes new treaty arrangements 
with the various chiefs and captains of the Xosa and Tembu 
tribes, ii 257 ; on the 7th of October 1844 enters into a treaty 
with the Pondo chief Faku, ii 457 ; in June 1845 visits the 
country north of the Orange river, ii 492 ; holds conferences 
with various chiefs and captains, and endeavours to settle the 
disturbances of the country, ib ; but is able to make positive 
arrangements with Adam Kok onty, ii 493 ; defers further 
proceedings until he can obtain a report from a special com- 
missioner whom he sends on a tour of investigation, ii 495 ; 
when it is found no possible settlement can be made without 
violating the Napier treaty with Moshesh, ii 497 ; a on the 1st 
of April 1846 on account of the hostile attitude of the Xosas 
leaves Capetown again for the eastern frontier, Hi 3 ; on the 
22nd of that month proclaims the colony under martial law 
and calls out the entire burgher force, Hi 10 ; on the 1st of 
May assumes the chief command of the army in the field, ib. ; 
on the 13th of June establishes his head- quarters at Waterloo 



320 History of South Africa. 

Bay, Hi 18 ; in September resolves to effect a settlement of 
the Kaffir territory very similar to that of Sir Benjamin D'Urban, 
Hi 31 ; on the 6th of January 1847 at Butterworth receives 
a despatch from England announcing his recall, Hi 39 ; on the 
27th of the same month is succeeded by Sir Henry Pottinger, 
Hi 40 ; and on the 23rd of February sails for England, ib. ; 
on the 30th of May 1854 dies in London, ib. 

Maize growing in Natal : 

particulars concerning, iv 164 

Makaba, chief of the Bangwaketse tribe : 

in 1823 defeats the Mantati horde, i 444 ; is killed in battle 
with the Makololo under Sebetoane, v 83 

Makalanga or Makaranga clans : 

mention of, i 433 and 460 ; they are reduced to great misery 
by the Matabele, v 8 

Makana, Xosa seer and warrior leader : 

account of, i 329 ; early in 1818 declares himself a partisan of 
Ndlambe, and by so doing turns the balance of power against 
Gaika, i 331 ; is the leading actor in the invasion of the Cape 
Colony in 1819 by Ndlambe's adherents, i 336 ; on the 22nd 
of April 1819 attacks Grahamstown, but is repulsed, t 338 ; on 
the 15th of August surrenders to Landdrost Stockenstrom, i 339; 
is sent a prisoner to Robben Island, i 340 ; on the 9th of 
August 1820 is drowned while attempting to escape, ib. ; but 
for half a century afterwards his countrymen refuse to believe 
that he is dead, ib. 

Makafan : 

is chief of a clan called the Batlou in the district of Zoutpansberg, 
Hi 415 ; in 1854 causes a party of Europeans to be murdered, 
Hi 417 ; and commences to pillage the country in his neigh- 
bourhood, ib. ; upon the approach of burgher forces under 
Commandants-General Pretorius and Potgieter takes refuge with 
all his people in an enormous cavern, Hi 418 ; where he is 
blockaded, and the greater part of his clan perishes, Hi 419 

Makasane, chief of a Tonga tribe of Bantu : 

in August 1823 cedes to Great Britain a large tract of land at 
Delagoa Bay, v 131 ; further mention of, v 136 

Makatees (corruption of Mantatis) : 

take refuge in the Cape Colony in a famishing state, and are 
apprenticed to farmers, t 446 



Synoptical Index. 321 

Makaula, son of Ncapayi : 

in July 1845 succeeds his father as chief of the Bacas, ii 459 ; 
in January 1872 asks to be taken under the authority of the 
Cape Colony, iv 69 

Makeoakhoa tribe : 

mention of, t 429 and 465 

Makiwane, Rev. Elijah : 

is a missionary at Macfarlan station, Hi 99 

Makololo mission : 

disastrous fate of, v 90 to G2 

Makololo tribe : 

particulars concerning, i 472, Hi 412 and v 84 to 93 ; in 1865 
is utterly exterminated, v 93 

Makoma (correct Kaffir spelling Maqoma), right-hand son of 
the Xosa chief Galea : 
in April 1817 is present at an interview between his father and 
Lord Charles Somerset, i 323 ; in the winter of 1818 commences 
his career as a warrior, and acts very bravely in the battle of 
Amalinde, i 334 ; is permitted by the colonial government to 
occupy the valleys at the sources of the Kat river, * 382 ; 
in December 1823 is compelled to make compensation for 
robberies by his people, i 386 ; also in November 1824, ii 1 ; 
in January 1829 he quarrels with the Tembu captain Mtshalela, 
whom he drives into the Cape Colony, and whose cattle he 
seizes on the Tarka, ii 8 ; in consequence of which in May 
he is compelled to leave the Kat river and to retire over the 
Tyumie, ib. ; on his father's death in November 1829 he is 
appointed regent during the minority of Sandile, the recognised 
heir in the great line, ii 51 ; in 1832 Colonel Somerset gives 
him leave to return to the western bank of the Tyumie, ii 55 ; 
but owing to depredations by his people, in November 1833 he is 
again required to leave the ceded territory, ib. ; in December 1834 
sends his followers to invade and lay waste the frontier districts 
of the Cape Colony, ii 90 ; continues the strife until the 17th 
of September 1835, when he consents to terms of peace and 
agrees to become a British subject, ii 125 ; on the 5th of 
December 1836 is released from his allegiance and enters into 
a treaty with the British government, ii 150 ; on the 2nd of 
December 1840 agrees to certain modifications of the treaty 
proposed by Sir George Napier, ii 187 ; on the 21st of January 
1845 enters into a new treaty framed by Sir Peregrine Maitland, 
ii 259 ; is leading a very miserable life, even for a barbarian, 

VOL. V. Y 



322 History of South Africa. 

ii 264 ; at the beginning of 18-18 is indisposed to join the war 
party in Kaffirland, ib. ; but in April of that year sends his 
followers into the Cape Colony to plunder and destroy, in 6 ; 
in October he surrenders, Hi 34 ; and has an outbuilding at 
Lovedale assigned for his residence, in 36 ; is sent by Sir 
Henry Pottinger to Port Elizabeth, Hi 51 ; where he remains 
until January 1848, when he has ground assigned to him in 
British Kafrraria, ib. ; in the war of 1850-52 takes a leading 
part against the Cape Colony, in ICO ; on the 9th of March 
1S53 agrees to the terms of peace imposed upon him, Hi 114; 
in 1856 takes a leading part in the self-destruction of the Xosa 
tribe, in 199 and 201 ; career of from 1857 to his death in 
September 1873, Hi 210 

Makombi, chief of a Bantu tribe in Portuguese South Africa : 
in 1892 rebels against the Portuguese, but is vanquished, v 166 

Makwai, chief of a Basuto clan : 

in May 1867 is received as a Free State subject, iv 287 ; but 
soon afterwards goes into rebellion, iv 290 ; after the loss of his 
stronghold on the 25th of September 1867 moves over the 
Drakensberg to Nomansland, iv 292 ; where in 1869 he has 
a location assigned to him by Sir Philip Wodehouse, iv 68 

Makwana, chief of the Bataung tribe : 

mention of, i 442 ; during the Zulu wars of extermination escapos 
with a few followers, and after the retirement of the invading 
hordes settles between the Vet and Sand rivers, * 446 and 465 ; 
early in 1836 sells nearly the whole territory between the Vet 
and Vaal rivers to the emigrant farmers under Commandant 
Potgieter, ii 288 

Malcolm, Rear Admiral Sir Pulteney : 

from June 1816 to June 1817 commands on the Cape station, 

i 302 

Malewu, chief of a Bantu clan in the district of Lydenbueg : 
in 1863 rises in arms against the South African Republic, iv 456 ; 
in June 1864 is attacked by a Swazi army, when his clan is 
nearly annihilated, ib. 

Malmesbury, district in the Cape province : 

in January 1839 is created, ii 227 ; in March 1848 is made a 
division, to include the districts of Malmesbury and Piketberg, 
Hi 70 

Malmesbury, village of : 

in November 1828 is founded, ii 22 



Synoptical Index. 323 

Mamotshisane, daughter of Sebetoane : 

by her father's wish at his death becomes head of the Makololo 
tribe, but soon afterwards gives the chieftainship to her half- 
brother Sekeletu, v 88 

Mamre, Moravian mission station: 
in March 1808 is founded, i 230 

von Manger, Rev. J. H. : 

in March 1796 leaves Graaff-Reinet, i 9 ; and declines to return, 
i 41 ; in June 1798 becomes the first clergyman of Swellendam, 
ib. ; in January 1802 is transferred to Capetown, i 104 ; for 
many years is president of the bible and school commission, 
ii 208; on the 2nd of May 1842 dies, ib. 

Manikusa : see Sotshangana 

Mann, Dr. R. J., superintendent of education in Natal : 

in 1865 is sent to England to endeavour to procure immigrants, 
iv 157 ; but meets with very little success, iv 158 

Manner of living in the Cape Colony before the middle of 
the nineteenth century, ii 250 

Manning, William : 

in 1857 is the engineer in charge of the harbour works at the 
mouth of the Kowie river, Hi 169 

Mantati horde : 

account of the, i 443 et seq. ; several thousands of the people 
composing it in a famishing state take refuge in the Cape 
Colony, i 446 

Ma Ntatisi, the renowned leader of the horde called after 
her Mantatis : 
is daughter of Mothage, chief of the Basia, and wife of Mokotsho, 
chief of the Batlokua, i 430 ; acts as regent of the Batlokua 
during the minority of her son Sikon3 T ela, i 440 ; is one of the 
leaders of a great horde that lays waste the southern portion 
of the Transvaal territory, % 442 ; is defeated by the Bangwaketse 
under the chief Makaba, and in June 1823 by the Griquas, i 
444 ; then returns to the banks of the Caledon, and assists to 
devastate that country, i 445 ; in 1823 attacks Moshesh, but 
unsuccessfully, i 462 ; in 1824 again attacks him and drives 
him from Butabute, ib. 

T.Iapasa, son of Bawana, chief of a Tembu clan : 

in 1835 is virtually independent of the regent of the tribe, ii 105 ; 
during the war of that year professes to be friendly, but allows 



324 History of South Africa. 

his people to make plundering raids into the Cape Colony, 
ii 107 ; in October 1835 consents to become a British subject, 
ii 132 ; but on the 18th of January 1837 is released from his 
allegiance, and as an independent chief concludes a treaty with 
Lieutenant-Governor Stockenstrom, ii 153 ; on account of the 
constant robberies committed by his people, in April 1839 a 
military force is sent against him and exacts compensation, ii 
184 ; on the 28th of January 1841 he agrees to certain modi- 
fications of the treaty proposed by Sir George Napier, ii 188 ; 
on the 25th of March 1845 he enters into a new treaty with 
Sir Peregrine Maitland, ii 2C0 ; in May 1846 joins the Xosas 
against the Cape Colony, Hi 8 ; in August is severely punish* d 
by the colonial forces, Hi 25 ; in November is quite ruined for 
a time by a colonial force and by the chief Umtirara, Hi 32 ; 
on the 7th of January 1848 takes an oath of allegiance to 
the queen of England, Hi 61 ; and is allowed to reside where he 
did before the war, Hi 63 ; in the war of 1850-52 takes part 
against the Cape Colony, Hi 101 ; and is killed in an action, 
Hi 113 

Mapela, chief of a Bantu clan in the district of Zoutpansberg : 
early in 1858 rises in rebellion, iv 434 ; but is defeated with 
heavy loss and compelled to submit, ib. ; ten years later rises 
again, but in June 1868 is severely chastised, iv 488 

Mapok, chief of a Bantu clan in the district of Lydenburg : 
in 1863 rises in rebellion, iv 456 ; meets with some reverses, but 
does a great deal of damage to the farms in the district, ib. ; 
in June 1864 is routed by a Swazi army, ib. 

Maqoma : see Makoma 

Marabastad : 

after the abandonment of Schoemansdal in June 1867 becomes the 
residence of the landdrost of Zoutpansberg, iv 486 

Maria Louisa, Dutch packet : 

on the 19th of October 1795 is captured outside of Table Bay, 
i 6 

Marico, district in the South African Republic-: 
in 1871 is established, v 45 and 46 

Maritz, Gerrit : 

is leader of the third party of emigrants from the Cape Colony, 
ii 294 ; in October 1836 reaches Thaba Ntshu, where he learns 
of the losses sustained by Potgietcr's party from the Matabele, 
ib. ; on the 2nd of December is elected landdrost of the emigrant 



Synoptical Index. 325 

farmers, ii 296 ; assists Commandant Hendrik Potgieter to 
punish the Matabele, ii 300 ; quarrels with Potgieter, ii 304 ; 
on the 6th of June 1837 is elected president of the second 
volksraad, ii 306 ; after Pieter Retief's death in February 1838 
becomes head of the emigrants in Natal, ii 367 ; remains in 
charge of the lagers in Natal while Potgieter and Uys proceed 
against Dingana, ii 369 ; on the 23rd of September 1838 dies, 
ii 375 

Maritzburg : see Pietermaritzburg 

Marriages : 

by an ordinance of the commissioner-general De Mist, after the 
1st of January 1805 marriages take place before the landdrost 
and heemraden of each district, i 174 ; but by a proclamation 
of General Baird, after April 1806 can only be performed by 
ordained ministers of the gospel, i 214 

Marthinus-Wessel-Stroom, village in the South African Republic: 
in 1859 is founded, iv 440 

Mart, the, English brig : 

on the 1st of October 1825 is wrecked while trying to cross the 
bar at Port Natal, ii 329 

Maseru : 

in March 1869 is selected as the residence of the high commis- 
sioner's agent in Basutoland, iv 322 

Mashonaland : 

in 1890 is occupied by the British South Africa chartered company, 
v 155 

Masisi, successor to the Barolong captain Gontse : 

in 1871 dies at Taung, and is succeeded by Moshete, ii 467 

Masonic lodge De Goede Hoop : 

dates from November 1772, i 175 ; on the 7th of July 1803 its 
temple in Capetown is dedicated by the commissioner- general De 
Mist, ib. ; on the 21st of February 1892 is destroyed by fire, 
but has since been rebuilt, ib. 

Massacre or Pieter Retief and a party of farmers at Umku- 

NGUNHLOVU : 

account of, ii 360 

Massacre of emigrant families in Natal by the Zulus: 
account of, ii 364 



326 History of South Africa. 

Massacre of the adherents of Umbulazi by the army under 
Ketshwayo : 
account of, Hi 241 

Massacre of Hottentots by Hereros in August 1880 s 
account of, v 121 

Massey, Captain the honourable John : 

in November 1824 conducts an expedition against Makoma, ii 1 

Massou, Korana captain : 

particulars concerning, v 35 

Masupha, son of the Basuto chief Moshesh : 

in June 1865 leads a raiding party into the Orange Free State 
and commits several massacres of a peculiarly atrocious nature, 
iv 233 ; on the death of his father takes up his residence on 
Thaba Bosigo against the orders of the high commissioner's 
agent, v 65 ; refuses to leave Thaba Bosigo, and remains master 
of the stronghold, v 70 ; owing to a feud between him and 
Jonathan, son of Molapo, in 1872 he becomes less refracfony, 
v 77 

Matabele tribe : 

estimate of the number of the people composing it, i 456 ; par- 
ticulars concerning it, i 467 and 485 ; in August 1836 a band 
of Matabele soldiers attacks a European hunting party north 
of the Vaal river, and murders all of its members except four, 
ii 290 ; afterwards attacks a lager of emigrant farmers, but is 
beaten off with heavy loss, ib. ; at another encampment commits 
a dreadful massacre, ii 291 ; and then proceeds to Mosega with 
large herds of the emigrants' cattle and three captive children, 
ib. ; in October a strong Matabele army attacks Commandant 
Potgieter's camp at Vechtkop, ii 292 ; it is defeated, but secures 
all the cattle belonging to the people in the camp, ii 293 ; on 
the 17th of January 1837 the military kraals at Mosega aro 
attacked by the emigrant farmers, ii 302 ; and the soldiers 
there are defeated with considerable loss, ii 303 ; in the winter 
of 1837 the Matabele sustain a defeat from a Zulu army sent 
against them by Dingana, ii 317 ; in November of this year 
they are attacked on the Marikwa by the emigrant farmers 
under Potgietcr and Uys, and suffer such loss that they flee 
beyond the Limpopo, ii 320 ; account of the tribe from 1837 
to 1868, v 4 to 8 ; in 1859 it is provided with missionaries 
by the London society, v 5 ; in 1870 it is engaged in civil 
war, v 8 ; see Moselekatso 



Synoptical Index. 327 

Matanzima, chief of a Tembu clan : 
particulars concerning, iv 54 and 55 

Matiwane, chief of the Amangwane tribe : 

in 1821 v/hen trying to escape from Tshaka attacks and disperses 
the Amahlubi, i 440 ; pursues them across the Drakensberg, 
i 441 ; during seven years follows a murderous career in the 
country west of the Drakensberg, i 446 ; in 1827 is defeated 
on the Caledon by a Zulu army, and retires across the Drakens- 
berg into Tembuland, i 452 ; drives the clan under Bawana 
over the Zwart Kei into the Cape Colony, ib. ; devastates a 
large portion of the Tembu country, ib. ; and then settles on 
the eastern bank of the Umtata, ib. ; on the 26th of July 
1828 some of his people are attacked and beaten by Vusani's 
Tembus, aided by an inspecting party of Europeans under Major 
Dundas, who believe they are opposing Tshaka* s Zulus, i 453 ; 
on the 27th of August 1828 his tribe is utterly broken and 
ruined in an engagement with a colonial commando under 
Colonel Somerset and an army of Xosas and Tembus under 
Hintsa and Vusani, i 454 ; with a few of his warriors he flees 
northward to Dingana, who causes them all to be put to 
death, ib. 

Matlabe, chief of a Barolong clan : 

in January 1837 acts as guide to the emigrant farmers in an 
expedition against the Matabele, ii 300; in November 1837 
again renders assistance to the emigrant farmers against the 
Matabele, ii 318 ; in 1841 moves from Thaba Ntshu over the 
Vaal and has a tract of land assigned to him by Commandant 
Potgieter, upon which he lives as a favoured subject of the 
emigrant farmers, ii 466; in 1846 he assists the farmers against 
the Bapedi, ii 505 

Matlapatlapa, chief of a clan of the Amazizi: 
mention of, * 443 

Matomela, chief of a remnant of the Amareledwane tribe: 

in April 1835 at Butterworth solicits Sir Benjamin D'Urban to 
give him protection against the Xosas, ii 110; his request is 
complied with, and he has land assigned to him between the 
Fish and Keiskama rivers, ii 113 ; on the 2nd of January 
1845 enters into a treaty with Sir Peregrine Maitland, ii 259 

Matrimonial court in the Cape Colony : 
in 1839 is abolished, ii 228 

Matshangana tribe : 

career of the, iv 479, v 138, 139, 140, 147, 148, 154, 156, and 166 



328 History of South Africa. 

Matshatshi, chieftainess of the Bakwebo TRIBE 2 
account of, iv 476 

Matsheng, chief of the Bamangwato tribe : 
account of, v 14 

Matwa, inferior son of Gaika : 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 professes friendship to the Cape 
Colony, ii 111 ; in 1837 attacks the Fingos along the Gaga 
and drives them away, ii 156 

Matyan,\, chief of a Bantu clan in Natal: 

refuses to appear at Maritzburg to answer to a charge of murder, 
Hi 244 ; had once before been fined for a similar offence, Hi 
245 ; an armed force is then sent against him, ib. ; which he 
resists, but is defeated, when he flees to a jungle and his 
cattle are seized, ib. ; he consents to meet Mr. Shepstone in 
conference, on the 16th of March 1858, when a deplorable inci- 
dent takes place, Hi 246 ; he then flees into Zululand, and is 
outlawed, his followers being dispersed, ib. ; his punishment and 
that of Sidoyi has an exemplary effect upon the Bantu in 
Natal, ib. 

Mauch, Carl, German geologist : 

in 1867 discovers gold in the territory north of the Limpopo, v 4 

Mauritius, island of : 

account of the operations which resulted in its surrender on the 
3rd of December 1810 to a British force, i 240 ct seq. ; in 1814 
it is ceded to Great Britain, i 276 

Mawa, a chieftainess of high rank, being a widow of Senzan- 

GAKONA : 

early in 1843 flees from Zululand into Natal with a great horde 
of adherents, ii 446 

Maweva, son of Manlkusa, chief of the Matshangana tribe : 

in 1862 contests for the chieftainship with his brother Umzila, 
but is defeated and obliged to flee, v 147 



o v 



Mayeta, chief of a Tonga tribe of Bantu : 

in March 1823 cedes to Great Britain a tract of land along the 
Tembe river, v 129 ; further mention of, v 136 

Mayiana tribe : 

mention of, i 429 



Synoptical Index. 329 

Maynier, Honoratus Christtaan David : 

in September 1799 accompanies General Dundas to the frontier, 
and makes an arrangement with the Xosas and Hottentots which 
he calls peace, i 61 ; 'in December 1799 is stationed as com- 
missioner in the frontier districts with very great power, i 
63 ; gives dissatisfaction to the colonists, t 87; in July 1801 
parties of farmers appear in arms at the drostdy of Graaff- 
Reinet, and require him to leave the district, ib. ; by a display 
of military force some of them are intimidated, and others 
retire beyond the colonial boundary, j 88; in October they 
appear at the drostdy again, and invest it, ib. ; Major Sherlock 
with a strong military reinforcement is then sent to Graarr- 
Reinet, ib. ; but so many petitions and letters from friends of 
the government are sent in imploring the removal of Maynier 
that General Dundas recalls him, i 89 ;, and as soon as this 
becomes known the insurgent farmers disperse to their homes, 
i 90 ; the complaints against Maynier are subsequently investi- 
gated by a special commission, ib. ; and he is acquitted of all 
misconduct, * 91 ; after which he sits as a member of the 
high court of justice, and receives from General Dundas £1,000 
as compensation for his losses and expenses, ib. 

Measles : 

in 1839 this disease destroys many lives in the Cape Colony, 
ii 192 

Measures and weights : see English 

Measures adopted by General Craig in 1796 for the restoration 
of order at graaff-reinet, i 10 

Measures adopted by the government of the Orange Free 
State : with regard to the territory acquired by the treaty 
of Thaba Bosigo, iv 276 
three rows of farms adjoining the boundary are given free 
to selected applicants to hold under personal occupation, and 
in the remainder of the territory not intended for reserves 
for blacks farms are sold by auction, iv 281 ; in January 
1867 the farms are allotted, but the owners cannot occupy 
them on account of Basuto squatters, ib. ; therefore in March 
1867 a burgher force is called out to expel the ^Basuto, iv 
285 ; two commandos commence destroying the crops, ib. ; but 
do not meet with much resistance, iv 286 ; the great object 
of the Basuto being to save their crops, they in general profess 
abject submission and implore to be received as Free State 
subjects, ib. ; in May the volksraad consents, and Letsie and 



330 History of South Africa. 

other chiefs are taken over, ib. ; as soon as the crops are 
gathered, all the chiefs except Moperi become defiant, iv 288 ; 
in June an English trader named Bush is murdered by some 
Bataung in the ceded territory, and Mcshesh protects the 
murderer, iv 289 ; in July a farmer named Krynauw is murdered 
by a party of Bataung, ib. ; as it is then certain that the 
Basuto have no intention to abide by their engagements, the 
burghers are called to arms, and the war of 1807-8 follows, 
iv 290 

Meat : 

price of in the Cape Colony in 1798, i 40 ; and after 1858, 
Hi 152 

Meintjes, Jacobus Johannes : 

in January 1828 is appointed resident magistrate of Somerset 
East, i 493 ; but in 1834 in consequence of retrenchment is 
reduced to be assistant civil commissioner and resident magistrate 
of Beaufort, ii 44 

Melvell, Mr., agent of the Cape government at Geiquatown : 
induces the Griquas to march against the Mantatis, i 444 

Menzies, Willia:; : 

on the 1st of January 1828 becomes a judge in the newly estab- 
lished supreme court of the Cape Colony, * 491 ; on the 22nd 
of October 1842 at Alleman's drift proclaims an immense tract 
of land north of the Orange river British territory, ii 480 ; but 
his proclamation is repudiated by Sir George Napier, ib. ; on 
the 1st of November 1850 dies at Colesbcrg, Hi 147 

MENZrWE, CHIEF OF A FlNGO CLAN IN TEMBULAND : 

particulars concerning, iv 56 

Merriman, J. X. (later Right Honourable) : 

proceedings in the Cape parliament of, iv 108, 137, and 398 

Merumetsu mission station : 

in December 1833 is founded by the Wesleyan society north of 
the Caledon river, i 481 

Mesham, L. E. : 

on the 4th of November 1850 is appointed magistrate of the 
Inanda location in Natal, Hi 234 

Metropolitan hall in Burg -street, Capetown : 

in February 1831 is opened for public worship by the Wesieyans, 
ii 17 



Synoptical Index. 331 

Meyer, Gerrit Hendrik : 

in August 1847 is elected landdrost of Wiiiburg in the Orange 
river territory by some emigrant farmers who are well affected 
towards the British government, but in October he is deposed 
by the opponents of that party, ii 506 

Mgwali mission station : 

in September 1857 is founded in Sandile's location, British Karrraria, 
by the reverend Messrs. Tiyo Soga and Robert Johnston, in 
connection with the united presbyterian church of Scotland. 
This station must not be confounded with the one of the same 
name in the Tyumie valley, which had then ceased to exist. 
It is memorable as having been for ten years the sphere of 
labour of the first ordained Kaffir clergyman, a most amiable 
and excellent man, who gave to his countrymen an exceedingly 
beautiful translation of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress and set 
them an example of a devoted and highly useful Christian life 

Michell, Major Ciiaeles Cornwallis : 

in 1829 becomes surveyor-general, civil engineer, and superintendent 
of works in the Cape Colony, i 495 ; plans the road over the 
Hottentots-Holland mountains, ii 24 ; is the first to conceive 
the design of massing convict labour upon mountain passes in 
the Cape Colony, ii 230 

Michell's pass, leading from the Tulbagh basin to the Warm 
bokkeveld : 
in December 1848 a good carriage road is opened through, Hi 144 

MlDDELBURG, DISTRICT IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC: 

in October 1871 is formed, v 45 and 46 

MlDDELBURG, DISTRICT IN THE CAPE PROVINCE : 

in November 1855 is formed, Hi 148 

MlDDELBURG, VILLAGE IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC: 

in 1859 is founded, iv 442 

Migration of farmers from the South African Republic to the 
western coast : 
account of, v 105, 106, 117, 118, and 119 

Military force of the Orange Free State : 
constitution of, Hi 445 

Military organisation of the burghers in the Cape Colony: 
in October 1805 is regulated by an ordinance, i 183 

Military villages in the Tyumie valley : 

particulars concerning the formation of, Hi 68 ; and of their 
destruction by Xosas on the 25th of December 1850, Hi 96 



332 History of South Africa. 

Mills, Captain (later Sir Charles) : 
is sheriff of British Kaffraria, Hi 226 

Mineral wealth of the South African Republic as known in 
1868, v 1 

Missionary labour : 

instance of the result of, Hi 117 

Mission stations in Natal in 1837, ii 349 

Mission stations in British Kaffrarla. : 
particulars concerning, Hi 224 

Missionaries of the Paris evangelical society: 

in February 1866 the volksraad of the Orange Free State expels 
those whose stations are in the territory overrun by the burgher 
forces, iv 265 ; further particulars of this event, iv 281 ; after 
the second treaty of Aliv.al North they return to their labours 
in Basutoland, v 75 

Mission work in Basutoland : 
general effects of, iv 193 

Mission work in the South African Republic : 

is carried on by the Berlin and Herinansburg societies and the 
Dutch reformed church, iv 467 

de Mist, Jacob Abraham : 

is appointed by the government of the Batavian Republic com- 
missioner-general in South Africa, i 106 ; in December 1802 
arrives in Capetown from Holland, i 107 ; on the 21st of 
February 1803 receives transfer of the Cape Colony from General 
Dundas, i 111 ; on the 1st of March instals the governor and 
other officials in their posts, i 118 ; on the 9th of October 
leaves Capetown to make a tour of inspection through the 
colony, i 138 ; on the 3rd of November reaches the northern 
border, i 142 ; on the 15th of the same month arrives at 
Roodezand, now Tulbagh, i 145 ; on the 7th of January 1804 
reaches Algoa Bay, i 147 ; travels onward to the Fish river, 
and thence by way of Bruint-jes Hoogte to the village of Graaflf- 
Reinet, i 149 ; on the 13th of February 1804 leaves GraafT- 
Reinet, and travels over the karoo to the Hex river pass, ib. ; 
thence through Tulbagh, the Paarl, and Stellenbosch to Capetown, 
where on the 23rd of March he ends his tour, i 150 ; in 
September 1804 he lays clown his authority, i 178 ; and in 
February 1805 embarks in an American ship to return to Europe, 
i 179 



Synoptical Index. 333 

Mitchell, John, a banished Irishman on board the convict ship 
Neptune : 
particulars concerning, in 83 

Mixed-breeds of part European blood in South Africa : 

are not very numerous before the discharge of soldiers from 
British regiments in Capetown, i 205 

Mocke, Commandant Jan : 

is the head of an independent party of emigrant farmers from 
the Cape Colony temporarily settled west of the Drakensberg, 
ii 448 ; in June 1842 he assists in the siege of the English 
camp at Durban, ii 428 ; in October 1842 at Alleman's drift 
on the Orange river makes an armed display before Mr. Justice 
Menzies, ii 480 ; in July 1843 strives to prevent the volksraad 
of Natal coming to an arrangement with Commissioner Cloete 
concerning the government of the countiy as a British colony, 
but is obliged to return over the Drakensberg disappointed, 
ii 449 ; on the 2nd of May 1845 takes part in the skirmish 
at Zwartkopjes against British troops and Griquas, ii 490 ; 
after his defeat flees to Winburg, ii 491 ; and a little later 
moves over the Vaal, ii 497 

Moffat, Rev. Dr. Robert, of the London missionary society : 

mention of, i 318 ; in 1821 goes to reside at Kuruman, i 472 ; 
in 1823 induces the Griquas to march against the Mantati 
horde, and is present at the battle of Lithako, i 4:4:4: ; in 1829 
visits the Matabele chief Moselekatse at a kraal about a hundred 
miles east of the present village of Zeerust, and acquires great 
influence with him, ii 287 ; in 1857 visits Moselekatse again, 
and obtains his consent to the establishment of a mission in 
his country, v 5 ; induces Moselekatse to liberate the Bamang- 
wato chief Matsheng, v 14 

Moffat, Rev. John Smith (son of the above) : 

in 1859 assists to found a mission among the Matabele, v 5 

Mohamedan religion in Capetown : 
particulars concerning, i 410 

MOKOTSHO, CHIEF OF THE BaTLOKUA TRIBE i 

mention of, * 430 

MOKUANE, CHIEF OF THE BAFUTI : 

in 1825 becomes a vassal of Moshesh, i 164 

Mokwasele, chief of the Bakwena tribe : 
is killed by some of his subjects, v 83 



334 History of South Africa. 

Mol, Rev. Coenelis : 

in March 1817 returns from Europe and becomes the first resident 
clergyman of Uitenhage, i 316 ; in July 1822 is transferred to 
Swellendam, i 370 

MOLAPO, SECOND SON IN BANK OF THE BaSUTO CHIEF MOSHESH : 

in June 1833 is sent by his father with a large party of people 
to reside at the mission station Morija, i 469 ; in 1845 is sent 
by his father to occupy the country along the Putiatsana, ii 
499 ; after suffering severely in the war of 1865-6, on the 26th 
of March 1866 by the treaty of Imparani becomes a subject 
of the Orange Free State, iv 272 ; takes no open part in the 
war of 1867-8, iv 293 ; in March IS 68 expresses a desire to 
come under British protection, iv 309 ; tries to induce the 
Basuto tribe to join Natal in hope of receiving aid to recover 
lost territory, iv 312 ; by the second treaty of Aliwal North 
is permitted to become a British subject, iv 319 ; punishes the 
robber chief Ramanela by seizing a thousand head of his cattle, 
iv 327 ; on the 11th of April 1870 he is formally received as 
a British subject, v 60 

MOLEHABANQWE, CHIEF OF THE BATLAPIN TRIBE OF BETSHUANA : 

in 1801 is visited by an expedition from Capetown, % 101 ; 
further mention of, i 187 

MOLESWORTH, RlGHT HON. SlR WlLLIAM : 

on the 21st of July 1855 becomes secretary of state for the 
colonies, but on the 22nd of October of the same year dies, 
Hi 167 

MOLESWORTH, VlSCOUNT AND LADY : 

in May 1815 lose their lives in the wreck of the Arniston on the 
South African coast, * 283 

MOLITSANE, CHIEF OF A CLAN OF THE BaTAUNG : 

after the dispersion of the Mantati horde wanders about the 
country west of the Caledon, i 4 15 ; at length settles at 
Philippolis in vassalage to Adam Kok, ib. ; further mention of, 
t 442 ; in 1837 becomes a vassal of Moshesh, and is located 
at Mckuatling, ii 464; during the winter of 1849 suffers very 
severely from an attack by the Batlokua, Hi 304 ; having 
plundered a mission station, on the 21st of September 1850 he 
is attacked by Major Warden, which brings on a general war 
with the Basuto tribe, Hi 314 ; at the close of the war of 
1865-6, as his district has been ceded to the Orange Free State, 
applies to be received as a subject of that republic, iv 279; 
and receives permission to remain where he is until a suitable 



Synoptical Index. 335 

location can be found for him, iv 280 ; he gathers his crops, 
and when the planting season conies round puts a large extent 
of ground under cultivation, ib. ; in May 1867 he is received 
as a Free State subject, iv 287 ; takes part in the war of 
1867-8, iv 293 ; and in March 1868 becomes a British subject, 
iv 301 ; in 1869 is removed to the south of Basutoland, iv 
325 ; where in October 1885 he dies at a very advanced age, ib. 

Mollee, Widow : see Heyning 

MOLOPO, CONFERENCE OF: 

is held in November 1870 between a commission of the South 
African Republic and various Betshuana chiefs, v 32 

Molteno, John Charles (later Sir John) : 

in the Kaffir war of 1846-7 is commandant of the Beaufort 
burghers, Hi 23 ; is the leader in the Cape parliament of the 
party in favour of responsible government, iv 32, 33, 72, 92, 
102, 103, 108, 121, 125, 126, and 137 ; on the 29th of November 
1872 becomes the first prime minister of the Cape Colony under 
responsible government, iv 146 ; proceedings in the Cape parlia- 
ment of, iv 398, 422, 423, and v 107 

MONENE, A REFUGEE FROM THE MaTSIIANCANA TRIBE : 

has a location in the Zoutpansberg district assigned to him, iv 
479 ; causes much trouble by his turbulent conduct, iv 480 ; 
is arrested on a charge brought against him by Joao Albasini, 
but in March 1865 escapes from custody, and takes refuge with 
chiefs in the mountains who are ill-disposed towards the 
Europeans, ib. ; a party of white men under Commandant 
Stephanus Venter is sent in search of him, accompanied by a 
party of knobnoses, iv 481 ; who attack the chief Pago, and a 
general war follows, ib. 

MONI, CHIEF OF THE BOMVANAS : 

in 1858 gives shelter to Kreli and his people, Hi 209 ; and aids 
the Galekas in their distress ; particulars concerning him, iv 49 

Montagu, John : 

on the 23rd of April 1843 becomes secretary to the government of 
the Cape Colony, ii 198 ; sets himself to the redemption of the 
public debt, ib. ; is the promoter of a system of constructing 
roads by means of convict labour, which was adopted in 1843, 
ii 230 ; when assisting in the preparation of the constitution 
is in favour of a nominated legislative council, Hi 126 ; on 
the 1st of May 1852 leaves the colony on sick leave, Hi 133 ; 
on the 14th of November 1853 dies in London, Hi 138 



336 History of South Africa. 

Montagu, the, a little vessel of thirty tons, the fibst built 
in the eastern province of the cape colony : 
on the 28th of November 1846 is launched at the mouth of the 
Kowie river 

Montagu pass : 

on the 18th of January 1848 the road over this pass is opened 
for traffic, ii 245 

Monteiro, Major Jose Maria Correia: 
travels of, v 144 

Monte Video: 

aocount of the expedition sent from the Cape Colony against under 
Sir Home Popham and Brigadier- General Beresford, i 215 et seq. 

Montsiwa : 

at the olose of 1849 succeeds his father Tawane as chief of the 
Tsili olan of the Barolong tribe, Hi 382 ; enters into certain 
arrangements with the government of the South African Republic, 
Hi 383 ; under the terms of which in August 1852 he is called 
upon to render assistance against Setsheli, but does not comply, 
Hi 396; for which he is required to give an account in person 
to Commandant Scholtz, in 400 ; instead of doing so he abandons 
Lotlakana and retires to the desert, in 401 ; after this his 
people rob the farmers of cattle to such an extent that a 
military expedition is sent against them, in 404 ; matters are 
arranged, but Montsiwa's clan removes to the territory north 
of the Molopo, Hi 405 ; where after 1854 he remains with the 
Bangwaketse tribe, v 28 ; in August 1808 he applies through 
the reverend J. Ludorf to the high commissioner for protection 
against the South African Republic, n 29; in March 1870 
supports his brother Molema in his refusal to pay taxes, v 31 ; 
in November 1870 with other chiefs has a conference with a 
commission from the South African Republic, v 32 ; when it is 
agreed on both sides to refer questions in dispute to a court 
of arbitration, v 35 ; applies to Licutenant-General Hay to 
appoint two members of this court, ib. ; by the Keate award in 
October 1871 is declared independent of the South African 
Republic, v 44 

Monument to the memory of the Free State citizens who lost 
their lives in the basuto wars : 
on the 29th of May 1871 is unveiled at Bloemfontein, iv 385 

lilooDiE, Benjamin : 

in 1817 brings to the Cape Colony two hundred Scotch meohanics, 
i 346 ; in 1821 is connected with his brothers and part of the 



Synoptical Index. 337 

Hoyal African corps in an attempt to form a settlement between 
the Beka and Fish rivers, i 362 ; but the settlers are obliged 
to abandon the territory, i 375 ; in October 1851 is appointed 
a member of the legislative council of the Cape Colony, Hi 128 

Moodie, Donald : 

in February 1825 is appointed resident magistrate at Port Frances, 
i 391 ; in 1836 is entrusted with the task of compiling records 
regarding the intercourse between the colonists and the various 
tribes of South Africa, ii 145 ; on the 13th of November 1845 
is appointed secretary to the government of Natal, ii 462 ; 
on the 1st of October 1852 retires from that office, Hi 269 ; in 
March 1857 is elected speaker of the legislative council of 
Natal, ib. 

Moodie versus Fairbairn: 

particulars of an action on account of a libellous article in the 
Commercial Advertiser, ii 160 et seq. 

MOOIMEISJESFONTEIN : 

skirmish between the Free State police and a party of Basuto at, 
iv 415 

Moorrees, Rev. H. A. : 

on the 19th of May 1839 commences duty as first resident clergy- 
man of Riversdale, ii 217 ; acts for a time as clergyman of 
Tulbagh during the suspension of the reverend Mr. Shand, ii 
220 ; in August 1843 becomes first clergyman of the Kruisvallei 
congregation, ii 221 

Moperi, brother of the Basuto chief Moshesh : 

in May 1865 commits several outrages on Free State soil, iv 227 ; 
applies to be received as a subject of the Free State, iv 279 ; 
is considered the least untrustworthy of all the Basuto chiefs, 
iv 280 ; in June 1867 is received as a Free State subject, and 
a tract of land in Witsi's Hoek is assigned to him as a location, 
iv 287 ; in August 1867 moves with his clan to Witsi's Hoek, 
iv 290 ; takes no part in the subsequent war, ib. 

Mopete, chief of the Bataung : 

is killed by the Barolong chief Sifunelo, i 442 and 472 

Moran, Right Rev. Dr. : 

in September 1856 becomes Roman catholic bishop in Grahamstown, 
Hi 72 

Moravian mission in South Africa: 

particulars concerning, i 146, 229, 315, 317, and 409, ii 52 and 
177, in 69 and 438 
VOL, V, s 



338 History of South Africa. 

Moreland. Edmund : 

in 1847 introduces the sugar cane into Natal, and in 1852 pro- 
duces some very good sugar, iii 260 

Morgan, Rev. George: 

in January 1828 arrives from Scotland, and is appointed clergyman 
of Somerset East, i 370 

Morija mission station: 

in June 1833 is founded in Basutoland by the Paris ovangelical 
society, i 469 

MORLEY MISSION STATION : 

in May 1820 is founded by the reverend Mr. Shepstone, of the 
Wesleyan society, in Pondoland, ii 52 ; a few months after its 
formation is destroyed by the Amakwabi, ii 405 ; but is sub- 
sequently rebuilt on the western bank of the Umtata, ib. ; 
during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 it is abandoned, ii 111 ; but 
early in 1836 is reoccupied, ii 132 

MOROKO, CHIEF OF THE SELEKA BRANCH OF THE BAROLONG TRIBE: 

particulars concerning, i 479 and 487 ; in 1836 renders important 
assistance to the emigrant farmers, ii 294 ; in 1837 makes an 
agreement of friendship with Pieter Retief, ii 308 ; complains 
of the injustice done to him by the treaty of 1843 between 
Sir George Napier and the Basuto chief Moshesh, ii 483 ; in 
June 1845 has a conference with Sir Peregrine Maitland at 
Touwfontein, ii 492 ; but as he will not admit the authority of 
Moshesh no arrangement can be made with him in furtherance 
of a settlement of the dispute between them, ib. ; in August 
1845 oilers a tract of land for settlement by Europeans, ii 497 ; 
in March 1846 agrees to submit his dispute with Moshesh to the 
judgment of a commission to be appointed by the governor of 
the Cape Colony, ii 499 ; in June of the same year assists 
Major Warden to disperse the adherents of Jan Kock, ii 500 ; 
in September 1850 assists the government of the Orange River 
Sovereignty against the Basuto, and by doing so brings much 
trouble upon his clan, iii 315 ; en the 30th of June 1851 loses 
many men in the battle of Viervoet, iii 320 ; on the abandon- 
ment by Great Britain of the Orange River Sovereignty in 1854 
is left in an independent position, iii 441 ; in the war of 1858 
assists the Free State against the Basuto, iii 481 ; is regarded 
with great favour by the Free State government, iv 192 ; in 
1885 enters into a treaty with the Orange Free State, iv 283 ; 
in the war of 1865-6 fights on the Free State side, iv 241 ; 
see Barolong tribe 



Synoptical Index. 339 

MOROSI, SON OF THE BaPUTT CHIEF MOKUAKE : 

in 1825 becomes a vassal of Moshesh, i 464 ; during the Kaffir 
war of 1 834-5 professes to be neutral, but really allows his 
followers to plunder the Europeans, ii 465 ; on one occasion 
his cattle are seized in reprisal, ib. ; but are restored by Sir 
Benjamin D'Urban, ib. ; in 1851 joins the enemies of the Cape 
Colony, Hi 317 ; dealings of the Cape government with, Hi 
492 ; in 1868 is the head of a gang of robbers, iv 315 ; in 
February 1869 requests to be received as a British subject, but 
the high commissioner takes time for consideration, iv 322 ; 
in June 1870 becomes a British subject, v 61 

MOSELEKATSE (IjMSILIKAZl), CHIEF OF THE MaTABELE TRIBE : 

is commander of a division of the Zulu army, i 455 ; about 
the year 1817 loses Tshaka's favour, and with his soldiers flees 
across the mountains, ib. ; lays waste the centre of the country 
between the Vaal and the Limpopo, and exterminates the 
inhabitants, i 456 ; at length settles down north of Magalis- 
berg, and for many years sends out plundering parties in search 
of spoil, ib. ; in 1831 sends an army against Moshesh, which 
unsuccessfully besieges Thaba Bosigo, i 466 ; in 1830 and 1831 
nearly exterminates the Bakwena, Bangwaketse, Bahurutsi, and 
Barolong tribes, i 475 ; in September 1832 defeats an army 
sent against him by Dingana, ib. ; but fearing he may again be 
attacked, moves farther to the west, and settles at Mosega, 
ib. ; further particulars concerning, i 476 and 485 ; in 1829 he 
is visited by the reverend Robert Moffat, of Kuruman, ii 287 ; 
in 1835 is visited by Dr. Andrew Smith, leader of an exploring 
expedition, ii 298 ; sends with Dr. Smith a favourite induna 
named Nombate to Capetown, ib. ; who on the 3rd of March 

1836 in his name concludes a treaty of friendship with Sir 
Benjamin D'Urban, ib. ; in 1835 and 1836 is visited by several 
travellers, ii 287 ; articles of European manufacture which he 
prizes, ii 299 ; his soldiers attack parties of emigrant farmers 
and massacre many of them, ii 291 ; he takes no notice of an 
offer of peace made by Pieter Retief, ii 317 ; in November 

1837 he is defeated by the emigrant farmers on the Marikwa, 
and flees far north of the Limpopo, ii 320 ; after his flight 
from the emigrant farmers attacks the Makololo, v 86 ; in 1853 
he is visited by three brothers named Joubert, who conclude 
an agreement of amity with him, Hi 413 ; his tribe is now 
composed of various elements, Hi 412 ; in 1854 he resides near 
the Matopo hills, ib. ; thousands of Bantu flee from his neigh- 
bourhood to the South African Republic, ib. ; further mention of, 
v 153 ; in October 1868 he dies, v 6 



340 History of South Africa. 

MOSELELE, CHIEF OF TIIE BAKATLA CLAN OF BETSHUANA : 

having got himself into trouble in the South African Republic, in 
the winter of 1852 flees to the Bakwena chief Setsheli, who gives 
him protection, Hi 395 

MOSENTHAL BROTHERS, OF PORT ELIZABETH: 

are successful in obtaining pure Angora goats for breeding purposes 
in the Cape Colony, iv 12 

moses wltbooi, captain of an immigrant hottentot clan in great 
Namaqualand : 
mention of, v 95 and 112 

MOSHESH (MSHESHWE), FOUNDER OF THE BASUTO TRIBE: 

is son of a petty chief of the Baramokhele, i 460; genealogical 
table showing his descent, i 461 ; is born at Lintshuaneng on 
the Tlotsi, i 462 ; is about eight or nine and twenty years old 
when his country is invaded by numerous hordes, ib. ; about 
the close of 1821 first sees white men, and is favourably im- 
pressed by their conduct, * 467 ; collects a party of warriors, 
and tries to make a stand against the invaders at Butabute, 
i 462 ; in 1824 is attacked by Ma Ntatisi, and is driven from 
that place, ib. ; takes possession of a natural fortress of great 
strength, named Thaba Bosigo, ib. ; here he rapidly acquires 
strength and military renown, ib. ; as the Amangwane are the 
most powerful people in the country he professes to be their 
vassal, i 463 ; after the death in battle of Umpangazita, is 
acknowledged by various parties of Hlubis as their protector, 
ib. ; by his wisdom and good government attracts the remnants 
of many broken tribes to place themselves under him, ib. ; 
by successful forays upon the Tembus becomes wealthy in cattle, 
* 464 ; in 1825 subjects the Baputi clans to his authority, ib. ; 
after the destruction of the Amangwane professes to be a vassal 
of Tshaka and pays him tribute, i 465 ; in 1831 successfully 
holds Thaba Bosigo against a Matabele arni3% i 466 ; sends two 
hundred head of cattle to Adam Kok and requests a missionary 
in return, i 468 ; in June 1833 welcomes missionaries of the 
Paris evangelical society to his country, i 469 ; by 1834 is a 
chief of considerable power and widely- extended renown, i 487 ; 
in 1835 during the war between the Cape Colony and the Xosas 
makes a raid into Kaffirland, but is beaten back by Hintsa, 
ii 105 ; in September 1836 destroys a strong robber band under 
the Xosa captain Jalusa, ii 295 ; in 1837 makes an agreement 
of friendship with Pieter Retief, ii 308 ; is gifted with great 
power of observation, ii 463 ; takes advantage of dissensions 



Synoptical Index. 341 

among the Europeans to increase his strength, ii 464 ; favours 
the reverend Dr. Philip's scheme for the formation of great 
Bantu and Griqua states, ii 469 ; on the 30th of May 1842 
approves of a letter written by his missionary asking that he 
may be taken into treaty relationship with the Cape Colony, 
ib. ; on the 13th of December 1843 enters into a treaty with 
the British government, ii 481 ; which gives rise to numerous 
complications and quarrels, ii 483 ; in June 1845 he has a 
conference with Sir Peregrine Maitland at Touwfontein, ii 492 ; 
but will not renounce his claim to sovereignty over the petty 
chiefs along the Caledon, ib. ; nor withdraw his title to any 
part of the ground allotted to him by the Napier treaty, except 
a very small area on which he is willing that Europeans should 
reside, ii 495 ; during 1845 pushes his outposts far forward, ii 
498 ; in March 1846 agrees to submit his disputes with other 
chiefs to the judgment of a commission to be appointed by the 
governor of the Cape Colony, ii 499 ; in the same year offers 
to assist the British forces against the Xosas and Tembus, but 
his proposal is civilly declined, ii 501 ; in 1847 assists Major 
Warden to attack some Tembus in the Wittebergen, ib. ; benefits 
greatly by the presence of the French missionaries, ii 503 ; on 
the 27th of January 1848 gives his consent to an arrangement 
proposed by Sir Harry Smith which practically destroys the 
former treaty, Hi 275 ; in September of the same year has 
another conference with Sir Harry Smith at Winburg, in 294 ; 
carries on an unceasing petty warfare with the Batlokua under 
Sikonyela, Hi 299 ; on the 1st of October 1S49 very unwillingly 
signs a document which greatly reduces the limits of the terri- 
tory to which he lays claim, Hi 306 ; after this opposes the 
British resident and acts in such a manner that the whole of 
the neighbouring clans become involved in hostilities, Hi 314 ; 
in September 1851 allies himself with the republican party in 
the Orange River Sovereignty, Hi 322 ; after the Sand River 
convention consents to open negotiations with the assistant com- 
missioners Hogg and Owen, Hi 327 ; but cannot be brought 
to do anj-thing practical towards the restoration of peace, Hi 
329 ; on the 14th of December 1852 Sir George Cathcart sends 
him an ultimatum, Hi 335 ; with the tenor of which he only 
partially complies, Hi 336 ; so on the 20th of December a 
strong British army in three divisions enters his country, Hi 
337 ; but is defeated by the Basuto in the battle of Berea, 
Hi 340 ; that night the chief addresses a most conciliatory letter 
to the English general, Hi 342 ; with the result that peace ia 
proclaimed and the army returns to the Cape Colony, Hi 343 ; 



342 History of South Africa. 

the reputation of Moshesh is thereafter greatly enhanced among 
the neighbouring tribes, Hi 345 ; in September 1853 he vanquishes 
Sikonyela and takes possession of his territory, Hi 353 ; and also 
of the territory of Gert Taaibosch, Hi 354 ; issues an ordinance 
prohibiting the introduction of spirituous liquors into Basutoland, 
in 454 ; issues other ordinances which are, however, not en- 
forced, ib. ; is the most intelligent and humane of all known 
Bantu chiefs, but has no regard for his word, iv 179 ; by Sir 
George Grey's mediation in October 1855 has a conference with 
President Boshof at Smithneld, and concludes a formal treaty, 
in 457 ; which he afterwards takes no trouble to observe, Hi 
459 ; in March 1856 lays claim in writing to a large tract of 
land in the Orange Free State, in 462 ; is preparing for war 
with the Free State, in 463 ; is intriguing with some of the 
coast tribes, ib. ; manages to deceive the missionaries as to his 
designs, ib. ; is closely watched by Sir George Grey, who is 
aware of his intrigues, in 464 ; makes an agreement with Free 
State commissioners, but fails to keep it, in 463 ; in 1857 offers 
under certain conditions to submit his dispute with the Free 
State to the decision of Sir George Grey, Hi 468 ; early in 
1858 tries to provoke the burghers of the Free State to com- 
mence hostilities, Hi 469 ; in the war of 1858 devises an excel- 
lent plan of campaign, Hi 478 ; on the 15th of October 1858 
with great reluctance signs the treaty of peace drawn up by 
Sir George Grey, Hi 495 ; makes no effort to carry out the 
provisions of the treaty of 1858, iv 179 ; in August 1860 waits 
upon his Royal Highness Prince Alfred at Aliwal North, iv 
191 ; in September 1861 informs a commissioner of the Orange 
Free State that he will not recognise any boundary lines or 
carry out the arrangements made with President Pretorius, iv 
194 ; in March 1862 treats with great indignity a commission 
sent from the Free State to endeavour to obtain redress of 
grievances, iv 203 ; in May 1863 informs a commission from 
the Free State government that he does not recognise a boundary 
and will not recall his people who are trespassing on farms, iv 
209 ; in November 1863 proposes to Acting President Venter a 
boundary line that would cut off from the Free State nearly 
half the districts of Winburg and Harrismith, iv 210 ; consents 
with great reluctance to the mediation of Sir Philip Wodehouse, 
iv 217 ; after Sir Philip Wodehouse's decision in favour of the 
Free State resolves to evade carrying out the award while 
professing to submit to it, iv 222 ; is completely under the 
influence of seers, iv 228 ; in 1865 issues a proclamation in 
reply to President Brand's declaration of war, iv 230 ; for 



Synoptical Index. 343 

subsequent occurrences see War of 1865-6 ; after signing the 
treaty of Thaba Bosigo renews his efforts to obtain British 
protection, iv 279 ; instead of withdrawing his subjects, towards 
the end of 1866 sends strong parties of warriors into the ceded 
territory, iv 284 ; and lays up large stores of grain on strongly 
fortified mountains, iv 285 ; in March 1867 informs the high 
commissioner that he does not intend to surrender the ceded 
territory, ib. ; in July causes a letter of defiance to be written 
to the president, iv 289 ; as soon as the crops of 1867 are 
harvested denies all knowledge of the treaty of Thaba Bosigo 
and announces that he will not allow Europeans to settle on the 
ceded land, iv 288 ; in August 1867 sends a messenger to Natal 
to urge that he may be taken over and that his country may 
be joined to that colony, iv 295 ; object of his desire for British 
protection, v 56 ; in March 1868 becomes a British subject, 
iv 301 ; at this time is very feeble and irresolute, iv 314 ; on 
the 11th of March 1870 dies, v 58 ; further particulars con- 
cerning, v 58 and 59 ; has recently had a fictitious pedigree 
given to him 

MOSHETE : 

in 1871 succeeds Masisi as chief of the elder clan of the Barolong, 
ii 467 

Mossel Bay, Dutch reformed church at : 

in 1844 the first consistory commences dut} r , ii 249 

Mossel Bay, district in the Cape province: 
in March 1848 is created, Hi 70 

MOTHAGE, CHIEF OF THE BASIA TRIBE : 

mention of, i 430 

MOTHIBI, CHIEF OF THE BATLAPIN TRIBE : 

mention of, i 444 

HOTLOMI, CHIEF OF THE BaMONAHENG TRIBE : 

mention of, i 446 

Mount Coke mission station : 

in August 1825 is founded by the Wesleyan society, ii 6 

MOYAKISANI, CHIEF OF A PETTY CLAN OF THE BaSUTO TRIBE : 

on the 26th of December 1835 consents to become a British 
subject, but subsequently transfers his allegiance to Moshesh, 
ii 133 

Mozambique Company : 

particulars concerning, v 162 and 163 



344 History of South Africa. 

Mpezini : 

succeeds his father Swangendaba as chief of the Angoni tribe. 
v 138 

Mpofu, Bavenda chief : 

upon the occupation of the Zoutpansberg district by the emigrant 
farmers gathers a number of Bantu refugees there, iv 475 ; 
upon his death two of his sons right for the chieftainship, when 
the one — Ramapulana — favoured by Commandant- General Potgieter 
is successful, ib. 

Mpololo : 

succeeds Sekeletu as chief of the Makololo, v 92 

Mtshalela, chief of a petty Tembu clan : 

in 1828 moves from the Umtata to the country north of the 
Winterberg, ii 7 ; quarrels with Makoma's people south of the 
mountain, ii 8 ; in January 1S29 is attacked by Makoma and 
driven into the Cape Colony, where his cattle are captured by 
his pursuers, ib. 

Municipal boards in Natal : 

in March 1847 an ordinance is passed for creating, Hi 266 ; but 
in December 1853 it ceases to be in force, Hi 267 ; in April 
1854 another ordinance to the same effect is passed, ib. 

Municipalities : 

in September 1836 an ordinance is passed to allow towns and 
villages in the Cape Colony to elect municipal councils, ii 166 

Murray, Rev. Andrew : 

in July 1822 arrives from Scotland, and is appointed clergyman of 
Graaff-Reinet, i 370 ; at the end of 1847 goes on a mission to 
the emigrants north of the Orange, Hi 296 

Murray, Rev. Andrew (son of the above) : 

in March 1848 is appointed first clergyman of Bloemfontein, Hi 
298 ; in 1853 is sent to England by the loyalists in the Orange 
River Sovereignty to protest against their abandonment, Hi 353 

Murray, Captain Arthur Stormont, of the rifle brigade : 

on the 29th of August 1848 is killed in the battle of Boomplaats 
Hi 289 

Murray, Sir George : 

from May 1828 to November 1830 is secretary of state for the 
colonies, i 489 

Murray, Henry : 

in 1845 bequeaths a sum of money to the orphan asylum in 



Synoptical Index. 345 

Capetown, i 287 and ii 22 ; and also to the South African 
college to establish scholarships, ii 21 

Murray, Rev. John : 

in May 1849 becomes the first resident clergyman of Burghersdorp, 
ii 247 

Mueraysburg, district fn tee Caee province : 

is named after the reverend Andrew Murray, senior, i 371 

Museum of natural histoey : 

in 1823 is established in Capetown, i 380 ; but is allowed to fall 
into decay, ib. 

Museum, the South African : 
in 1855 is founded, Hi 159 

Musgeave, Ma joe Benjamin D'Uf.ban : 

in January 1880 is appointed British resident at Okahandja, v 
119 ; in November 1880 is withdrawn and is stationed at 
Walfish Bay, v 122 

Musgeave, Advocate William : 

from the 16th of March to the IGth cf September 1839 acts as 
attorney-general of the Cape Colony, ii 215; on the 12th of 
October 1843 becomes second puisne judge, ib. ; on the 1st of 
February 1851 becomes first puisne judge in the supreme court 
of the Cape Colony, Hi 147 

Mutlny in October 1797 in English shifs of war on the Cape 
station : 
account of, i 42 et seq. ; note on, i 45 

Mutual life assurance society : 

in 1845 is established in Capetown, ii 242 

Mutual protection association of King- Willi amstown : 
account of, iv 79 



Namaqualand, district in the Cape province : 
in August 1855 is created, Hi 148 

Namaqualand mining company : 
formation of the, Hi 87 

Namaquas, Hottentots in Great Namaqualand : 

for many years carry on war with the Hereros, till they are 
forced to conclude peace, but in 1880 renew the war, v 121 ; 
see Jonker Afrikaner and Jan Jonker 



346 History of South Africa. 

Napier, Ma joe,- General Sir Geoege Thomas : 

is a distinguished military officer, ii 173 ; on the 4th of November 
1837 receives a commission as governor of the Cape Colony, 
ii 171 ; on the 20th of January 1838 arrives in Capetown, and 
on the 22nd takes the oaths of office, ii 172 ; two months 
later leaves Capetown for the eastern frontier, ii 175 ; at this 
time is in full accord with the border policy of Lord Glenelg, 
ii 173 ; but with experience his views become greatly modified, 
ii 176 ; on the 19th of June he enters into a supplementary 
treaty with the Gunukwebe chiefs, ib. ; attempts unsuccessfully 
to remove the Fingos to the Zitzikama, ii 177 ; in October 
reaches Capetown again, ii 184 ; in November sends troops to 
occupy Port Natal, ii 384 ; but in December 1839 recalls them, 
ii 391 ; on the 6th of October 1840 again leaves Capetown to 
visit the eastern frontier, ii 186 ; where he obtains the consent 
of the Rarabe chiefs to various modifications of the Stockenstrom 
treaties, ii 187 ; in Januaiy 1841 sends a military force to the 
Umgazi river to protect the Pondo chief Faku, ii 412 ; on the 
2nd of December 1841 issues a proclamation announcing his 
intention of reoccupying Port Natal, ii 415 ; which he carries 
into effect by sending on the troops at the Umgazi, ib. ; on 
the 12th of May 1843 issues a proclamation that Natal is a 
British colon}', ii 444 ; in 1843 concludes treaties of alliance 
with Adam Kok and Moshesh, ii 482 ; which cause great 
difficulties in the territor}' north of the Orange river, ii 483 ; 
on the 18th of March 1844 is succeeded as governor by Sir 
Peregrine Maitland, ii 232 ; on the 1st of April sails for England, 
ib. ; and on the 8th of September 1855 dies at Geneva, ib. 

Napier, Lieutenant-Colonel Edward H. D. E. : 

in September 1846 arrives in South Africa as a supernumerary 
officer, Hi 29 

Napier, Dutch reformed church at : 

in February 1848 the first consistory commences duty, ii 219 

Napier, village est the Cape province : 
in 1838 is founded, ii 218 

Napoleon Bonaparte : 

on the 15th of October 1815 arrives at St. Helena as a prisoner, 
and on the 5th of May 1821 dies there, i 302 

Napoleon t French privateer: 

in December 1805 is run ashore near Hout Bay to avoid capture, 
i 191 



Synoptical Index. 347 

Naras, edible fruit : 

abounds at Walfish Bay, v 108 and 109 

Natal : 

after 1570 is occupied by the Abambo horde of Bantu, % 458 ; 
between 1820 and 1824 is laid waste by the Zulu wars, and its 
inhabitants are either exterminated or driven away, i 448 ; 
various geographical significations of the name, ii 321 ; descrip- 
tion of the territory now so called, ii 322 ; in 1824 with 
Tshaka's consent a few Englishmen settle at the port and find 
that the country has been almost depopulated by the Zulu 
wars, ii 327 ; concealed in thickets at Port Natal were a 
famished remnant of a Bantu tribe who called themselves 
Amatuli, ib. ; these immediately attach themselves to the 
Europeans as dependents, ii 328 ; on the 27th of August 1824 
part of the territory is proclaimed by JMr. Farewell a British 
possession, but the act is unauthorised, ib. ; European population 
in 1835, ii 344 ; fifteen of them sign a petition to the secretary 
of state asking for recognition as a British colony and for a 
representative government, ib. ; names of the European residents, 
ii 345 ; Bantu population in 1835, ib. ; in November 1837 the 
territory is occupied by emigrant formers from the Cape Colony, 
ii 356 ; who establish a republic there, ii 378 ; mission stations 
in 1837, ii 349; on the 4th of December 1838 the port is 
occupied by a military force sent from the Cape Colony, ii 
385 ; on the 24th of December 1839 the troops are withdrawn, 
ii 391 ; boundaries of the republic, ii 398 ; magisterial and 
ecclesiastical divisions, ib. ; privileges of burghers, ib. ; sources 
of revenue, ii 399 ; particulars of the civil list, ib. ; constitution 
and power of the volksraad, ii 400 ; excessive weakness of the 
government, ib. ; relation to the emigrants west of the Drakens- 
berg, ii 401 ; the British government declines to acknowledge 
the independence of the republic, ii 403 ; and in 1842 the 
territory is taken in possession by English troops, ii 418 ; the 
northern boundary is defined on the 5th of October 1843 as the 
Buffalo and Tugela rivers, ii 454 ; the Umzimkulu river is 
chosen by Sir Peregrine Maitland as its south-western boundary, 
ii 457 ; number of European inhabitants at the close of 1843, 
ii 452 ; number of Bantu inhabitants at this time, ii 456 ; in 
May 1844 the imperial authorities decide that the country is to 
be annexed in a loose manner to the Cape Colony, ii 459 ; on 
the 21st of August 1845 boundaries are defined in a proclamation 
by Sir Peregrine Maitland, ii 460 ; on the 22nd of November 
an executive council is appointed, ii 462 ; and on the 4th of 
December 1845 a staff of British officials arrive, and a colonial 



348 History of South Africa. 

government is established, ib. ; value of imports in 1845, and 
of exports, ib. ; shipping returns for 1845, ib. ; condition of the 
district in 1845, in 228 ; European population in 1845, iii 249 ; 
difficulties of the land question, ib. ; in 1847 the first sugar 
cane plants are received from Mauritius by Mr. E. Moreland, 
iii 260 ; impossibility of obtaining constant or reliable Bantu 
labourers, iii 260 and 261 ; arrangements made by Sir Harry 
Smith regarding the grant of farms, iii 253 and 254 ; estimate 
of the European population at the close of 1856, iii 257 ; 

area of the colony in 1866, iv 166 ; and in 1907, ib. ; 

attempts to obtain British immigrants, iv 156 et seq. ; 

banking institutions, iv 171 ; 

Bantu, different policy pursued towards these people from that in 
the Cape Colony, iii 247 ; 

Bantu, great influx of until 1860, iii 247; 

Bantu locations, iv 167 ; 

coffee planting, iv 163 ; 

commercial crisis of 1865, iv 171 ; 

construction of a line of telegraph, iv 172 ; 

cotton growing, iv 163 ; 

courts of justice, iv 165; 

customs duties, iv 161 ; 

definition of the new boundary, iv 166 ; 

ecclesiastical strife, iv 172 and 173 ; 

erection of a lighthouse on the Bluff, iv 162 ; 

exports from 1857 to 1872, iv 176 and 177 ; 

extension of the colony to the Umtamvuna river, iv 165 ; 

flood of August 1868, iv 162; 

friction between Lieutenant-Governor Keate and the legislative 
council, iv 169 and 170 ; 

harbour works, iv 162 ; 

hut tax paid by the Bantu, iii 218 ; 

immigration of Europeans, iii 254 et seq. ; 

imports from 1857 to 1872, iv 175 ; 

introduction of Indians, iv 159 

labour tax, iii 218 ; 

list of the heads of government from 1857 to 1872, iv 155; 

magisterial divisions, iii 263 ; 

outbreak of redwater among cattle in 1871, iv 164; 

particulars concerning the Bantu in, iv 166 et seq. ; 

physical features of, iii 258 ; 

population in 1872, iv 174 ; 

production of wheat, maize, &c. ; iv 164 ; 

publio debt in 1872, iv 175 ; 



Synoptical Index. 349 

railway, the first, iv 162 ; 

representative government, petitions in favour of, Hi 267 ; in July 

1856 a charter is issued raising the district to the rank of a 

separate colony and creating a legislative council of twelve 

elected and four official members, Hi 268 ; 
revenue, iv 175 ; 
schools, iv 164 ; 
sugar planting, iv 163 ; 
supplementary charter of 1872, iv 170 ; 
trade with the diamond fields, iv 172 ; 
volunteers in 1872, iv 175 ; 
western boundary, in 1862 is fixed by the high commissioner, 

iv 67 

Natal bank : 

in April 1854 is established, in 263 

Natal fire assurance and trust company • 
in April 1849 is established, in 262 

Natal land and colonisation company : 
particulars concerning, iv 156 

Natal Mercury, the : 

in 1852 is first published at Durban, in 2G2 

Natal Society, the : 
account of, Hi 262 

Natal Witness, the : 

in 1846 is first published at Maritzburg, Hi 262 

Nationals of Graaff-Reinet : 

after the conquest of the Cape Colony by the British in 1795 
oppose the government until August 1796, when the majority 
of them submit, i 17 ; and in January 1797 the others cease 
open resistance, i 19 

Ncapayi : 

with a remnant of the Baca tribe is driven from Natal by the 
wars of Tshaka, and takes refuge in the valley of the Umzim- 
vubu, where he becomes a freebooter, ii 406 ; in November 
1836 he attacks the Tembus and takes immense herds of cattle 
from them, ib. ; in 1838 in alliance with the Pondo chief Faku 
sweeps the Tembu country of cattle, ib. ; in April 1840 makes 
war with Faku, ii 409 ; attacks the Hlangwenis under Nombewu, 
and kills that chief, ii 410 ; in December 1840 is attacked 
and defeated by a commando of emigrant farmers from Natal, 
ii 411 ; in July 1845 is killed in battle with the Pondos, and 



35° History of South Africa, 

is succeeded as chief of the Bacas by his son Makauia, ii 459 ; 
further particulars concerning, iv 63 

Ndamasi, eight hand son of Faku : 
particulars concerning, iv 62 

Ndlambe, son op the celebrated Xosa chief Rarabe : 

in 1797 opposes in arms the pretensions of his nephew Gaika, but 
is beaten, and is detained as a prisoner at his rival's kraal, 
i 38 ; in February 1799 makes his escape, and, being joined by 
many people, crosses the Fish river with them and takes posses- 
sion of the Zuurveld, i 57 ; is successful in a war that follows 
with the colonial government, and which is brought to a close 
early in 1803, i 98 ; in May 1803 in an interview with General 
Janssens expresses a desire for peace, but will not consent to 
return to Kaffirland, i 127 ; but in 1812 is driven out of the 
colony by a powerful commando, i 255 ; in 1817 is in a very 
depressed condition, i 324 ; in 1817 refuses to surrender colonial 
cattle seen in his kraals, i 328 ; but is compelled by a com- 
mando under Major Fraser to make restitution for recent 
robberies, ib. ; early in 1818 by Dushane and Makana joining 
him becomes more powerful than Gaika, ib. ; in the winter of 
1818 defeats Gaika in a great battle on the Kommetje flats, 
i 334 ; in December 1818 is attacked by a commando under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Brereton, i 335 ; when his people take refuge 
in dense thickets and thus escape destruction, ib. ; as soon as 
the commando retires he falls again upon Gaika and compels 
that chief to flee westward, ib. ; in August 1819 is broken in 
power by a force of Europeans, i 339 ; in January 1824 is 
treated by the government as an independent chief, when the 
former policy of supporting Gaika is entirely abandoned, ii 6 ; 
in February 1828 dies near Mount Coke, ii 50 

Ndongeni, a Zulu : 

assists Richard King in his famous ride from Durban to Grahams- 
town, ii 424 

Ndwandwe tribe : 

account of the destruction of by the Zulus under Tshaka, ii 330 

Neave, Joseph : 

in 1820 brings a party of settlers to the Cape Colony, and is 
located on the river Zonder End, i 353 ; subsequent movements 
of the party, i 355 

Need's camp : 

in April 1847 is formed on the western bank of the Buffalo river, 
but is only occupied a few months, Hi 45 



Synoptical Index. 351 

Neethling, Jan Henoch : 

in October 1803 is appointed a member of the high court of 
justice of the Cape Colony, i 181 

Neethling and Louw, Rev. Messes. : 

in 1853 at the instance of the Cape synod visit the South African 
Republic, Hi 420 

Negkoes : 

after the liberation from apprenticeship on the 1st of December 

1838 lead very indolent lives in the Cape Colony, ii 191 ; in 

1839 suffer very severely from measles, ii 192 ; and in 1840 
from small-pox, ib. 

Nehemiah, son of the Basuto chief Moshesh : 

in 1857 is sent by his father to the Koesberg to suppress stock- 
lifting, Hi 468 ; in 1858 with a few followers moves into 
Nomansland in order to defeat Sir George Grey's plan of locating 
Jan Letele and Lehana there, iv 180 ; proceedings of in 
Nomansland (now Griqualand East), iv 65, 67, and 68 ; engages 
in hostilities with the Pondomsis in Nomansland, iv 192 ; 
endeavours, though in vain, to procure Sir George Grey's recog- 
nition of his ownership of the district in which he is living, 
iv 193 ; endeavours to obtain from Sir Philip Wodehouse 
recognition of his ownership of part of Nomansland, but in 
vain, iv 196 and 201 ; gives a great deal of trouble to Adam 
Kok's Griquas after their settlement in Nomansland, iv 196 ; 
but in 1865 is defeated by them and driven back into Basuto- 
land, ib. 

Nel, Commandant Wdllem : 

in 1815 aids the government against the insurgent farmers, i 294 

Neptune, convict ship : 

particulars concerning, Hi 15, 79, and 82 

Nereide, frigate : 

heroic defence of the, i 242 

van der Nest, Cornelis : 

in September 1822 makes a raid upon Makoma's kraal, i 384 ; 
in November 1824 assists in another expedition against Makoma, 
ii 1 

New Barbien, Rhenish mission station in Hereroland : 

in 1866 is plundered, v 99 ; on the 10th of November 1880 is 
attacked by the Hottentots, who are driven back on the follow- 
ing day, v 122 



35 2 History of South Africa. 

Newcastle, duke of: 

from the 28th of December 1852 to the 10th of June 1854 is 
secretary of state for the colonies, in 134 ; on the 18th of 
June 1859 again takes the same office, Hi 184 

New Geldeeland, in Natal : 

account of the settlement of, iv 158 

Newlands house : 

is built by Lord Charles Somerset, i 411 ; in March 1828 the 
estate is sold by public auction, i 496 

Newspapeks in Natal: 
account of, in 262 

Ngokweni, chief of a little band of Bantu 8 
flees from Tshaka to the Zambesi, v 137 

Ngubencuka : see Vusani 

Nolloth, Commander : 

surveys the coast of Namaqualand, Hi 86 

Nombati, Matabele induna : 

visits Capetown, and on the 3rd of March 1836 concludes for 
Moselekatse a treaty with Sir Benjamin D'Urban ; from October 
1868 to January 1870 is regent of the Matabele tribe, v 6 ; 
is a friend of Europeans, ib. 

Nombewu, chief of a remnant of the Hlangwent tribe : 

some time between 1818 and 1823 is driven southward by Tshaka, 
and in his flight falls upon and routs the Bacas where Maritz- 
burg now stands, ii 410 ; with his people wanders about Kaffir- 
land, but is at length killed by the Bacas of Ncapayi, ib. 

None, chief of a Baputi clan : 

in 1824 is driven by Moshesh from Thaba Bosigo, * 462 

Nonesi, daughter of the Pondo chief Faku : 

is great wife of the Tembu chief Vusani, but has no children, 
consequently adopts Umtirara, the son of a wife of lower rank, 
ii 104 ; in the war of 1850-52 between many of the Tembu 
clans and the Cape Colony is neutral, Hi 101 ; at the close 
of the war she is invited to occupy Glen Grey, Hi 113 ; further 
particulars concerning, iv 50, 51, 52, and 55 

Nongalaza, Zulu induna : 

is in charge under Dingana of the district along the northern bank 
of the Tugela, ii 348 ; aids Panda against his brother Dingana, 
ii 391 ; on the 30th of January 1840 commands Panda's army 
in the great battle in which the power of Dingana is destroyed, 
ii 395 ; in 1843 is murdered by Panda's order, ii 396 



Synoptical Index. 353 

NONGQAUSE, PROFESSED XOSA PROPHETESS : 

particulars concerning, Hi 198 et seq. 

NONIBE, GREAT WIDOW OF TEE XOSA CHIEF DUSHANE : 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 professes friendship to the Cape 
Colony on account of her son Siwani being a minor, ii 111 ; 
in the war of 1846-7 shows herself hostile to the colony, Hi 8 

NONKOSI, THE UmPONGO PROPHETESS : 

particulars concerning, Hi 200 

NOOITGEDACHT, CONFERENCE OF : 

is held in August 1870 between a commission from the Orange 
Free State and one from the Griqua captain Nicholas Water boer, 
iv 340 to 343 ; also between commissions from the Orange 
Free State and the South African Republic, iv 343 

NORMANBY, MARQUESS OF : 

on the 20th of February 1839 becomes secretary of state for the 
colonies, ii 181 ; on the 3rd of September in the same year 
is succeeded by Lord John Russell, ii 183 

Northern border magistrate : 

in 1868 is first appointed, iv 97 

Northern border police in the Cape Colony: 
in 1868 is first enrolled, iv 97 

Northumberland, the : 

on the 25th of August 1838 is wrecked near Cape Agulhas, ii 244 

Norwegian mission : 

in 1843 is commenced in Zululand, iv 457 

Ntsikana, early Christian Xosa: 
account of, i 331 

Nxele, Xosa seer : see Makana 

Nyaude : 

in 1844 revolts against Portuguese rule and establishes himself 
as a freebooter on the Zambesi, v 164 

Nylstroom, village in the South African Republic : 

in March 1866 becomes the residence of the landdrost of the new 
district of Waterberg, iv 499 



Oath of allegiance to the king of England required to be 
taken by the officials and burghers in 1795 : 
form of, * 5 
VOL. v. 2 A 



354 History of South Africa. 

Oba, alias Ngonyama, son of the Xosa chief Tyali: 

particulars concerning his clan, ii 4 ; in the war of 1850-52 he 
takes part against the Cape Colony, Hi 100 ; on the 9th of 
March 1853 agrees to the terms of peace imposed upon him, 
Hi 114 ; in 1856 declines at first to kill his cattle at the 
bidding of Umhlakaza, in 200; career of after 1857, Hi 211; 
further mention of, iv 52 

Oberholster, Michiel : 

is head of a party of emigrants north of the Orange river favour- 
able to British rule, ii 479 ; during 1844 is treated with great 
disfavour by the republican party, ii 487 

Observatory, astronomical : 

in 1821 is established near Capetown by the commissioners of the 
admiralty, i 365 

Ogle, Henry : 

in 1824 accompanies Mr. Farewell to Natal, ii 326 ; after Mr. 
Farewell's death in September 1829 becomes chief of a party 
of Bantu, ii 340 ; in April 1838 takes part in an attack 
upon the Zulus, ii 369 ; in 1841-2 acts as a medium of com- 
munication between the English residents at Durban and the British 
military post on the Umgazi, ii 416 ; in June 1842 with other 
Englishmen is sent a prisoner to Maritzburg by Commandant- 
General Pretorius, ii 426 ; but on the 15th of July is released, 
ii 439 ; in October 1843 accompanies Commissioner Cloete to 
Zululand, ii 454 

Ohrig, George Gerhard, of the firm of Klyn & Co., of Amster- 
dam: 
publishes a pamphlet termed The Emigrants at Port Natal, ii 419 ; 
sends out a vessel named the Brazilia to trade with the 
emigrant farmers at Natal, ib. 

Ohrig stad, village in the South African Republic : 

in 1845 is founded, but the site proves so unhealthy that it is 
soon abandoned by most of its inhabitants, ii 504 ; though 
for some time afterwards it is regarded as the seat of govern- 
ment of the adherents of Chief-Commandant Potgieter, ii 505. 
The first volksraad of the section of the emigrant farmers that 
moved from the Mooi river to this part of the country was 
elected on the 1st of August 1845, and consisted of eight 
members, besides a secretary. The village was at first called 
Andries-Ohrigstad, but Andries soon fell into disuse. It has 
recently been occupied again 

OitoruM : 

in 1859 first attacks the vines in the Cape Colony, Hi 176 



I 



Synoptical Index, 355 

Old Somerset hospital in Capetown: 
in 1817 is founded, i 365 

Oliphant, Anthony : 

on the establishment of the supreme court of the Cape Colony in 
the beginning of 1828 becomes attorney-general, i 491 ; is 
appointed chief justice of Ceylon, and on the 16th of March 
1839 leaves South Africa, ii 215 

Olive : 

particulars concerning attempts to cultivate the tree at the Cape, 
i 172 

Omtjkaru : 

decisive battle in 1868 between the Hereros and Hottentots at, 
v 102 

Orange Free State : 

on the abandonment of the Sovereignty by Great Britain in 1854 
the territory handed over to the provisional administration com- 
prises only the ground actually occupied by Europeans and the 
waste lands enclosed by the Orange and Vaal rivers and the 
Kathlamba mountains, Hi 442 ; in 1854 is inhabited by only 
fifteen thousand Europeans, ib. ; is chiefly adapted for pastoral 
purposes, ib. ; in October 1859 obtains the district of Bethulie 
by cession from the chief Lepui, iv 184 ; in December 1861 
obtains the district of Philippolis by purchase from the Griqua 
captain Adam Kok, iv 197 ; ecclesiastical statistics in 1864, 
iv 215 ; condition of after the treaty of Thaba Bosigo, iv 275 ; 
law adopted in May 1866 for the government of Molapo's clan, 
iv 276 ; measures adopted with regard to the territory acquired 
by the treaty of Thaba Bosigo, ib. ; creation of paper money, 
iv 277 ; financial position in 1868, iv 303 ; in February 1869 
has its south-eastern boundary defined by the second treaty 
of Aliwal North, iv 320; in February 1870 has its north- 
eastern boundary defined by Lieutenant-Governor Keate, of 
Natal, iv 498 ; in October 1871 loses a large extent of territory 
by the annexation of the diamond-fields to the British dominions, 
iv 372 

Orange River : 

description of the stream and islands near Olivenhout drift, i 102 
and ii 25 ; from the junction of the Stormberg spruit to 
longitude 24° 20' in 1824 is made the north-eastern boundary 
of the Cape Colony, i 394 ; in December 1847 it is proclaimed 
the northern boundary of the Cape Colony from the Kraai 
tributary to the Atlantic ocean, Hi 56 



356 History of South Africa, 

Orange River Sovereignty : 

on the 3rd of February 1848 is created by a proclamation of Sir 
Harry Smith, iii 217 ; on the 8th of March a form of govern- 
ment is proclaimed, iii 278 ; foundation of churches, iii 297 ; 
on the 14th of March 1849 regulations for its government are 
proclaimed, iii 298 ; revenue, iii 309 and 310 ; after the defeat 
of Major Warden by the Basuto on the 30th of June 1851 the 
country is hi a condition of utter anarchy, iii 321 ; particulars 
concerning the European inhabitants, iii 327, 332, 349, and 
362 ; on the 23rd of February 1854 ceases to exist, iii 364 

O'Reilly, Anthony Alexander, landdrost of Wakkerstroom : 

in April to June 1871 is a member of the arbitration court at 
Bloemhof, on behalf of the South African Republic, v 40 

O'Reilly, James : 

on the 22nd of March 1848 is appointed civil commissioner and 

resident magistrate of the Caledon River district in the Orange 

River Sovereignty, iii 279 

Orpen, Francis : 

in October 1871 is appointed civil commissioner and resident 
magistrate of the district of Griquatown, iv 373 

Orpen, Joseph Millerd : 

in March and April 185.4 as a member of the volksraad takes a 
leading part in framing the constitution of the Orange Free 
State, iii 450 ; in July 1854 is appointed landdrost of the united 
districts of Winburg and Harrismith, ib. ; visits Moshcsh as a 
special commissioner of the Orange Free State, iii 451 ; visits 
Moshesh again as special commissioner, iii 453 ; in 1856 expels 
Witsi's robber clan from Harrismith, iii 462 ; in October 1856 
resigns as landdrost, iii 467 ; in January 1862 acts as a peace- 
maker between the Free Stale and Moshesh, iv 198 ; in February 
1862 with Mr. John Burnet visits Moshesh to obtain information 
for the high commissioner, iv 200 

Orphan asylum, South African: 

in 1808 is founded in Capetown by the widow Moller, i 286 ; 
in July 1811 receives a donation of five thousand rixdollars 
from the earl of Caledon, ib. ; on the 26th of September 
1815 is formally opened, ib. ; is managed by a board of mixed 
Lutherans and members of the Dutch reformed church, ib. ; 
in 1845 receives a bequest of £3,300 from Mr. Henry Murray, 
* 287 

Orphan chamber for the administration of estates : 

in 1834 is abolished, and the duty is transferred to the master 
of the supreme court, ii 45 



Synoptical Index. 357 

OSTRICHES : 

are domesticated in the Cape Colony, iv 40 and 41 

Ota vis copper deposits : 
mention of, v 111 

Otjtmbingue, Rhenish mission station in Hereroland : 

description of, v 96 ; on the 17th of June 1863 is attacked by 
the Hottentots under Christian Afrikaner, v 97 ; in September 
1865 is attacked by the Hottentots under Jan Jonker Afrikaner, 
v 98 ; in December 1867 is again attacked by Jan Jonker 
Afrikaner, v 99 ; after which the chief Kamaherero removes to 
Okahandja, and the station for some time is almost deserted, 
v 100 

OUDTSHOORN, DISTRICT IN THE CAPE PROVINCE : 

in July 1855 is created, Hi 148 ; in October 1869 sustains much 
damage from heavy floods, iv 105 

OVAHERERO, BANTU TRIBE IN SOUTH- WESTERN APEICA 

mention of, i 460 and 486 ; see Hereros 

Ovambanderu : see Hereros 

Owen, Charles Mostyn : 

in 1847 is appointed superintendent of a division of the Kaffir 
police in the Cape Colony, Hi 58 ; is appointed assistant com- 
missioner, and in that capacity on the 27th of November 1851 
arrives at Bloemfontein with large powers to deal with affairs 
north of the Orange river in conjunction with Major W. S. 
Hogg, Hi 324 and 372 ; investigates matters in the Orange 
River Sovereignty, and ascertains the views of the people with 
regard to their future government, Hi 325 ; enters into corre- 
spondence with Mr. A. W. J. Pretorius, Hi 372 ; arranges with 
him for a conference on the 16th of January 1852, Hi 374 ; 
on the 17th of January 1852 concludes the Sand River conven- 
tion with delegates from the Transvaal emigrants, Hi 377 ; in 
February opens negotiations with Moshesh, Hi 328 ; but cannot 
bring that chief to do anything practical towards the restoration 
of peace, Hi 329 ; convenes a meeting of the people of the 
Orange River Sovereignty to consider the questiop of their 
future government, Hi 332 

Owen, Rev. Francis, of the church missionary society : 

in June 1837 arrives in Natal, and a little later goes to reside 
at Umkungunhlovu, ii 348 ; in November 1837 acts as Dingana's 
secretary in the arrangement with Pieter Retief, ii 355 ; at 
Dingana's request on the 4th of February 1838 draws up a deed 
of cession of Natal to the emigrant farmers, ii 359 ; on the 



358 History of South Africa. 

6th witnesses the massacre of Retiefs party, ii 362 ; a few 
days later leaves Zululand, ii 363 ; in May 1838 abandons 
Natal, ii 374 ; in 1840 with Mr. Wallace Hewetson as a lay 
assistant endeavours to establish a mission at Mosega with the 
Bahurutsi, but without success, and in April 1841 he returns to 
the Cape Colony 

Owen, Captain William Fitz William, of the royal navy: 

towards the close of 1822 visits Delagoa Bay on a survey- 
ing expedition, v 129 ; in March 1823 obtains from a Bantu 
chief a cession of land along the Tembe river, ib. ; and in 
August of the same year obtains from another chief a much 
larger cession, v 131 ; in October 1823 reports upon the con- 
dition of South-Eastern Africa, v 132 

OX- WAGGON : 

description of as a means of conveyance, ii 273 



Paael, district in the Cape province : 

in January 1839 is created, ii 228 ; in March 1848 is made a 
division, Hi 70 

Paael, town of : 

on the 9th of October 1840 becomes a municipality ; population 
in 1865, iv 42 

Pacaltsdorp, Hottentot reserve close to the town of George in 
the Cape province : 
in 1813 the London missionary society stations an agent at this 
place, i 270 

Pafuri, Bavenda chief in the South African Republic: 
account of, iv 476 

Paelngton, Sir John : 

on the 27th of February 1852 becomes secretary of state for the 
colonies, Hi 132 ; on the 24th of June 1852 approves of the 
Sand River convention, Hi 379 ; on the 28th of December 
1852 is succeeded by the duke of Newcastle, Hi 134 

Palgrave, William Coates : 

in May 1868 narrowly escapes being killed by Hottentots in Great 
Namaqualand, v 100 ; in 1876 is sent by the Cape government 
as a special commissioner to the Hereros and Namaquas, v 107 ; 
makes extensive investigations, v 108 to 112; in 1877 is sent 
again to Hereroland, v 113; and in February 1879 sends in a 
report of what he has done, v 114; in September and October 
1879 accompanies an expedition sent to relieve a party of dis- 



Synoptical Index. 359 

tressed farmers in Hereroland, v 118 ; in January 1880 he is 
appointed commissioner to the tribes north of the Orange river, 
v 120 ; on the outbreak of war among them in August 
1880 is recalled, v 122 ; in 1884 is sent for the fourth time 
on a mission to Hereroland and Great Namaqualand, v 124 

Palmee, Deputy-Commissary-General : 

in October 1846 is placed in charge of the frontier transport 
service, and speedily puts it on a good footing, Hi 28 

Palmer, Rev. Samuel, Wesleyan missionary at Morley: 

on the outbreak of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 takes refuge at 
Clarkebury, where in April 1835 he is rescued by a military 
patrol, ii 111 ; assists in the negotiations by which the war is 
brought to an end, ii 123 

Panda (correct spelling Mpande), one of the younger sons of 
Senzangakona : 
in September 1839 conspires against his brother Dingana, ii 391 ; 
with a large following crosses the Tugela into Natal and requests 
protection from Landdrost Roos, ii 392 ; on the 15th of October 
has an interview with the volksraad, when a tract of land is 
assigned to him for temporary use, ib. ; on the 26th of the 
same month is installed as " reigning prince of the emigrant 
Zulus " by a commission from the volksraad, ib. ; receives 
assistance from the emigrant farmers to attack his brother, ib. ; 
in January 1840 with his adherents and a burgher commando 
marches against Dingana, ib. ; in a great battle his forces are 
victorious, ii 395 ; on the 10th of February 1840 he is installed 
by Commandant-General Pretorius chief of the Zulus, but in 
vassalage to the volksraad of Natal, ii 396 ; on the 25th of 
July 1842 he causes a mission station on the Umhlatusi river 
to be attacked and the whole inhabitants of three kraals to 
be massacred, ii 400 ; declines to assist the English force against 
the emigrant farmers until tho latter are defeated, when he 
tenders his services, ii 437 ; early in 1843 puts his brother 
Xoxo to death, and commits such atrocities upon people whom 
he suspects of treasonable intentions that there is a great rush 
of fugitives into Natal, ii 446 ; on the 5th of Octobe^ 1843 
gives his consent to the Buffalo and Tugela rivers forming the 
north-eastern boundary of Natal, ii 454 ; on the same day cedes 
St. Lucia Bay to the queen of England, ii 455 ; and thereafter 
is treated by the British authorities as an independent chief, 
ib. ; in 1851 offers to assist the Cape Colony against the Xosas 
and Tembus, Hi 105 ; condition in 1860 of, in 240 ; he 



360 History of South Africa. 

encourages European traders in Zululand and permits missionaries 
to pursue their labours, iv 457 ; in August 1861 he cedes to 
the South African Republic a strip of land along the border 
of the district of Utrecht, iv 462 ; sends two hundred and forty 
head of cattle to buy the ground back again, iv 494 ; but the 
republic refuses to sell it, ib. ; further particulars concerning, 
iv 13 and 14; in 1872 dies, iv 178 

Pandouks : see Hottentot regiment 

Pansegrouw, J. G. : 

in the war of 1867-8 is in command of a division of the Free 
State forces which performs signal services, iv 290 ; on the 25th 
of September 1867 he takes Makwai's mountain by storm, iv 
291 ; on the 28th of January 1868 takes Tandjesberg by storm, 
iv 298 ; and on the 22nd of February 1868 makes himself 
master of the Kieme, iv 300 

Paper currency of the Cape Colony: 

particulars concerning, 1 2, 23, 112, 175, 176, 245, 372, and 401 ; 
in June 1825 the paper rixdollar is declared by the government 
to be only of the value of one shilling and sixpence, i 401 ; 
the paper in circulation is partly redeemed at that rate with 
British silver and copper coin, i 404 ; which occasions very 
heavy losses to many people, i 403 ; the residue is replaced 
by notes on which the value is marked in pounds, shillings, 
and pence, and which are declared redeemable by drafts on 
the imperial treasury, i 404 

Paper money of the Orange Free State : 

in April 1865 is created by the government to the amount of 
£30,000, as capital of the Bloemfontein bank, iv 216 ; in June 
1866 is created to the amount of £100,000, £43,000 of which is 
intended to cover war expenses and £57,000 to lend to im- 
poverished burghers, iv 277 

Paper money of the South African Republic : 

in June 1865 is created by the government to the amount of 
£10,500, iv 471 ; in February 1866 is created by the government 
to the amount of £12,000, iv 483 ; in May 1867 is created by 
the government to the amount of £20,000, iv 484 ; in 1868 is 
created by the government to the amount of £65,000, but out 
of this the previous issues are to be redeemed, iv 488 ; in June 
1870 another issue is authorised, bringing the whole amount in 
circulation up to £73,S26. The whole of this is to meet 
deficiency of revenue, iv 500 



Synoptical Index. 361 

Paris evangelical society : 

in 1829 commences mission work in South Africa, i 468 ; par- 
ticulars concerning, ii 464 and 502 ; iii 357 ; in February 
1866 the volksraad of the Orange Free State expels those 
missionaries of this society whose stations are in the territory 
overrun by the burgher forces, iv 265 ,• statistics of in 1865, 
iv 266 ; particulars concerning, iv 281 et seq. ; after the second 
treaty of Aliwal North the missionaries return to their labours 
in Basutcland, v 75 ; statistics of the operations of the society 
in Basutoland in 1872, v 79 and 80 

Parker, William : 

in 1820 brings a party of Irish settlers to the Cape Colony, % 351 
and 352 ; proceedings of, i 354 and 355 

Parliament of the Cape Colony: see Cape parliament 

Pato, chief of the Gunukwebe clan of the Xosa tribe : 

in 1812 succeeds his father Cungwa, i 255 ; and with his clan 
retires from the Zuurveld, ib. ; in the war of 1819 takes a 
very active part against the Cape Colony, i 337 ; in January 
1824 with his brothers Kobe and Kama concludes an agreement 
of friendship with the colonial government, ii 6 ; in 1827 is 
permitted to occupy the territory between the Keiskama and 
Beka rivers, ii 7 ; during the war of 1834-5 professes to be 
neutral, though many of his follov.crs are in arms against the 
Cape Colony, ii 98 ; on the 17th of September 1835 agrees 
to become a British subject, ii 126 ; on the 5th of December 
1836 is released from his allegiance and enters into a treaty 
with the British government, ii 150 ; on the 19th of June 
1838 enters into a supplementary treaty with Sir George Napier, 
ii 176; on the 29th of December 1840 agrees to certain modi- 
fications in these treaties, ii 187 ; on the 2nd of January 1845 
enters into a new treaty framed by Sir Peregrine Maitland, 
ii 259 ; in May 1846 takes part with the rest of his tribe 
against the Cape Colony. Hi 8 ; commits horrible cruelties upon 
some Fingos, Hi 9 ; continues hostilities after all the other 
chiefs west of the Kei have come to terms, but on the 19th of 
December 1847 is obliged to surrender to Colonel Somerset, 
Hi 53 ; on the 7th of January 1848 takes an oath of allegiance 
to the queen of England, and has ground assigned to him 
in British Kaffraria, Hi 61 ; in the war of 1850-52 aids the 
Cape Colony, Hi 100; in 1856-7 takes a leading part in the 
self-destruction of the Xosa tribe, Hi 199 ; career of from 1857 
until his death, Hi 213 



362 History of South Africa. 

Pearls : 

note on those found on the coast near the mouth of the Breede 
river, i 310 

Pears, Rev. John : 

in May 1829 becomes the first resident clergyman at Glen Lynden, 
ii 23 ; on the 2nd of April 1839 becomes the first resident 
clergyman of the Dutch reformed congregation in Albany, ii 216 

Peddie, district in the Cape province : 
in March 1848 is created, Hi 70 

Peddie, Lieutenant-Colonel JonN : 

on the outbreak of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 proceeds with his 
regiment from Capetown to the scene of hostilities, ii 94 ; in 
March 1835 commands one of the four divisions of the army 
which enters Kamrland, ii 102 

Pellissier, Rev. Jean Pierre, of the Paris evangelical society: 
in 1829 arrives in South Africa and proceeds to the station at 
Mosega, i 468 ; in 1830 is obliged by the advance of Moselekatse 
to abandon Mosega, and with his colleagues founds the station 
Motito, ib. ; in 1833 with some fugitives from the north moves 
to the northern bank of the Orange river and founds the 
mission station Bethulie, i 470 ; dealings with regard to the 
district of Bethulie, iv 183 and 184 

Pensioners' village in King-Williamstown : 

in 1855 is laid out and the construction of the cottages is com- 
menced, Hi 192 

Peppercorn, G. R. : 

on the 4th of November 1850 is appointed magistrate of the 
Impafana location in Natal, Hi 234 

Perceval, Dudley Montagu : 

in January 1828 becomes auditor-general of the Cape Colony and 
clerk of the council, t 494 

Periodical courts : 

in 1856 are established in the Cape Colony, Hi 1C0 

Persians in East Africa : 
mention of, i 460 

Peters, Dr. James : 

is a physician in the Grey hospital in King-Williamstown, Hi 191 

Philip, Rev. Dr. John, superintendent of the London society's 
missions in South Africa : 
particulars concerning the life and conduct of, * 500 et seq. ; 
character of his book Researches in South Africa, i 500 and 



Synoptical Index. 363 

608 ; he is prosecuted by a government official for libel, and is 
cast in heavy damages, i 508 ; but is regarded by the missionary 
party in England as a martyr, i 509 ; further particulars 
concerning, i 468 and 470 ; in 1826 he induces Adam Kok II 
to settle in the district of Philippolis, ii 475 ; shows determined 
opposition to the commando law of June 1833, ii 28 ; in 1834 
successfully opposes the passing of an ordinance against vagrancy, 
ii 80 ; in 1834 attempts unsuccessfully to procure the deposition 
of Cornells Kok as captain of Campbell, ii 475 ; during the 
Kaffir war of 1834-5 devotes all his energy to supporting the 
cause of the Xcsas, ii 118 ; disapproves of Sir Benjamin 
D'Urban's arrangements in 1835 with regard to the Xosas, ii 
136 ; takes Jan Tshatshu and Andries Stoffels to England as 
specimens of the result of mission work in South Africa, ii 137 ; 
gives evidence at great length before a committee of the house 
of commons, ib. ; makes a tour through England with Tshatshu 
and Stoffels, everywhere drawing adherents to his cause, ii 138 ; 
during the government of Sir George Napier possesses very great 
power in South Africa, ii 468 ; favours the creation of a belt 
of Bantu and Griqua states under missionary influence along 
the border of the Cape Colony, ii 469 ; urges the governor to 
enter into a treaty of alliance with the Basuto chief Moshesh, 
ib. ; in May 1846 is completely prostrated by the defection of 
Jan Tshatshu and the evil result of all his political plans, Hi 
64 ; shortly afterwards retires to Hankey, where he spends the 
remainder of his days in complete abstention from politics, ib. 

Philip, Rev. William, son of the above : 

on the 1st of July 1845 is drowned at Hankey, Hi 63 

Phillppolis, district in the Orange Free State : 

in December 1861 is purchased by the Free State from Adam 
Kok, iv 197 ; in April 1862 is placed under a landdrost, ib. 

Philippolis, village of : 

in 1823 is founded as a mission station of the London society, 
ii 474 

Philips & King, merchants in Capetown : 

in 1852 commence successful copper mining in Little Namaqualand, 
Hi 85 

PE(EJSix, the, coasting steamer : 

in December 1842 arrives in Table Bay from England, ii 227 

Piers, Major Henry : 

in January 1839 becomes the first resident magistrate of Paarl, 
ii 228 ; in March 1848 becomes resident magistrate of Tulbagh, 

Hi 70 



364 History of South Africa. 

PlETERMARITZBURG, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT OF NATAL : 

in October 1838 is founded, ii 378 ; in March 1848 becomes a 
municipality with the town lands greatly reduced in size, Hi 
266 ; but in December 1853 ceases to be one, Hi 267 ; in May 
1854 again becomes a municipality, under a new ordinance, ib. ; 
description of in 1872, iv 174 

PlET ROOY, CAPTAIN OF A KORANA CLAN : 

account of, iv 97 ; in 1869 is at war with the Cape Colony, iv 
98 ; in November 1869 is captured and sent to Capetown as a 
prisoner, iv 99 

Pigot, Major : 

is one of the early breeders of merino sheep in the district of 
Albany, ii 40 

PlKETBERG, DISTRICT IN THE CAPE PROVINCE: 

in March 1848 is created, in 70 

PlKETBERG, DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH AT : 

about the 17th of October 1833 the first consistory commences 
duty, ii 217 ; in 1840 the village is founded, ib. 

PiLKiNGTON, Woodford : 

in 1856 is appointed engineer in charge of the harbour works at 
East London, Hi 190 

Pillans, Charles Stuart : 

is one of the first unofficial members of the legislative council of 
the Cape Colony established in 1834, ii 48 

Pine, Benjamin C. C, Esqre. : 

from the 19th of April 1850 to the 3rd of Maroh 1855 is lieutenant- 
governor of Natal, Hi 228 

Pinetown, village in Natal : 
in 1850 is founded, Hi 203 

PlNNEY, F. B. : 

in March 1848 becomes resident magistrate of Simonstown, Hi 70 

PlRIE MISSION STATION ! 

in May 1830 is founded, it 99 ; is named after the reverend 
Alexander Pirie, one of the founders of the Glasgow missionary 
society, ii 131 

Plampin, Rear Admiral Slr Robert : 

from June 1817 to July 1820 commands on the Cape station, 
% 302 



Synoptical Index, 365 

Plasket, Sm Richard : 

in November 1824 becomes secretary to government in the Cape 
Colony, * 414 

Platberg mission station : 

in December 1833 is founded by the Wesleyan society near the 
Caledon river, i 481 

Pneel mission station : 

in 1849 is founded by the Berlin society for the benefit of the 
Koranas along the Vaal river, Hi 311 ; in February 1871 is 
made a separate district of the Orange Free State, iv 352 

POFADDER, CAPTAIN OF A KORANA CLAN : 

account of, iv 97 ; in 1869 aids the government forces against 
some other Korana captains on the northern border of the Cape 
Colony, iv 98 

PONDOLAND : 

in July 1828 is invaded by a Zulu army, which does much damage, 
i 454 

PONDO TRIBE : 

exterminates the Amakwabi under Qeto, i 451 ; particulars con- 
cerning, i 486, iv 62, 63, and 64 ; see Faku 

PONDOMSI TRIBE : 

account of, iv 62 and 63 ; see Umditshwa and Umhlonhlo 

Popham, Commodore Home : 

in 1805 is sent with a powerful fleet to convey an army from 
Ireland for the conquest of the Cape Colony, i 192 ; on the 
4th of January 1806 arrives in Table Bay, i 194 ; in April 
1806 with his whole squadron leaves the Cape to seize the 
Spanish settlements on the river La Plata, i 216 

Population or the Cape Colony : see Census returns 
Population of Natal : see Natal 

POOBTJE MISSION STATION : 

in 1862 is founded by the reverend Mr. Holland in Basutoland, 
iv 208 

Poet Alfred : 

in August 1860 receives its present name, iv 6 ; see Kowie river 
mouth 

Port Beaufort, at the mouth of the Breede river : 

in 1816 a coasting trade is commenced with Table Bay from, 
t 310 



366 History of South Africa. 

Port Elizabeth, district in the Cape province : 

on the 6th of February 1837 is created, ii 164 ; in March 1848 
is made a division, Hi 70 

Port Elizabeth, town of : 

in June 1820 is so named after the deceased wife of Sir Rufane 
Shawe Donkin. She was a daughter of Dean Markham, and 
granddaughter of Archbishop Markham of York. She died at 
Merut in India in August 1818, at the age of twenty-eight 
years, i 357 ; in February 1825 is provided with a resident 
magistrate, i 392 ; in July 1826 a custom house is established, 
ib. ; in February 1832 owing to retrenchment it is deprived for 
a time of its magistrate, ii 84 ; in 1834 contains twelve hundred 
residents, ib. ; by an order in council in April 1836 is made a 
free warehousing port, ii 164 ; position of in 1862, iv 27 ; 
population in 1865, iv 42 

Port Elizabeth bank : 

in 1847 is established, ii 242 

Porter, William: 

on the 16th of September 1839 becomes attorney-general of the 
Cape Colony, ii 215 ; in March 1848 draws up a plan of a 
constitution for the Cape Colony, in 119; in July of the same 
year drafts another constitution in accordance with the views 
of the executive council and the judges, Hi 120 ; when assisting 
in the preparation of the constitution suggests the division of 
the colony into two constituencies for the purpose of electing 
members of the legislative council, Hi 126 ; on the 20th of 
March 1866 retires from the office of attorney -general, iv 80 ; 
in 1871 frames the constitution amendment act, iv 126; in the 
same year is a member of the federation commission, iv 130; 
proceedings in the Cape parliament of, iv 137 and 145 ; declines 
to form a ministry under responsible government, iv 146 

Port Frances : 

in August 1866 is renamed Port Alfred, iv 6 ; see Kowie river 
mouth 

Port Nolloth, on the coast of Little Nam aqua land : 
in March 1855 Robbe Bay is so renamed, Hi 87 

Port Rex : see Buffalo river mouth 

Port St. John's : 

is situated at the mouth of the Umzimvubu river ; description of, 
ii 252 ; in October 1846 is opened to commerce, ib. 



Synoptical Index. 367 

Portuguese at Belagoa Bay : 

show great kindness to the first party of emigrant farmers in 
distress, ii 282 

Portuguese chartered fishing company : 

from 1824 to 1835 has a monopoly of the commerce of Delagoa 
Bay, v 137 

Portuguese South Africa : 

in June 1891 is defined in a treaty with Great Britain, v 160 ; 
condition of in 1899, v 167 

POSHULI, BROTHER OF THE BaSUTO CHIEF MoSHESH : 

is a notorious robber captain, ii 498 ; in 1845 is sent by Moshesh 
to reside at Vechtkop in the centre of a European settlement, 
ib. ; where he collects a band of worthless characters about him, 
ib. ; comes in conflict with the government of the Orange River 
Sovereignty, Hi 313 ; commits barbarous cruelties upon some 
Tembus, in 316 ; in February 1858 takes forcible possession of 
a farm in the Free State, Hi 470 ; after 1858 becomes patron 
of a band of Bushman marauders, iv 190 ; in January 1862 
makes a raid upon Jan Letele, and takes all his cattle, iv 
198 ; in May 1865 pillages farms along the lower Caledon, iv 
232 ; in June 1865 is a leader in the raid into the Smithfield 
district, ib. ; in May 1867 is received as a Free State subject, 
iv 287 ; on the 28th of January 1868 is killed in the storming 
of Tandjesberg, iv 298 

Postal arrangements : 

in 1798 the first post office in the Cape Colony is opened, but 
only for ocean mails, i 39 ; in 1805 an inland post is first 
established, i 180 ; improvements in the postal sj^stem are made 
by General Baird, i 215; rates of ocean postage in 1815, i 282; 
before 1834 the principal villages in the Cape Colony are con- 
nected by regular weekly posts ; from the beginning of 
January 1846 there are two weekly posts between Capetown 
and the eastern frontier, Hi 27 ; in January 1872 postal com- 
munication between Basutoland and the Cape Colony is estab- 
lished, v 76 

Postma, Rev. Mr. : 

in 1858 becomes clergyman of the Separatist reformed church at 
Rustenburg, iv 436 

Post Victoria : 

towards the close of 1844 is built at the head of the Sheshegu 
streamlet between the Keiskama and Fish rivers, ii 256 ; in 
April 1846 it is abandoned, in 11 



368 History of South Africa. 

POTCHEFSTROOM, DISTRICT IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC: 

boundaries in 1840, ii 402 

POTCHEFSTROOM, TOWN OF : 

in November 1838 is founded by the party of emigrants under 
Hendrik Potgieter, ii 375 

POTGIETER, ANDRIES HENDRIK : 

is head of the second large party of emigrants that in 1836 leaves 
the Cape Colony, ii 285 ; purchases from the Bataung chief 
Makwana all the land between the Vet and Vaal rivers except 
a small reserve, ii 286 ; with eleven others explores the country 
northward to the Zoutpansberg, ii 288 ; in October 1836 is 
attacked by a Matabele army at Vechtkop, and beats his 
assailants back, but loses all his cattle, ii 293 ; receives 
assistance which enables him to retire to Thaba Ntshu, ii 294 ; 
throughout his life shows gratitude to the Barolong people for 
services performed by some of them, ii 466 ; with the aid of 
Commandant Gerrit Maritz prepares to punish the Matabele, 
ii 300 ; on the 17th of January 1837 attacks them in the 
valley of Mosega, ii 302 ; defeats them and takes a good deal 
of spoil, with which he returns to Thaba Ntshu, ii 303 ; 
declines to work in harmony with Retief and Maritz, ii 308 ; 
removes to the Vet river and founds the village of Winburg, 
ii 303 ; quarrels with Maritz, ii 304 ; on account of the jealousy 
which is so rife among the emigrants sets up an independent 
government, ii 318 ; on November 1837 on the Marikwa attacks 
Moselekatse the second time, and compels him to abandon that 
part of the country and flee beyond the Limpopo, ii 320 ; then 
proclaims the territory which the Matabele have overrun for- 
feited to the emigrant farmers, ib. ; after the massacres in 
Natal hastens to the aid of his countrymen, ii 366 ; but declines 
to serve under Maritz, who is then the head of the emigrants 
in Natal, ii 369 ; in company with a body of men under 
Pieter Uys proceeds to attack Dingana, ii 370; on the 11th of 
April 1838 is defeated and compelled to retreat, ii 372 ; in 
May leaves Natal and recrosses the Drakensberg, ii 374 ; in 
November settles on the banks of the Mooi river, and founds 
the town of Potchcfstroom, ii 375 ; from this date until 
September 1840 his party has an independent government, ib. ; 
in July 1840 makes an effort to recover some white children 
whom Moselekatse holds as captives, but cannot find the Mata- 
bele, ii 401 ; in September 1840 enters into a loose kind of 
union with the republic of Natal, ib. ; after this date is styled 
chief commandant, ii 402 ; in May 1842 refuses to assist the 



Synoptical Index. 369 

repuolie of Natal against an English invading force, ii 421 ; 
early in 1844 visits Mr. Smellekamp at Delagoa Bay, ii 456 ; 
in December 1844 visits Philippolis, but is unable to induce 
Adam Kok to refrain from interfering with the emigrant farmers, 
ii 487 ; in 1845 settles at Zoutpansberg, ii 505 ; in 1846 
reduces the Bapedi tribe to submission, ib. ; in June 1847 con- 
ducts an unsuccessful expedition against the Matabele, ii 506 ; 
in September 1848 is offered by Sir Harry Smith the appoint- 
ment of landdrost of the district of Vaal River, but declines 
to accept it, Hi 293 ; in January 1851 under a new govern- 
mental arrangement is appointed by the volksraad commandant - 
general for Zoutpansberg, Rustenburg, and Potchefstroom, Hi 
375 ; is embittered against Mr. A. Pretorius, ib. ; but on the 
16th of March 1852 a reconciliation takes place, Hi 378 ; in 
August of this year conducts an expedition against the Bapedi 
under Sekwati, Hi 387 ; but before the cessation of hostilities 
his health fails and he is obliged to resign the command to 
Stephanus Schoeman, Hi 388 ; in March 1853 he dies, Hi 408 

POTGIETER, HERMANUS : 

in 1854 is leader of a hunting party, Hi 415 ; visits the kraal 
of Makapan to purchase ivory, ib. ; where he is murdered with 
twelve white men and ten women and children, Hi 417 

POTGIETER, PlETER G. : 

in 1853 after the death of his father is appointed commandant- 
general of Zoutpansberg, Hi 409 ; in 1854 leads a force against 
insurgent clans in the district of Zoutpansberg, Hi 418 ; and 
is killed when blockading a cavern, Hi 419 

Potgieter's Rust, village in the South African Republic : 
in 1870 is abandoned on account of fever, iv 491 

POTTINGER, STEAMSHIP : 

in 1847 makes the quickest passage then known from Europe to 
Table Bay, ii 254 

Pottinger, Sir Henry : 

on the 27th of January 1847 assumes duty as governor of the 
Cape Colony and high commissioner, in 40 ; has won for him- 
self great distinction in India and China, Hi 41 ; on the 10th 
of February leaves Capetown for the eastern frontier, Hi 42 ; 
where he remains during the whole of his short term of office, 
Hi 55 ; gives his reasons for not granting an interview to the 
delegates from Natal and Winburg, Hi 251 ; on the 1st of 
December 1847 is succeeded by Sir Harry Smith, Hi 55 ; leaves 
VOL. V, is 



370 History of South Africa. 

for Madras to fill the position of governor there, Hi 56 ; in 
1854 returns to England, and on the 18th of March 1856 dies 
at Malta, ib. 

Prazos south of the Zambesi : 

condition of in the middle of the nineteenth century, v 141 

Preiser's Piet BETIEF: 
reference to, ii 361 

Preneuse, French frigate : 

on the 20th of September 1799 attacks two English ships in Algoa 
Bay, but is beaten off, i 64 

Presbyteries of the Dutch reformed church in South Africa : 
constitution of, ii 222 

President of the Orange Free State : 

by the constitution of 1854 is elected by the burghers, from a 
list of candidates nominated by the volksraad, for a term of 
five years. There is nothing to prevent the same person holding 
the office more than one term. The president is the principal 
executive officer of the state, he superintends all public depart- 
ments and the carrying out of all business connected with the 
public service, but he is responsible to the volksraad, and his 
administrative acts are liable to be reviewed by that body. 
He is required to make a yearly report of the state of the 
country and of the public service to the volksraad, and must 
visit the district villages frequently, and make himself acquainted 
with the interests and wishes of the people. All appointments 
made by him are provisional and require the confirmation of 
the volksraad ; he can suspend public functionaries, but not 
deprive them of office ; with the consent of a majority of the 
executive council he can exercise the prerogative of mercy in 
criminal cases ; with the concurrence of the volksraad he can 
declare war, make peace, and conclude treaties. In 1856 an 
ordinance was passed, under which the burghers can vote for 
any person as president who receives a requisition signed by 
twenty-five qualified electors, provided such requisition with a 
reply accepting it are published in the Staats Courant four full 
weeks before the day of election. For original constitution see 
page 44 of Vol. Hi ; for amendment of 1856 see Vol. iv, 
page 182 

President of the South African Republic : 

by the constitution as amended in November 1871, is elected for 
a term of five years. He is the chief executive officer of the 
republic, but is responsible to the volksraad, whose resolutions 



Synoptical Index. 371 

he must obey. He must be over thirty years of age, a member 
of a Protestant church, and never convicted of a dishonourable 
offence. He need not be a burgher of the republic at the 
time of his election, but must have received requisitions signed 
by at least one hundred qualified voters, which requisitions 
must be published in the Staats Courant for one month before 
the day fixed for the election. The voting is by ballot. For 
amended constitution see Vol. iv, page 506, and powers of the 
president before 1871 see Vol. Hi, page 426 

Press ordinance of the Cape Colony: 
in April 1829 is issued, ii 15 

Peeston, Major W. R. : 

from the 1st of February to the 22nd of March 1853 acts as 
lieutenant-governor of Natal, Hi 228 

Peetoeia, district in the South African Republic : 
in 1855 is established, in 422 

Pretoria, town or : 

in 1855 is founded, in 422 ; by the treaty of April 1860 with 
Lydenburg becomes the seat of government of the South African 
Republic, iv 442 

Pretortus, Andries Wdllem Jacobus : 

in November 1838 arrives in Natal, and is immediately elected 
commandant-general of all the emigrants there, ii 379 ; without 
any delay collects a force and marches against Dingana, ii 380 ; 
on the 16th of December 1836 at the Blood river inflicts a 
crushing defeat upon the Zulu army, ii 3S1 ; in January 1840 
with a commando of four hundred burghers assists Panda against 
Dingana, ii 392 ; causes Tambusa, one of Dingana' s great indunas, 
to be put to death, ii 393 ; after the decisive battle in which 
Dingana' s power is destroyed, on the 10th of February 1840 
instals Panda as chief of the Zulus in vassalage to the volksraad 
of Natal, ii 396 ; on the 14th of February 1840 issues a pro- 
clamation taking possession of the territory northward to the 
Umvolosi river, ib. ; in December 1840 directs an attack 
upon the Bacas of Ncapayi, ii 411 ; on the 17th of May 
1842 is instructed by the volksraad to require the English 
forces that have recently arrived in Natal to leave within two 
days, and if they do not go to enforce the demand by war, 
ii 422 ; on the night of the 23rd of May defeats a detachment 
of the English troops sent to attack him, ii 423 ; on the 26th 
seizes the military stores landed on the Point, ii 425 ; on the 
31st invests the British camp, ib. ; on the 26th of June strong 



372 History of South, Africa. 

reinforcements reach the British camp and he is obliged to 
abandon Durban, ii 429 ; retires to Maritzburg, ii 438 ; where 
he exerts all his influence in favour of coming to terms with 
the English commander, ib. ; in July after the submission of 
the volksraad to the authority of the queen resigns the office 
of commandant-general, ii 440 ; in September 1847 is sent from 
Natal to Grahamstown by the farmers to implore relief from 
Sir Henry Pottinger, as they are being ruined by the constant 
influx of Bantu refugees who have locations assigned to them, 
Hi 250 ; but cannot even obtain an interview with the high 
commissioner, ib. ; he then publishes his grievances in the 
newspapers, ib. ; and when returning to Natal meets with very 
warm sympathy in all the districts he passes through, Hi 251 ; 
on his arrival in Natal finds his family in great distress, fleeing 
from their home on account of robberies by the blacks, ib. ; 
in January 1848 has an interview with Sir Harry Smith at the 
foot of the Drakensberg, Hi 276 ; by whom he is appointed 
member of a land commission, but does not act upon it, as 
he leaves Natal, Hi 253 ; in March removes to Magalisberg, 
Hi 278 ; is invited by the Winburg burghers to assist them to 
throw off the English government imposed upon them by Sir 
Harry Smith, Hi 280 ; is appointed commandant-general of the 
burghers along both banks of the Vaal, ib. ; on the 12th of 
July arrives at Winburg, Hi 281 ; on the 17th obliges Major 
Warden to capitulate at Bloemfontein, Hi 282 ; on the 29th 
of August is defeated by Sir Harry Smith in the battle of 
Boomplaats, Hi 289 ; in January 1851 under a new govern- 
mental arrangement is appointed by the volksraad commandant- 
general for Rustenburg and Potcheftroom, Hi 375 ; on the 
25th of August 1851 is invited by the republicans in the Orange 
River Sovereignty to take upon himself the office of adminis- 
trator-general, Hi 322 ; he announces to the British residont 
his intention of complying with the request, in 370 ; in 
December 1851 enters into correspondence with the assistant 
commissioners Hogg and Owen, Hi 372 ; after this several 
letters pass between them, the object of Mr. Pretorius being to 
obtain the recognition by the British government of the inde- 
pendence of the emigrants north of the Vaal, Hi 371 ; arranges 
with them for a conference on the lGth of January 1852, Hi 
374 ; with other delegates from the Transvaal emigrants on the 
17th of January 1852 concludes the Sand River convention 
with the assistant commissioners Hogg and Owen, Hi 378 ; is 
greatly embittered against Mr. A. H. Potgieter, Hi 375 ; but 
on the 16th of March 1852 a reconciliation takes place, Hi 378 * 



Synoptical Index. 373 

in May 1852 a public dinner in his honour is given in Durban, 
Natal, Hi 408 ; in June 1852 visits Bloenifontein, where he is 
received by the government with every mark of honour, in 
333 ; he enters into certain arrangements with the Barolong 
chief Montsiwa, Hi 383 ; on the 23rd of July 1853 dies, in 
408 ; on the 13th of May 1891 his remains are removed from 
the original grave, and are accorded a state funeral at Pretoria, 
Hi 409 

Pretoeius, Maeteintjs Wessel, son of the ABOVE : 

in August 1853 is appointed by the volksraad commandant-general 
of Rustenburg and Potchefstroom, in 409 ; in 1854 leads a 
force against insurgent clans in the district of Zoutpansberg, 
in 418 ; in January 1857 is appointed by the representative 
assembly president of the South African Republic, Hi 426 ; in 
February 1857 visits the Orange Free State in order to try to 
effect the union of that country with the South African Republic, 
in 430 ; is unsuccessful, and is ordered by the volksraad to 
leave Bloemfontein, Hi 431 ; in December 1859 is elected pre- 
sident of the Orange Free State, iv 1S6 ; in February 1860 
obtains six months' leave of absence from the South African 
Republic, iv 442 ; proceeds to Bloemfontein, and on the 8th 
of February 1860 takes the oath of office as president of the 
Orange Free State, iv 186 ; in May 1860 has a conference with 
Moshesh and comes to a friendly arrangement with him, iv 189 ; 
which, however, Moshesh does not carry out, iv 190 ; in 1860 
has an interview with Prince Alfred at Winburg, iv 4 ; in Sep- 
tember 1860 resigns as president of the South African Republic, 
iv 444 ; in April 1861 has another conference with Moshesh, 
iv 191 ; in May 1861 visits Panda, and obtains his approval of 
the cession of land made by Ketshwayo to the district of 
Utrecht, iv 461 ; in July 1862 visits Capetown to confer with 
the high commissioner on various subjects, iv 203 ; in November 
1862 acts as a mediator in the civil strife in the South African 
Republic, iv 447 ; in April 1863 resigns as president of the 
Orange Free State, iv 208 ; in January 1864 acts as mediator 
between Messrs. Kruger and Viljoen, iv 451 ; is elected president 
of the South African Republic, and on the 10th of May 1864 
assumes duty, iv 452 ; on the 26th of June 1865 issues a 
proclamation full of sympathy for the Free State, iv 238 ; 
five burghers of the South African Republic having been murdered 
by Basuto, on the 7th of August 1865 he demands from Moshesh 
the murderers and payment for the stolen property, with the 
alternative of war, iv 249 ; accompanies the force sent against 
the Basuto, iv 252 ; in November 1865 visits Zoutpansberg 



374 History of South Africa. 

and endeavours in vain to restore peace, iv 481 ; in 1866 causes 
the new Zulu border line to be altered in accordance with Panda's 
wishes, iv 494 ; after the abandonment of Schoemansdal in 
June 1867 makes a despairing appeal to the country for volun- 
teers to recover the lost ground, iv 486 ; sends messengers to 
Moselekatse and Matsheng to induce those chiefs to submit to 
the authority of the South African Republic, d 13; on the 
29th of April 1868 issues a proclamation extending the boun- 
daries of the republic, d 16; in July 1868 visits Zoutpansberg, 
and concludes a kind of peace, iv 489 ; in 1869 is reelected 
president of the South African Republic, iv 498 ; in June 1870 
grants to a company a concession of diamond digging north of 
the Vaal, and by so doing creates such opposition from the 
diggers that the government of the South African Republic is 
repudiated, iv 346 and 347 ; the government then cancels the 
concession, and the president seeks by very liberal offers to 
recover the goodwill of the diggers, but with only partial success, 
iv 347 to 349; on the 1st of March 1871 under Sir Henry 
Barkly's pressure signs deeds of submission referring the dis- 
putes with Waterboer and the Barolong and Batlapin chiefs to 
a court of arbitration, v 39 ; conducts the case of the South 
African Republic before the arbitration court at Bloemhof in 
April to June 1871 in a most imbecile manner, v 40 et seq. ; 
in November 1871 resigns the office of president on account of 
the hostility shown by the volksraad and the people upon the 
delivery of the Keate award, v 47 

Price, Rev. Roger : 

in 1859 proceeds to Linyanti as a missionary, loses his wife and 
child by death, and with great difficulty gets away, v 90 to 92 

Prince Albert, district in the Cape province : 
in August 1855 is created, Hi 148 

Prince Albert, Dutch reformed church at : 

in November 1842 the first consistory is appointed, ii 220 

Prince Albert, village or : 
in 1841 is founded, ii 220 

Prince Alfred : 

in 1860 visits South Africa for the first time, iv 2 ; makes a 
tour overland from Port Elizabeth to Durban, iv 2 to 5 ; on 
the 17th of September 1860 tilts the first load of stones in 
the great breakwater in Table Bay, iv 5 ; on the following 
day lays the foundation stone of the Sailors' Home in Cape- 
town and inaugurates the public library in its new building, ib. ; 



Synoptical Index. 375 

in 1867 visits South Africa the second time, iv 95 ; in 1868 
the third time, iv 111 ; and in 1870 the fourth time, ib. 

Prince, Collison & Co., of Capetown : 

carry on copper mining successfully in Little Namaqualand, Hi 87 

Pringle, Rear Admiral Thomas : 

in November 1796 assumes command of the fleet on the Cape 
station, i 24 ; in March 1798 is succeeded by Sir Hugh Christian, 
i 46 

Pringle, Thomas : 

in 1820 brings a party of Scotch settlers to the Cape Colony, 
who are located at Glen Lynden, i 352 ; particulars concerning 
his life in Capetown, i 421 

Pringle, W. Dodds : 

in the war of 1846-7 is commandant of the Somerset East burghers, 
Hi 23 

Prinsloo, Hendrik, son op Marthinus : 

is one of the leaders of the insurrection of 1815, i 293 ; at an 
early stage of the revolt is arrested and imprisoned at a military 
post, ib. ; is sentenced to death by a commission of the high 
court of justice, * 298 ; and on the 9th of March 1816 is 
executed at Van Aardt's post on the Fish river, i 299 

Prinsloo, Joachim, president of the volkseaad of Natal : 

in July 1842 is excepted from the general amnesty agreed to by 
Colonel Cloete, ii 439 ; a reward of £250 is offered for his 
apprehension by Sir George Napier, but no one molests him, 
ii 440 ; in January 1844 he dies of fever contracted at Delagoa 
Bay, ii 456 

Prinsloo, Marthinus : 

in February 1796 is elected head of the nationals of Graaff-Reinet, 
with the title of protector of the voice of the people, » 8 ; 
in January 1799 is the leader of a party of farmers who take 
up arms against the English authorities, i 51 ; in April sur- 
renders to the British troops, i 56 ; in September 1800 is put 
upon his trial, and is sentenced to death, i 73 ; the execution 
of the sentence is suspended by the governor, ib. ; and in March 
1803 he is released, i 119 ; takes no part in the Slachter's Nek 
rebellion, nevertheless in 1816 the lease of his farm at the 
Boschberg is cancelled, and he is required to remove to the 
district of Tulbagh or the district of Swellendam, i 300 ; with 
the others banished at the same time from the eastern frontier 
he retires to the Gouph, ib. 



376 History of South Africa. 

Printing press : 

introduction of the first into Capetown, i 78 and 117 ; particulars 
concerning the publication in South Africa of the first magazine 
and the first newspaper other than the Government Gazette, 
i 416 

Private fund of the orphan chamber in Capetown : 
particulars concerning, * 378 

Prize money awarded to the forces that conquered the Cape 
Colony : 
particulars concerning, i 210 

Prize negroes : 

after the suppression of the slave trade are brought into the Cape 
Colony by British cruisers, i 224 

Protecteur fire and life assurance company : 
in 1838 is founded in Capetown, ii 225 

Protest of the volksraad of the Orange Free State against 

THE ANNEXATION BY SlR HENRY BaRKLY OF THE DIAMOND- 
FIELDS SOUTH OF THE V.VAL TO THE BRITISH DOMINIONS, IV 

377 et seq. 

Province of Queen Adelaide : 

on the 10th of May 1835 is created by Sir Benjamin D'Urban, 
tt 114 ; nearly the whole of it is allotted to the Xosas, ii 134 ; 
on the 5th of December 1836 it is abandoned by the British 
government, ii 150 

Phudente, French frigate : 

in 1799 fails to convey aid to the nationals of Graaff-Reinet, 
i 64 ; on the 9th of February 1799 is captured by the 
Dcedalus, ib. 

Public buildings in the South African Republic : 
particulars concerning, iv 468 

Public debt of the Cape Colony: 
in 1835, ii 33; in 1870, iv 109 

Public debt of Natal in 1872, iv 175 

Public meetings for the discussion of political matters : 

on the 24th of May 1822 are prohibited by a proclamation of 
Lord Charles Somerset, i 375 

Purcell, William : 

on the 13th of July 1834 is murdered in the Galeka country, 
it 112 



Synoptical Index, 377 

Qeto, chief of the Amakwabi : 

career of, i 451 ; in 1828 is obliged to flee from Dirgana, and 
commits dreadful ravages south of the Unizimvubu, ii 336 ; in 
September 1829 murders Mr. Farewell and his companions, ii 
339 

Qeya : see Gangelizwe 

Queen's fort at Bloemfontein : 
in October 1848 is built, Hi 295 

Queen's eoad between Grahamstown and Fort Beaufort : 
is made during the government of Sir George Xapier, ii 198 

Queenstown, district in the Cape province : 

creation of, Hi 116; in 1856 is united to Victoria East as an 
electoral division, Hi 158 

Queenstown, village of: 

in 1853 is founded, Hi 116 

Quigley, Michael, a desebtee fro:.i the 45th eegdient : 

in July 1848 sends information to Mr. Biddulph, resident magis- 
trate of Winburg, of the movements of Mr. Pretorius, Hi 281 ; 
takes part in the battle of Eoomplaats against British troops, 
is afterwards captured, and is punished with death, Hi 291 

QUITRENT, PERPETUAL : 

in 1813 this system of land tenure is introduced in the Cape 
Colony, i 265 



Rademeyee, Commandant Jacobus Ignatius : 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 performs good service, ii 102 

Railways : 

in 1857 the parliament of the Cape Colony resolves to commence 
the construction of, Hi 163 ; on the 31st of March 1859 the 
first sod is turned by Sir George Grey of the line from Cape- 
town to Wellington, in 164 ; in May 1862 the line is opened 
from Capetown to Stellenbosch, iv 29; in March 1863 to Paarl, 
ib. ; in November 1863 to Wellington, ib. ; in December 1864 
the line from Capetown to Wynberg is opened, iv 11 and 29; 
particulars concerning the line from Port Xolloth to Ookiep, 
iv 104; in January 1872 a line from Port Elizabeth to 
Uitenhage is commenced by a company, iv 132 ; in 1874 it is 
purchased by the government and completed, ib. ; in January 
1873 the line from Capetown to Wellington is purchased by the 



37& History of South Africa. 

government, iv 144 ; in 1873 extensions are authorised from 
Wellington to Worcester and from the Zwartkops to the Bush- 
man's river, also a survey from East London to Queenstown, 
ib. ; further particulars concerning lines in the Cape province, 
iv 11, 28, and 29 ; particulars concerning the first constructed 
in Natal, iv 162 ; particulars concerning the line from Lourenco 
Marques to the border of the South African Republic, v 152 ; 
general extension of, ib. ; particulars concerning the line from 
Beira inland, v 161 and 162 

Ramanela, nephew and son-in-law of the Bastjto chief Moshesh : 
in November 1864 pillages some farms near Bethlehem, iv 223 ; 
on the 27th of December 1864 attacks a guard that has been 
stationed by President Brand on the border, but is driven back 
with a loss of one killed and five wounded, iv 225 ; in January 
1865 in a plundering excursion severely wounds two burghers, 
ib. ; in April 1865 pillages the farm of a widow in the Free 
State, and drives off thirty-five horses, iv 226 ; on the 25th 
of May 1865 is attacked by a burgher force, and falls back over 
the boundary with a design of drawing the commando into a 
trap, but is only pursued as far as the line, iv 227 ; on the 
27th of June 1865 murders five burghers of the South African 
Republic travelling through the Free State, iv 236 

Ramanela's eaid into Natal : 

on the 27th of June 1865 Ramanela and his followers make a 
raid into Natal, murder some people, and drive off a large 
number of cattle, iv 256 ; the Natal government sends all its 
available forces to the border, iv 257 ; Molapo for his father 
and himself promises redress, ib. ; Sir Philip Wodehouse calls 
upon Moshesh to make good the damage, ib. ; the great chief 
promises to do so, but does not keep his word, ib. ; on the 
26th of August the high commissioner makes a formal demand 
for ten thousand full-grown cattle, iv 259 ; in reply Moshesh 
offers to become a British subject, ib. ; the high commissioner 
then sends Mr. John Burnet to Thaba Bosigo to try to get 
the cattle demanded, ib. ; Mr. Burnet succeeds in obtaining 
rather over two thousand head, iv 261; after which there is 
some correspondence, but nothing more is ever paid, ib. 

Ramapulana, son of the Bavenda chief Mpofu, in the district 
of ZoutpansbeFvG : 
takes advantage of the civil strife in the South African Republio 
to make himself practically independent, iv 478 ; in 1864 
dies, ib. 



Synoptical Index. 379 

Rattlesnake, sloop of wae : 

on the 20th of September 1799 makes a gallant defence against 
a French frigate that attacks her in Algoa Bay, i 64 

Rattray, James : 

in July 1822 becomes teacher of the high school at Tulbagh, t 371 

von Raven, Captain : 

in August 1884 by order of the German emperor proclaims a 
German protectorate over the coast of Hereroland, v 125 

Raxoti (afterwards called Matanzima), Tembu chief : 
particulars concerning, iv 50 

Rawson, Rawson W. : 

on the 24th of May 1854 becomeB secretary to government in 
the Cape Colony, Hi 138 

Rawstorne, Fleetwood : 

in 1835 at the close of the sixth Kaffir war is appointed agent 
with some clans in the province of Queen Adelaide, ii 130 ; 
in February 1837 is appointed civil commissioner and resident 
magistrate of the new district of Colesberg, ii 164 ; on the 
1st of July 1845 is directed to act as a special magistrate at 
Philippolis until the appointment of a British resident in the 
territory between the Orange and Modder rivers, ii 494 

Read, Rev. James, of the London missionary society : 

is one of the founders of the station Bethelsdorp, near Port 
Elizabeth, i 123 ; is the author of the charges against colonists 
that led to the so-called black circuit, i 260 ; in 1829 settles 
as a missionary at the Kat river, ii 10 ; during the war of 
1834-5 is prevented by the government from visiting the 
Hottentots of the Kat river settlement, ii 97 ; on the 8th of 
May 1852 dies, Hi 101 

Rebellion of the Griquas, Koranas, and Betshtjana in Griqua- 
land West ln 1878 : 
account of, iv 424 to 432 

Recorder's court of Natal : 

on the 16th of October 1845 is established, ii 461 ; constitution 
and powers of, ib. 

Reddersburg, village ln the Orange Free State : 
in Februarv 1861 is founded, iv 438 

Reduction of the garrison of the Cape Colony : 
particulars concerning, iv 87, 91, 92, and 148 



380 History of South Africa. 

Redavater : 

in 1871 causes great destruction of cattle in Natal, iv 164 

van Reenen, Jan Gysbert : 

in 1805 has a large flock of woolled sheep and is the chief horse- 
breeder in the Cape Colony, * 167 

van • Reenen, Sebastiaan Valentyn : 

in 1803 receives the appointment of collector of land revenue, 
i 119 

Reeve, Captain Frederick : 

in 1855 is appointed magistrate with the Gunukwebe chief Kama, 
Hi 190 

Regiments, British, that have served in South Africa : see 
Garrison 

Registered farms in Natal : 

particulars concerning, Hi 253 and 254 

Rehoboth, Rhenish mission station in Hereroland : 
in 1865 is plundered and destroyed, v 99 

Reid, Joseph : 

in August 1823 becomes teacher of the high school at Paarl, 
» 372 

Reid, Rev. Thomas : 

in March 1836 becomes the first resident clergyman of Colesberg, 

i 405 

Reitz, Francis William: 

on the 23rd of July 1850 is appointed a member of the legis- 
lative council of the Cape Colony, Hi 122 ; on the 20th of 
September of the same year resigns his seat, Hi 124 

Reitz, Jan Frederik : 

is the first permanently successful breeder of merino sheep in the 
Cape Colony, H 38 

Relief works : 

in 1864 are opened by Sir Philip Wodehouse at Tulbagh Kloof, 
iv 39 

Religious bodies in Natal: 
account of, Hi 262 

Religious equality : 

in 1804 is established for persons of all creeds in the Cape Colony. 
» 154 



Synoptical Index. 381 

Religious excitement in Basutoland in 1862-3 : 
particulars concerning, iv 206 

Removal oe the seat oe government of the Cape Colony from 
Capetown to Grahamstown : 
desire of the British settlers for, in 118, 127, 130, 134, 135, and 
156 ; reasons of the executive council for opposing the measure, 
Hi 120 ; efforts to bring it about, iv 9, 37, and 141 

van Rensburg, Jan : 

is leader of a party of emigrants from the Cape Colony, ii 277 ; 
in May 1836 reaches the Zoutpansberg, ib. ; in July attempts 
to proceed to Delagoa Bay, but encounters a Bantu tribe by 
whom all of his party are put to death, ii 278 

van Rensburg, W. C. : 

in April 1862 is appointed by the volksraad acting president of 
the South African Republic, iv 446 ; retains the office until 
the 10th of May 1864, iv 452 

Reply to the Free State protest against the annexation of 
Griqualand West to the British dominions, iv 387 

Representative government in Natal : 

petitions in favour of, Hi 267 ; in July 1856 a charter is issued 
creating a legislative council of twelve elected and four official 
members, in 268 

Representative legislative assembly : 

fruitless efforts of the Cape colonists to obtain, ii 46 ; petition 
for, ii 48 ; in 1853 is granted by the imperial authorities, 
Hi 135 et seg. 

Reprisal for thefts by Xosas : 

system as initiated by Lord Charles Somerset, ii 3 ; as modified 
by General Bourke, ii 4 ; as further modified b} T Sir Lowry 
Cole, ii 5 ; as still further modified by Sir Benjamin D' Urban, 
ii 49 

Resident magistrates : 

on the 1st of January 1828 take the place of landdrosts in the 
Cape Colon3% i 492 ; powers of, ib. ; in 1834 the office is 
united with that of civil commissioner, ii 44 

Responsible parliamentary government : 

proceedings in the Cape parliament concerning, Hi 150, 155, 156, 
and iv 32 and 33 ; opinions concerning, in 154 ; debate in 
1871 in the Cape parliament concerning the introduction of, 
iv 123 et seq. ; in 1872 is introduced in the Cape Colony, iv 
146 ; see Constitution 



382 History of South Africa. 

Retief, Pieter : 

early life of, ii 304 ; is married to the widow of J. C. Greyling, 
who in December 1811 was murdered with Landdrost Stocken- 
strom by Xosas of the Imidange clan, ii 118 ; publishes a 
declaration of the causes of the great emigration, ii 266 ; he 
is leader of the fourth party of emigrant farmers from the Cape 
Colony, ii 304 ; in April 1837 arrives in the neighbourhood of 
Thaba Ntshu, ib. ; on the 17th of April 1837 is elected adminis- 
trative head of two large parties of the emigrants, but does not 
then assume office, ii 305 ; on the 6th of June is installed in 
office as governor and commandant-general of the largest section 
of the emigrant farmers, ii 306 ; arranges matters of adminis- 
tration, ii 308 ; offers peace to Moselekatse, who takes no notice 
of the proposal, ii 317 ; in Jul}'- 1837 writes to Sir Benjamin 
D'Urban asking that the emigrants may be considered an inde- 
pendent people, to which no reply can then be given, ii 352 ; 
early in October with a party of emigrants sets out on a pre- 
liminary visit to Natal, ii 354 ; is warmly welcomed by the 
English residents at Durban, ib. ; visits Dingana at Umkun- 
gunhlovu, ii 355 ; and receives a promise of a grant of land 
on condition of recovering some cattle that have been stolen 
from the Zulus by Sikonyela's Batlokua, ib. ; in December 
returns to the Caledon and compels Sikonyela to surrender his 
spoil, ii 356 ; with sixty-six companions and some Hottentot 
servants proceeds to Dinganas residence with the recovered 
cattle, ii 358 ; and there, on the 6th of February 1838, all 
are murdered, ii 360 

Revenue of the Cape Colony : 

in 1796, i 29 ; 1797 to 1802, i 41 ; 1803 to 1806, i 134 ; 1806 
to 1835, ii 31 ; particulars concerning the various taxes levied 
between 1836 and 1850, ii 202 ; average yearly receipts during 
quinquennial periods from 1836 to 1850, ii 206 ; revenue in 
1854 and 1855, Hi 141 ; from 1856 to 1861 ; in 170 ; from 
1862 to 1867, iv 36; from 1868 to 1872, iv 152 

Revenue of Natal : 

from 1846 to 1856, Hi 263 and 264; in 1872, iv 175 

Revenue of the Orange Free State : 
in 1870, 1871, and 1872, iv 384 

Revenue of the South African Republic: 

sources of, according to the constitution of January 1857, in 425 

Revenue of British Kaffraria : 
in 1861, iv 18 



Synoptical Index. 383 

Revenue of Basutoland : 

particulars concerning, v 68 ; revenue in the year ending 31st of 
May 1872, v 79 

Reversal of Bsitish policy in South Africa regarding the 
restriction of territory : 
particulars concerning, iv 302 

Rex, George : 

builds a brig at the Knysna, ii 134 

Rex, John : 

at the close of 1836 and beginning of 1837 lands and ships goods 
at the mouth of the Buffalo river, ii 135 

de Rezende, Joao, agent of. the Mozambique Company at Andrada: 
mention of, v 155 and 158 

Rhenish missionary society : 

in 1829 commences to labour in South Africa, ii 84 ; particulars 
concerning its work in Great Namaqualand and Hereroland, 
v 95 to 97, and 99 

Rhenius, Johan Isaac : 

on the 10th of October 1795 becomes receiver and treasurer-general 
of the Cape Colony, i 2 

Rhodes, Cecil John : 

mention of, iv 158 

Ribeiro, Dionisio Antonio, captain of the fort at Lourenco 
Marques : 
in October 1833 is murdered by the Matshangana and his whole 
force perishes, v 138 

Rice : 

in 1805 is cultivated in the Cape Colony, i 170 and 171 

Rice, Right Hon. J. Spring : 

from July to December 1834 is secretary of state for the colonies, 
ii 141 

Richardson, Lieutenant-Colonel, of the 7th dragoons : 

in 1845 is sent in command of a body of troops to assist Adam 
Kok against the emigrant farmers, ii 490 ; on the 30th of April 
1846 acts in a very inglorious manner at the Beka, near Fort 
Peddie, in 10 

Richmond, district in the Cape province: 
in March 1848 is created, Hi 70 



384 History of South Africa. 

Richmond, Dutch reformed church at : 

in October 1843 the first consistory is appointed, ii 246 

Richmond, village in the Cape province : 
in April 1844 is founded, ii 246 

Richmond, village in Natal : 
in 1850 is founded, Hi 263 

Riebeek East, Dutch refof.med church at : 

on the 9th of March 1830 the civil commissioner of Albany is 
directed by the governor to nominate the first elders and deacons, 
who are installed in January 1831, ii 216; on the 22nd of 
April 1831 the presbytery of Graaft'-Reinet appoints a consilient, 
ib. ; on the 28th of November 1838 the governor appoints the 
reverend John Pears resident clergyman, ib. ; and on the 2nd 
of April 1839 he commences duty, ib. 

Riebeek East, village in the Cape province : 

in 1840 is founded, ii 216; in April 1846 is abandoned owing to 
the Xosa invasion, but is shortly afterwards reoccupied, Hi 7 

van der Riet, J. W. : 

on the 10th of September 1819 is appointed landdrost of George 
in succession to Mr. Van Kervel, who retires ; in January 
1828 becomes civil commissioner of Uitenhage and George, i 
492 ; in 1834 becomes civil commissioner and resident magistrate 
of Uitenhage, ii 44 

van der Riet, Ryno Johannes : 

in November 1795 becomes landdrost of Stellenbosch, i 4 ; in 
July 1812 is appointed sequestrator, i 271 

van der Riet, Rev. T. J. : 

in May 1845 becomes the first resident clergyman of Mossel Bay, 
ii 249 

Riots at the diamond-fields : 

account of, iv 397, 403, 416, and 417 

Ritter, Johan Christian : 

is the owner of the first printing press in the Cape Colony, 
* 117 

Rivers, Harry : 

in December 1821 becomes landdrost of Albany, i 374 ; in January 
1825 is transferred to Swellendam, i 391 ; in January 1828 
becomes civil commissioner of Swellendam, i 492 ; in 1834 
becomes civil commissioner and resident magistrate of Swellendam, 
it 44 ; on the 7th of December 1841 becomes treasurer-general 



Synoptical Index. 385 

of the Cape Colony, ii 215 ; when assisting in the preparation 
of the constitution is in favour of a nominated legislative council, 
Hi 126 

Rivers of Natal : 

description of, Hi 259 

RlVERSDALE, DISTRICT IN THE CAPE PROVINCE : 

in March 1848 is created, Hi 70 

RlVERSDALE, DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH AT : 

in June 1839 the first consistory commences duty, ii 217 

RlVERSDALE, VILLAGE OF! 

in 1838 is founded, ii 217 

Road boards : 

constitution of, ii 230 ; in November 1843 are first created in 
the Cape Colony, ii 231 

Robb, Captain, of the Led a : 

in 1834 commences to bring merino rams from New South Wales 
to the Cape Colony, ii 41 ; in 1835 and 1836 brings Angora 
goats to the Cape, ib. 

Robbery, indiscriminate : 

in 1857 is resorted to by some of the starving Xosas and Tembus, 
in 206 

Robertson, Captain R. J. E. : 

in 1855 is appointed magistrate with the Xosa chief Anta, Hi 190 

Robertson, William, later Rev. Dr. : 

in July 1822 arrives from Scotland, and is appointed teacher of 
the high school at Graaff-Reinet, i 371 ; afterwards enters the 
ministry, and in November 1831 becomes the first resident 
clergyman of the Dutch reformed church at Clanwilliam, i 407 ; 
at the end of 1848 goes on a mission to the emigrants north 
of the Orange, Hi 297 ; has an interview with the reverend 
Dr. Livingstone at Magalisberg, of which he gives an account, 
in 393 

Robosi : see Lewanika 

Rodriguez, island of : 

in July 1809 is taken possession of by British forces, i 241 

Roggeveld, the, district in the Cape province : 

description of, i 162 and 167 ; mode of living in 1805 of the 
white inhabitants of, i 162, 163, and 164 

VOL. V. 2 C 



386 History of South Africa. 

Rolland, Emile : 

in 1871 is appointed assistant magistrate of the district of Thaba 

Bosigo, v 71 
Holland, Rev. Samuel, of the Paris evangelical society: 

in 1829 endeavours to form a mission station with the Bahurutsi 
at Mosega, i 468 ; in 1830 is obliged by the advance of Mosele- 
katse to abandon Mosega, and with his colleagues founds the 
station Motito, ib. ; in 1835 with a horde of refugees from the 
north founds the mission station Beersheba at Zevenfontein near 
the Caledon river, ii 297; see War of 1858 

Roman catholic church in the Cape Colony : 

particulars concerning, i 366, ii 224, Hi 72, iv 266, v 80 and 166 ; 
a mission of this church is established at Korokoro in Basuto- 
land, iv 184 

Roman catholic worship : 

in 1805 is first publicly performed in the Cape Colony, t 156; 
in 1806 the clergymen are obliged to leave ; in January 1820 
is again conducted in Capetown, » 367 ; ordinance of January 
1830 concerning, ib. 

Roman-Dutch law : 

is the fundamental law of the Cape Colony; on the 27th of August 
1845 is made the fundamental law of Natal, ii 461 ; is the 
fundamental law of the Orange Free State, Hi 445; and of 
the South African Republic 

Roos, F. : 

in July 1838 is appointed landdrost of Port Natal, ii 377 

Ross, Hercules : 

on the 1st of October 1795 becomes acting secretary to govern- 
ment in the Cape Colony, i 2 

Roux, Rev. Dr. : 

on the 10th of January 1842 becomes clergyman of the Dutch 
reformed congregation in Albany, and in September of the same 
year gives the church place the name Riebeek East, ii 216 

Rouxville, district in the Orange Free State: 
in May 1871 is established, iv 384 

Rouxville, village of : 

in November 1863 is founded, iv 210 

Royal African corps : 

in July 1817 arrives in South Africa, i 327; as there is an 
intention to disband this regiment, in June 1821 Sir Rufane 
Donkin attempts to form a settlement with it in the territory 



Synoptical Index. 387 

between the Beka and Fish rivers, i 361 ; but the settlers are 
soon obliged to abandon that territory, i 375 ; the corps is 
partly disbanded in South Africa, and the remnant is sent to 
Sierra Leone, i 387 

Russell, Lord John : 

on the 3rd of September 1839 becomes secretary of state for the 
colonies, ii 183 ; on the 3rd of September 1841 is succeeded 
by Lord Stanley, ii 188 ; from the 15th of May to the 21st 
of July 1855 is again secretary of state for the colonies, Hi 167 

Russell, William : 

terrible fate of a party of Scotch emigrants under the leadership 

of, i 358 

RUSTENBURG, VILLAGE IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC : 

in 1851 is founded, Hi 378 

van Ryneveld, Daniel Johannes : 

on the 21st of July 1814 is appointed landdrost of Stellenbosch ; 
in January 1828 becomes civil commissioner of Stellenbosch, 
i 492 ; in 1834 becomes civil commissioner and resident magis- 
trate of Stellenbosch, ii 44 

van Ryneveld, Johannes : 

on the 25th of March 1825 is appointed deputy landdrost of 
Clanwilliam in succession to Captain Walter Synnot, who resigns ; 
in January 1828 is appointed resident magistrate of Clanwilliam, 
i 493 ; in 1834 becomes assistant civil commissioner and resident 
magistrate of Clanwilliam, ii 44 

van Ryneveld, Willem Cornelis : 

on the 17th of April 1818 is appointed deputy landdrost of 
Caledon ; in January 1828 becomes civil commissioner of Graaff- 
Reinet and Beaufort, i 492 ; in 1834 becomes civil commis- 
sioner and resident magistrate of Graaff-Reinet, ii 44 

van Ryneveld, Willem Stephanus : 

after the English conquest in 1795 retains the office of fiscal, i 2 ; 
in May 1804 is appointed president of the commission to carry 
out improvements in agriculture and stockbreeding, i 158 ; tour 
of in this duty, i 159 et seq. ; on the 11th of January 1806 
becomes fiscal again, t 202 ; in March 1809 becomes president 
of the high court of justice, * 259 ; in August 1812 dies, 
i 261 



Sabina, the, Spanish ship: 

on the 7th of August 1842 is wrecked on Cape Recife, ii 229 



388 History of South Africa. 

Sailors' Home in Capetown : 

on the 18th of September 1S60 the foundation stone is laid by 
Prince Alfred, iv 5 ; on the 25th of April 1862 it is opened for 
use, ib. 

Saint George's cathedral in Capetown : 

in December 1834 is opened for worship by the English episco- 
palians, it 18 

Saint George's church in Simonstown : 

in April 1814 is opened for use, i 245 ; in July 1822 is destroyed 
in a great storm, i 408 

Saint Helena, island of : 

during the captivity of the emperor Napoleon provides an excellent 
market for Cape produce, i 372 

Saint Ltjcia Bay : 

on the 5th of October 1843 is ceded to the queen of England 
by the Zulu chief Panda, it 455 

Saint Mux go, the : 

on the 20th of September 1844 is wrecked on Cape Agulhas, 
ii 244 

Saint Paul's church, English episcopal, Rondebosch : 
on the 16th of February 1834 is opened for use 

Salaries of civil servants : 

from 1808 to 1828, i 288 ; in January 1828 are greatly reduced, 
i 495 ; and in 1834 are still further cut down, ii 44 

Saldanha Bay : 

in 1796 a Dutch fleet surrenders to Admiral Elphinstone in, i 16 

Salem, village in the Cape pbovince : 

in 1820 is founded by British settlers, i 360 

Salis, Lieutenant, of the Cape corps : 

on the 29th of August 1848 is badly wounded at Bpomplaats, 
Hi 288 

Samuel, son of Moroko : 

is partly educated in England, iv 282 ; upon his return to South 
Africa endeavours to supplant Tsepinare, the recognised heir to 
the chieftainship of the Barolong clan at Thaba Ntshu, iv 283 ; 
invites a missionary of the church of England to settle at 
Thaba Ntshu, iv 282 ; and causes a division of the clan, iv 283 

Sandile, son of the great wife of the Xosa chief Gaiea : 

is a little child in 1829 at the time of Gaika's death, it 51 ; 
during the war of 1834-5 is living with his mother Sutu in 



Synoptical Index. 389 

jatofessed friendship with the Cape Colony, ii 111 ; early in 
1840 is circumcised, ii 185 ; on the 2nd of December 1840 enters 
into a treaty with Sir George Napier, ii 187 ; in June 1843 
promises Colonel Hare to aid in punishing the robber captain 
Tola, but in reality assists Tola to escape, ii 190 ; in July 
1844 shelters some robbers who have murdered a farmer named 
De Lange, ii 256 ; but pays fifty head of cattle to the murdered 
man's widow, ii 257 ; on the 21st of January in the following 
year enters into new treaty arrangements with Sir Peregrine 
Maitland, ii 259 ; in November 1845 consents to the erection 
of a fort at Blockdrift, ii 260 ; in January 1846 personally 
assaults and robs a trader in his country, ii 262 ; and on 
being called upon for redress sets the governor at defiance and 
withdraws his consent to the erection of a fort at Blockdrift, 
ib. ; at a meeting with Lieutenant-Governor Hare, however, he 
tones down his remarks, and the matter is allowed to pass by, 
ii 263 ; immediately after this he tries to induce the Ndlambes 
and Tembus to join him against the Cape Colony, ii 264 ; in 
March 1846 declines to surrender some criminals in accordance 
with treaty arrangements, Hi 2 ; .upon which an attempt to 
occupy his kraal is made by a military force, and the war of the 
axe commences, Hi 5; on the 18th of November he professes 
to agree to terms of peace, and has a location assigned to him, 
Hi 37 ;. in June 1847 only partially complies with a demand for 
redress of an injury, Hi 48 ; and when an attempt is made 
to arrest him his followers resist and fire upon the patrol, ib. ; 
the governor then sends him an ultimatum, which he treats 
with disdain, so on the 27th of August he is proclaimed a 
rebel, and forces are set in motion to subdue him, ib. ; on 
the 19th of October he surrenders, and is sent to Grahamstown 
a prisoner, Hi 52 ; in December he is released by Sir Harry 
Smith, in 57 ; on the 7th of January 1848 takes an oath of 
allegiance to the queen of England, and has land assigned to 
him in British Kanraria, Hi 61 ; in October 1850 refuses to 
meet the governor in King-Williamstown, Hi 93 ; and in con- 
sequence is proclaimed deposed by Sir Harry Smith, ib. ; he 
retires to a thicket at the Rabula, and on the 20th of December 
is outlawed by the governor, Hi 94 ; en the 24th of December 
a patrol is sent to arrest him, but is resisted and meets with 
heavy loss, ib. ; in February 1853 begs for peace for himself and 
the other Rarabe chiefs, Hi 113 ; which is granted, and on 
the 9th of March 1853 the terms are finally settled, Hi 114 ; 
in 1856 declines at first to kill his cattle at the bidding of 
Umhlakaza, Hi 200 ; but after a time gives way and takes 



39° History of South Africa. 

part in the general delusion, Hi 201 ; in 1860 at the invitation 
of the Cape government, with Tyala, Dukwana, Festiri, and seven 
of his counsellors, he accompanies Prince Alfred in the Euryalus 
from Port Elizabeth to Durban and from Durban to Capetown, 
but without being impressed in the slightest degree by anything 
except the respect paid to the prince, iv 5 ; further mention 
of, iv 52 ,• career of from 1857 to his death, Hi 209 

Sand river convention, by which the independence of the Trans- 
vaal FARMERS IS RECOGNISED : 
particulars of, Hi 326 and 377 ; on the 16th of March 1852 is 
ratified by the volksraad at Rustenburg, Hi 375 ; and on the 
13th of May by Sir George Cathcart for the British government, 
Hi 379 

Santa Carolina, island of : 

is occupied by the Portuguese, v 141 

Sargeaunt, William C. : 

in June 1853 becomes oolonial secretary of Natal, in 269 

Sardli : see Kreli 

Satchell, Rev. W., Wesleyan missionary at Buntingville : 

at the beginning of the sixth Kaffir war takes refuge at Clarke- 
bury, where in April 1835 he is rescued by a military patrol, 

a in 

Sauer, John : 

in 1833 has a narrow escape from the Matabele in Betshuanaland, 

» 477 

Savings banks : 

in June 1831 are first established in the Cape Colony, ii 19 

Scab (disease of sheep and goats) : 
mention of, i 162 

Scanlen, Thomas C, later Sir Thomas, prime minister of the 
Cape Colony : 
proceedings in parliament of, iv 137 and 141 

Sceptre, British line of battle ship : 

in May 1796 arrives for service on the Cape station, i 12 ; in 
November 1799 is wrecked in Table Bay, * 69 

Scheel Kobus, son of Kausop, a petty Bushman captain : 

in 1850 with his father is provided by the Sovereignty government 
with a location along the southern bank of the Vaal river, 
Hi 310 ; on the death of his father succeeds to the captaincy, 
Hi 485; on the abandonment of the Sovereignty in 1854 is 



Synoptical Index. 391 

left in an independent position, Hi 442 ; in May 1858 makes 
a raid into the Free State, Hi 485 ; on the 5th of July 1858 
is killed in action, in 488 

Scheme op the commissioners of inquiry, adopted by the 

ministry oe the eael of liverpool, for dividing the 

Cape Colony into two provinces nearly independent of 

each other, % 399 ; 

the measure is abandoned by the ministry of Mr. Canning, t 400 

SCHEPPMANSDORP, RHENISH MISSION STATION NEAR WALFISH BAY : 

in May 1868 is plundered by Hottentots, v 101 

Schering, Captain : 

on the 7th of August 1884 by order of the German emperor 
proclaims a German protectorate over the coast of Great 
Namaqualand, v 125 

Schmelen, Rev. Mr. : 

in 1814 founds the mission station Bethany in Great Namaqua- 
land, v 95 

Schoeman, Commandant Stephanus : 

in August 1852 accompanies an expedition against the Bapedi 
tribe, Hi 387 ; in which he performs good service, Hi 388 ; 
upon the retirement of Mr. A. H. Potgieter assumes the chief 
command, and brings hostilities to a close, Hi 389 ; upon the 
death of Mr. P. G. Potgieter in 1854 is appointed commandant - 
general of Zoutpansberg, Hi 420 ; in January 1857 is appointed 
by the representative assembly sole commandant-general of the 
South African Republic, Hi 426 ; but declines the office, Hi 
427 ; signs a manifesto disowning the constitution of the South 
African Republic adopted in January 1857 by the representative 
assembly, ib. ; is pronounced a rebel by the government at 
Potchefstroom, ib. ; in April 1857 offers to assist the Orange 
Free State against President Pretorius of the South African 
Republic, Hi 432 ; in January 1858 comes to terms with the 
government at Potchefstroom, and becomes sole commandant- 
general of the South African Republic, Hi 440 ; in 1860 is one 
of the staunchest adherents of Mr. Pretorius, iv 444 ; in 
November 1860 becomes acting president of the South African 
Republic, ib. ; in April 1862 is dismissed by the volksraad, iv 
446, but refuses to give up office, ib. ; in October 1862 is driven 
from Pretoria by Paul Kruger, ib. ; makes a stand at Potchef- 
stroom, ib. ; but is defeated in a sortie, and is obliged to retire 
to the Free State, iv 447 ; upon Kruger's leaving Potchefstroom 
takes possession of the village again, ib. ; after an agreement of 



392 History of South Africa. 

peace returns to Pretoria, where he again gathers an armed 
force, iv 448 ; but in January 1863 is compelled by Kruger's 
vigorous action to flee to the Free State, ib. ; is sentenced by 
a court to banishment and confiscation of property, iv 449 ; in 
May 1863 is permitted to return to the South African Republic, 
ib. ; after the abandonment of Schoemansdal in the Zoutpans- 
berg war is appointed commandant of volunteers, and in October 
1867 takes the field with fifty-three men, iv 486 ; but after a 
little skirmishing these are disbanded in December at Marabastad, 
iv 487 ; in July 1868 is appointed diplomatic agent in Zoutpans- 
berg, iv 489 ; and by his efforts comparative tranquillity is 
restored, ib. 

Schoemansdal, village in the South African Republic: 

description of, iv 477 ; in June 1867 is abandoned, iv 485 ; and 
is shortly afterwards reduced to a heap of ruins by Katlakter's 
people, ib. 

Scholtz, Rev. Ernest, of the Berlin missionary society: 

on the 29th of November 1845 is murdered by Xosas near Fort 
Peddie, ii 261 

Scholtz, Dr. J. W. L. : 

is the first resident clergyman of Piketberg, ii 217 

Scholtz, Rev. J. : 

arrives from Europe, and in February 1811 becomes clergyman of 
Zwartland's church, i 269 

Scholtz, Commandant P. E. : 

in August 1852 conducts a military expedition against the Bakwena 
chief Setsheli, in 396 ; in September 1853 defends the emigrant 
farmers against charges brought before Sir George Clerk, Hi 
358 

SCHONNBERG, VALENTINES ALEXIUS : 

on the 26th of March 1819 is appointed landdrost of Swellendam 

Schools in the Cape Colony : 

in 1804 an unsuccessful effort is made by the Batavian government 
to establish unsectarian schools, i 172 et seq. ; during the 
government of Sir John Cradock the schools are increased in 
number and in efficiency, i 267 ; in 1822 high-class schools are 
established in the principal colonial villages, i 371 ; statistics 
of schools in 1825, i 410 ; particulars concerning, i 422 ; par- 
ticulars concerning the system of public education in the Cape 
Colony before 1839 and improvements after that date, ii 208 ; 
statistics of schools in 1846, ii 250 ; particulars concerning 
schools in 1872, iv 149 



Synoptical Index. 393 



Schools m Natal: 

particulars concerning, iv 164 

School system of the Orange Free State in 1884 : 
particulars concerning, iv 212 

Schools in the South African Republic : 
particulars concerning, iv 468 

Schreuder, Rev. H., of the Norwegian mission : 

in 1843 arrives and establishes a mission in Zululand 

Schutz, Rev. Jan Augustus : 

in September 1803 arrives in South Africa and becomes clergyman 
of Swellendam, * 155 ; in September 1813 is suspended from 
duty and removed from Swellendam, i 269 

Scotch church in Capetown : 

in May 1829 is opened for public worship, ii 16 

Scott, John, Esqre. : 

on the 5th of November 1856 assumes duty as lieutenant-governor 
of Natal, Hi 228 ; on the 31st of December 1864 retires 

Scully, Rev. P. : 

in January 1820 is stationed in Capetown as Roman catholic 
clergyman, i 367 

Sea Snake: 

on the 19th of September 1869 is wrecked in Algoa Bay, iv 105 

Seasons, record of good and bad in the grain producing districts 
of the Cape Colony : 
1795-6 and 1796-7, i 23; 1797-8, i 40; 1798 to 1800, • 77; 
1801, i 78; 1803 and 1804, % 190; 1805, i 202; 1806, % 214 

Sebetoane, chief of the Makololo : 

career of, i 442, 445, 474, 485, v 82 to 87 ; obliges the people 
he has subdued to learn the language that he speaks, v 85 
and 86 ; to protect himself from the Matabele settles among 
the swamps along the river Tshobe, v 86 ; where in 1851 he 
is visited by the reverend Dr. Livingstone, v 37 ; in 1851 
dies, ib. 

Second convention of Aliwal North : 

particulars concerning, iv 318 et seq. ; in December 1869 is ratified 
by her Majesty's government, iv 330 ; and on the 3rd of May 
1870 by the volksraad of the Orange Free State, ib. 



394 History of South Africa. 

Sekelettt : 

in 1852 becomes chief of the Makololo tribe, v 88 ; assists the 
reverend Dr. Livingstone to make his celebrated journeys from 
Linyanti to the western and then to the eastern coast of Africa, 
v 89 ; treats a mission party in a cruel manner, v 91 ; in 
1863 is murdered, v 92 

Sekhomi, son of Khaki : 

on his father's death becomes chief of the Bamangwato tribe of 
Betshuana, v 84 ; is made a prisoner by the Makololo, but 
after a time escapes, and gathers the remnant of his tribe 
together at Shoshong, v 85 ; further account of, v 13 to 15 

Sekukuni : 

on the death of his father Sekwati in September 1861 succeeds 
as chief of the Bapedi tribe in the South African Republic, 
iv 495 

Sekwati, chief of the Bapedi: 

mention of, ii 281 ; in 1846 is defeated by the emigrant farmers, 
ii 505 ; in 1852 is again involved in war with them, in 387 ; 
and is very severely chastised, Hi 389 ; in November 1857 has 
a location assigned to him by the republic of Lydenburg, Hi 429 

Sekwati, son of the Basuto captain Poshuli : 
particulars concerning, iv 315 and 316 

Selous, Frederick Courteney : 
mention of, v 155 

Sena, Portuguese village on the southern bank of the lower 
Zambesi : 
condition of, v 139 ; is taken by the Matshangana, ib. ; but some 
of the inhabitants who fled are allowed to return on condition 
of making annual presents, ib. ; condition of in 1899, v 163 

Senekal, Frederik : 

in the war of 1858 is elected second commandant-general of the 

Free State forces, in 479 ; on the 21st of February 1856 is 

killed in action with the Basuto, iv 268 

Senzangakona, chief of the Zulu tribe : 
mention of, i 434 

Separation of the eastern and western provinces of the Cape 
Colony : 
in and after 1834 is desired by the British settlers, ii 84, Hi 
118, 127, 134, 135, and 156; efforts to bring it about, iv 7 
to 9, 10, 27, 141, and 143 ; reasons of the executive council 
for opposing the measure, Hi 120 



Synoptical Index, 395 

Separation league : 

particulars concerning, iv 7 

Separatist reformed church : 

in 1858 is established in the South African Republic, iv 436; 
in 1861 is established in the Orange Free State, iv 438 ; par- 
ticulars concerning, iv 466 

Sephton, Hezekiah : 

in 1820 brings a party of British settlers to the Cape Colony, 
351 ; particulars concerning, i 360 

Sepopa : 

is the leader of the Barotsi in their war of independence against 
the Makololo, v 93 ; in 1877 he is murdered, ib. 

Serrurier, Rev. Jan Pieter : 

in June 1804 retires on a pension, i 155 ; on the 26th of 
September 1815 delivers his last public address on the occasion 
of the opening of the orphan asylum in Capetown, i 286 

Serrurier, J. P. : 

in January 1828 is appointed resident magistrate of Simonstown, 
i 493 

Setsheli, son of Mokwasele : 

is raised to the chieftainship of the Bakwena tribe of Betshuana 
by Sebetoane, v 84 ; after the flight of Moselekatse from the 
emigrant farmers collects the remnant cf his people together 
and settles with them in the country occupied by their fathers, 
in 390 ; in the winter of 1852 sets the government of the South 
African Republic at defiance, in 395 ; gives protection to a 
offender named Moselele who has made his escape from the 
Marikwa district, ib. ; in consequence of which a military expe- 
dition is sent against him, in 396 ; he is obliged to abandon 
his kraal near Kclobeng, Hi 398 ; and otherwise suffers severely 
in the contest, in 399 ; requests President Pretorius to obtain 
a missionary for him, Hi 438 ; in 1857 a Hanoverian missionary 
goes to reside with him, Hi 439 ; in September 1857 has a 
supply of ammunition for hunting purposes allowed him by the 
volksraad of the South African Republic, ib. ; in 1859 assists 
the Bamangwato to expel Matsheng, v 14 ; afterwards gives 
Matsheng shelter, v 15 ; in 1866 gives shelter to Sekhomi, the 
rival of Matsheng, ib. ; in 1872 assists Khama to expel Matsheng 
the second time, ib. 

Settlement of the territory between the Fish and Koonap 
rivers : 
particulars concerning, i 395 



396 History of South Africa. 

Seymour, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles : 

is military secretary to Sir George Cathcart, Hi 117 

Seymour, village in the Cape province : 
foundation of, Hi 117 

Shand, Rev. Robert: 

in November 1835 becomes clergyman of Tulbagh, ii 220 ; is the 
cause of a division of the congregation, ib. 

Shaw, Rev. Barnabas : 

in April 1816 arrives in South Africa and founds a mission station 
at Kamiesberg in connection with the Wesleyan society, i 319 

Shaw, Rev. William, of the Wesleyan society : 

in 1820 comes to South Africa as a clergyman with a party of 
British settlers, i 351 ; in 1823 founds the station Wesleyville 
with the Gunukwebes, i 409 ; through his agency the Gunu- 
kwebes regain possession of the land between the Keiskama and 
Beka rivers, ii 5 

Sheep : 

number of in 1865 in the Cape Colony, iv 43 

Shepstone, John : 

in April 1857 leads one of the parties sent against the rebel chief 
Sidoyi in Natal, Hi 243 ; a few months later commands the 
force sent against the rebel chief Matyana, Hi 245 

Shepstone, Theophilus (later Sir Theophilus) : 

shortly after the beginning of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 guides a 
party of volunteers to Wesleyville to rescue the white people 
who have taken refuge there, ii 99 ; after serving as an inter- 
preter during the war is appointed clerk to the agent -general, 
ii 130 ; in December 1836 acts as interpreter for Lieutenant- 
Governor Stockenstrom when concluding treaties with the Xosa 
and Fingo chiefs, ii 152 ; in November 1838 accompanies a 
military force to Tort Natal as Kaffir interpreter, ii 384 ; in 
February 1839 succeeds Mr. J. M. Bowker as diplomatic agent 
with the Fingcs and Gunukwebes, ii 190 ; in June 1843 assists 
in an unsuccessful expedition against the robber captain Tola, 
ii 191 ; in October and November 1844 proceeds to Butterworth 
to obtain Kreli's mark to a treaty, ii 257 ; and to Pondoland 
to obtain Faku's mark to another, ii 457 ; in November 1845 
ceases to be diplomatic agent at Fort Peddie, ii 261 ; as he 
is appointed agent for natives in Natal, ii 462 ; on the 30th 
of July 1853 becomes secretary for native affairs in Natal, Hi 
238 ; in 1854 proposes to create a great Bantu state in the 



Synoptical Index. 397 

territory now called Griqualand East with himself as its head, 
Hi 239 ; but Sir George Grey successfully opposes the scheme, 
Hi 240 ; in 1861 visits Zululand as agent of the Natal govern- 
ment, and recognises Ketshwayo as lawful heir of Panda, iv 14 

Shepstone, Rev. William, Wesleyan missionary : 

assists in the negotiations by which the war with the Xosas in 
1834-5 is brought to an end, ii 123 ; after the conclusion of 
peace occupies the mission station Weslejwiile, ii 131 

Shepstone, W. G. B. : 

from May 1860 to September 1861 is special magistrate at 
Idutywa, iv 45 

Shiloh mission station : 

in 1828 is founded by the Moravian society, ii 52 ; after the 
abandonment of Clarkebury in April 1835 is the only mission 
station left in any part of Kaffirland, ii 111 ; in February 1851 
is abandoned by the missionaries, and is destroyed by rebels, 
Hi 102 

Shipping entering Cape posts : 

statistics of in 1800, 1854, and 1855, Hi 142 

Ships that put into Table Bay : 

from 1796 to 1799, i 41 ; from 1806 to 1835, ii 43 

Ships op war on the Cape station : 

particulars concerning, i 6, 12, 13, 24, 42, 46, 49, 72, 109, 217, 
240, 242, 244, and 273 

Shipwrecks in Table Bay : 

in November 1799 the British ship of war Sceptre is lost, when 
nearly three hundred men perish, t 69 ; at the same time a 
Danish man-of-war and several merchant ships are lost, i 70 ; 
in November 1805 three American ships and a French frigate 
are driven on shore in a violent gale, i 188 ; in July 1822 
eight vessels are lost in a great storm, * 381 ; in July 1831 
six ships are driven ashore in a gale, ii 18 ; for further disasters 
of the kind see ii 229, 230, and 253 

Shipwrecks on the coast of South Africa : see Wrecks 

Sickness among the troops on the frontier in 1846-7 : 
causes of, Hi 34 

SlDOYI, A PETTY CHIEF IN NATAL : 

in 1857 kills another petty chief named Umshukungubo, Hi 242 j 
and declines to appear at Maritzburg to answer for his conduct, 
Hi 243 ; an armed force is therefore sent against him, when 



39^ History of South Africa. 

he flees into Pondoland, ib. ; he is then outlawed, and a new 
chief is set over the part of his clan that remains in Natal, 
Hi 244 

SlGCAWU, PETTY XOSA CAPTAIN : 

expedition against and death of, ii 53 and 54 

SlGCAWXT, GREAT SON OF KRELI : 

particulars concerning, iv 56 ; succeeds his father as head of the 
Xosa tribe, but has very little real power, Hi 209 

SlKONYELA, CHIEF OF THE BATLOKUA, SON OF THE CELEBRATED Ma 

Ntatisi : 
in 1821 is circumcised when he is about sixteen or seventeen years 
of age, i 441 ; notifies that he has become a man by the murder 
of a Hlubi refugee named Motsholi, ib. ; and by so doing draws 
an army of avengers into the country west of the Drakensberg, 
ib. ; takes part in devastating the country along the Caledon, 
i 445 ; after the retirement of the invading hordes collects 
various fragments of mountain tribes together, who take the 
name Batlokua, and settle along the upper Caledon, i 463 ; 
makes an agreement of friendship with Pieter Retief, ii 308 ; 
in December 1837 is compelled by Pieter Retief to surrender 
some cattle which his people have stolen from Dingana, ii 356 • 
in March 1846 agrees to submit his dispute with Moshesh to the 
judgment of a commission to be appointed by the governor of 
the Cape Colony, ii 499 ; in 1847 renews hostilities with Moshesh, 
ii 501 ; with whose people he afterwards carries on an unceasing 
warfare, Hi 299 ; in September 1850 comes in conflict with the 
government of the Orange River Sovereignty, Hi 314 ; but makes 
his peace with Major Warden, and joins his forces with those 
of the British resident against the Basuto, Hi 315 ; in May 
1852 is reduced to such extremities by Moshesh that he is com- 
pelled to sue for peace, Hi 331 ; in September 1853 is conquered 
by Moshesh and loses the whole of his territory, Hi 354 ; 
retires to Bloemfontein and subsequently to the present district 
of Herschel, where in 1856 he dies in obscurity, ib t 

SlKUNYANA, CHIEF OF THE NWANDWE : 

manages to escape when his tribe is destroyed by Tshaka, %i 331 

Silk: 

experiments in the production of in the Cape Colony, iv 112 

Simon's Bay : 

after 1814 is the headquarters of the British squadron on the 
Cape station, i 273 ; in August 1860 a patent slip is opened 
for use, Hi 169 



Synoptical Index. 399 

SlMONSTOWN, DISTRICT OF: 

in May 1814 is formed, % 308; in 1834 is joined to the Cape, 
H 44 ; in March 1848 again becomes a separate district, Hi 70 

Suxonstown : 

on the 30th of July 1837 the new English church is opened for 
worship 

Siren, the : 

in August 1855 is the first ship to sail direct from Natal to 
England with colonial produce, Hi 266 

Sir Lowry's pass : 

in 1830 the road thus named over the Hottentots-Holland moun- 
tains is opened for use, H 24 

SlTAMBA, A XOSA : 

at the commencement of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 performs an 
act of great humanity, ii 91 

SlWANI, GREAT SON OF THE XOSA CHIEF DuSKANE : 

on his father's death in 1828 is left a minor, ii 51 ; during the 
war of 1834-5 lives with his mother Nonibe in professed friend- 
ship with the Cape Colony, ii 111 ; on the 2nd of January 
1845 enters into a treaty with Sir Peregrine Maitland, ii 259 ; 
in May 1846 takes part with the rest of the Xosa tribe against 
the Cape Colony, in 8 ; in November surrenders, in 37 ; on 
the 7th of January 1848 takes an oath of allegiance to the queen 
of England, and has a location assigned to him in British 
Kaffraria, Hi 61 ; in the war of 1850-52 aids the Cape Colony, 
Hi 100; in 1856 refuses to kill his cattle at the bidding of 
Umhlakaza, Hi 200 ; further particulars concerning, Hi 214 

SlYOLO, RIGHT HAND SON OF THE XOSA CHIEF DUSHANE : 

on his father's death in 1828 tries to gain as much power as 
possible during the minority of his brother Siwani, ii 51 ; allies 
himself with the Gaikas, ii 56 ; in December 1834 sends his 
followers to invade and lay waste the frontier districts of the 
Cape Colony, ii 90 ; continues the conflict until the 17th of 
September 1835, when he agrees to become a British subject, 
ii 125 ; on the 5th of March 1836 is released from his allegiance 
and enters into a treaty with the British government, ii 150 ; 
in August 1837 attacks the Fingos at Fort Peddie and plunders 
them, ii 157 ; on the 31st of December 1840 agrees to certain 
modifications of the treaty proposed by Sir George Napier, ii 
188 ; from May to November 1846 takes an active part in the 
war against the Cape Colony, in 8 ; on the 7 th of January 



400 History of South Africa. 

1848 takes an oath of allegiance to the queen of England, and 
has a tract of land assigned to him in British KafTraria, in 
61 ; in the war of 1850-52 takes part against the Cape Colony, 
in 100 ; on the 9th of October 1852 surrenders to Colonel 
Maclean, in 112 ; career of after 1852, Hi 214 

Slachter's Nek rebellion in 1815 : 
account of, i 289 et seq. 

Slang river settlement in Tembuland : 
account of, ^ 56 

Slave insurrection : 

particulars of a petty insurrection in 1808 of slaves in the Cape 
district, i 222 

Slave lodge in Capetown : 

after 1810 is gradually converted into public offices, i 221 

Slavery among the Betshuana : 

particulars concerning, i 188, 228, and 473 

Slaves : 

particulars concerning the importation and treatment of in the 
Cape Colony, i 31, 40, 84, ii 61 ; particulars concerning the 
transfer of government slaves in 1803, i 112; last importation 
of, i 220 ; particulars concerning Sir John Cradock's enactment 
with regard to baptized slaves, i 268 ; slaves are not allowed to 
be employed by the British settlers in Albany, i 373 ; details 
of the various enactments after April 1816 concerning the relation- 
ship between masters and slaves, ii 63 et scq. ; proposal by 
Lord Charles Somerset for the extinction of slavery, ii 66 ; 
proposals by the colonists for the extinction of slavery, ii 68 ; 
irritation caused by orders in council which cannot be carried 
out, ii 69 ; establishment of a society for aiding slaves to obtain 
their freedom, ii 73 ; particulars of the imperial emancipation 
act, under which on the 1st of December 1834 slavery ceased 
to exist in the British dominions everywhere, ib. ; method of 
conducting the appraisement of the slaves, ii 75 ; number and 
value of the slaves in the Cape Colony on the day of emanci- 
pation, ib. ; number of the slaves in each division of the Cape 
Colony in November 1834, ii 271 ; slaves become free if their 
masters remove them beyond the colonial boundary, ii 275; 
manner in which the 1st of December 1834 was observed in the 
Cape Colony, ii 75 ; particulars concerning the treatment of 
the late slaves, now apprentices for four years, ii 76 ; wide- 
spread misery caused by the emancipation of the slaves without 
adequate compensation to the owners, it 77 ; present condition 
of the descendants of the slaves, ii 78 



Synoptical Index. 401 

Slave trade from Portuguese South Afeica: 

particulars concerning, v 128, 132, 133, 141, 142, and 164 

Small-pox : 

mention of, i 161 ; in 1805 is prevalent in the country north 

of the Orange river, * 186 ; in 1807 there are three mild 

cases in Capetown, and from March to September 1812 there 

is an outbreak which causes great alarm, but which does 

not occasion very many deaths, i 258 ; in ] 840 causes great 

loss of life in the Cape Colony, ii 192 ; in 1858 and 1859 
it is again prevalent in the Cape Colony, Hi 177 

Smellekamp, Johan Aenaud : 

on the 24th of March 1842 arrives at Port Natal as supercargo 
of the Dutch trading brig Brazilia, ii 419 ; is sent back to 
Holland by the volksraad of Natal to negotiate a treaty placing 
the republic under the protection of the king of the Netherlands 
and to procure clergymen and schoolmasters, ii 420 ; when 
passing through the Cape Colony with this object is arrested 
and confined for being without a pass, but is soon released and 
allowed to embark for Europe, ib. ; receives no countenance 
from the government of Holland, ii 444 ; returns to South 
Africa as director of a trading company, but on arriving at 
Natal on the 8th of May 1843 is not permitted by the English 
authorities to land his goods or to communicate with the 
farmers, ii 445 ; proceeds to Delagoa Bay, where he remains 
some time, ib. ; in December 1843 is visited at Lourenco 
Marques by some emigrant farmers through whom he sends 
advice to the great body of the emigrants to move to the 
northeast and open communication with the outer world through 
Delagoa Bay, ii 456 ; afterwards gives the same advice to 
Commandant Hendrik Potgieter, who acts upon it, ib. ; then 
proceeds to Holland, but after a few years returns to South 
Africa, ii 457 ; in 1854 is fined for alleged slander and is banished 
from the South African Republic, Hi 414 ; but by one of the 
clauses in the treaty of union between Lydenburg and the South 
African Republic in April 1860 these sentences are reversed, iv 442 ; 
in August 1855 becomes landdrost of Bloemfontein, Hi 467 ; but 
in October 1856 retires from that office, ib. ; and until his 
death in May 1866 practises as a law agent at Bloemfontein, ib. 

Sairr, Erasmus, an old missionary teacher : 

particulars concerning, ii 305 ; in 1837 is engaged by Pieter 
Retief to conduct public worship for the emigrant farmers, 
ii 308 
VOL. v. 2d 



402 History of South Africa. 

Smith, Rev. Alexander : 

in July 1823 arrives from Scotland, and is appointed clergyman 
of Uitenhage, i 370 

Smith, Dr. Andrew : 

in 1823 founds in Capetown a museum of specimens of South 
African animals, i 380 ; which falls into decay after he leaves 
the colony, ib. ; in 1834 he visits the Zulu chief Dingan, ii 
338 ; and is a witness of that despot's ferocity, ib ; in 1835 
explores the territory along the upper Limpopo, ii 287 ; and 
has very friendly interviews with various chiefs and captains 
north of the Orange river, ii 297 

Smith, Charles Abercrombie (later Sir Charles) : 

in 1871 is a member of the federation commission, iv 128 ; pro- 
ceedings in the Cape parliament of, iv 138 ; in November 1872 
becomes commissioner of crown lands and public works under 
responsible government, iv 147 

Smith, Sir Harry : 

as a lieutenant- colonel in the army in March 1829 becomes deputy- 
quartermaster-general at the Cape, ii 94 ; on the 1st of January 
1835 leaves Capetown, and in less than six days rides on horse- 
back to Grahamstown to organise measures of defence against 
Xosa invaders of the colony, ib. ; levies large numbers of 
Hottentots to aid the soldiers and burghers, ii 95 ; on the 11th 
of February at the head of a division of the army crosses the 
Fish river to attack the Kaffirs, ii 101 ; after the arrival of 
Sir Benjamin D'Urban on the frontier is second in command 
of the forces, ii 102 ; in May is in command of a patrol when 
the paramount chief Hintsa is killed, ii 115; from the 11th 
of June to the conclusion of peace in September has direct 
command of the forces in the field, ii 121 ; is left in King- 
Williamstown with military control over the province of Queen 
Adelaide, ii 129 ; on the 13th of September 1836 lays down 
his charge in the province, ii 148 ; in January 1837 attains 
the rank of colonel in the army, ii 172 ; in June 1840 leaves 
South Africa to take up the appointment of adjutant general 
of the army in India, Hi 54 ; on the 28th of January 1846 
wins the victory of Aliwal against the Sikhs, ib. ; shortly after- 
wards returns to England, and is then appointed governor of 
the Cape Colony, high commissioner, and commander-in-chief of 
the forces, ib. ; on the 1st of December 1847 arrives in Cape- 
town and takes the oaths of office, Hi 55 ; eleven days later 
leaves for the frontier, ib. ; on the 17th of December 1847 
issues a proclamation greatly extending the boundary of the 



Synoptical Index. 403 

Cape Colony, iii 56 ; on the 23rd of December proclaims the 
territory between the new colonial boundary and the river Kei 
a British province under the title of British Kaffraria, iii 57 ; 
on the same day receives the submission of the lately hostile 
chiefs, ib. ; on the 7th of January 1848 holds a great meeting 
with the Xosa and Tembu chiefs at King-Williamstown, and 
announces the arrangements for the government of the province, 
iii 61 ; in January 1848 visits the country north of the Orange 
river, iii 270 ; on the 25th of this month obtains the signature 
of Adam Kok to a document which destroys the old treaties, 
iii 273 ; and on the 27th induces Moshesh to attach his mark 
to a document of the same tendency, iii 275 ; then proceeds 
to Natal, and in February 1848 at the foot of the Drakensberg 
has an interview with a body of emigrant farmers, ib. ; finds 
them abandoning that territory in the greatest distress, iii 252 • 
but makes arrangements in accordance with which many families 
settle there permanently, ib. ; on the 3rd of February 1848 
from their camp proclaims the queen's sovereignty over the 
territory between the Orange and Vaal rivers, iii 277 ; on the 
29th of March publishes a manifesto against agitators in that 
country, iii 279 ; on the 22nd of July learns that Major 
Warden has been expelled from the Orange River Sovereignty 
by Commandant-General Pretorius, iii 283 ; at once sends 
forward all the troops available, and follows to take command 
in person, ib. ; on the 26th of August musters his forces on 
the northern bank of the Orange, iii 284 ; on the 29th defeats 
the emigrant farmers at Boomplaats, iii 289 ; on the 2nd of 
September issues a proclamation confiscating the property of all 
who have been in arms against the queen's authority, iii 292 ; 
on the 7th at Winburg makes arrangements for the temporary 
government of the Sovereignty, iii 293 ; then returns to Cape- 
town, iii 295 ; on the 14th of March 1849 proclaims regulations 
for the permanent government of the Orange River Sovereignty, 
iii 298 ; on the 14th of January 1852 is recalled by Earl 
Grey, iii 107 ; on the 31st of March 1852 is succeeded as 
governor and high commissioner by Sir George Cathcart, iii 379 ; 
on the 7th of April bids the troops in Kaffraria farewell, iii 108; 
on the 17th of the same month embarks in the steam frigate 
Gladiator, and on the following morning sails for England, ib, ; 
see also War of 1850-52 

Smith, Captain Thomas Charlton, of the 27th regiment: 

in January 1841 is sent in command of a military force to form 
a camp on the Umgazi river for the protection of the Pondo 
chief Faku, ii 412 ; in December of the same year is instructed 



404 History of South Africa. 

by Sir George Napier to move on and occupy Port Natal, ii 
415 ; on the 1st of April 1842 leaves the Umgazi for that 
purpose, ii 418 ; and on the 4th of May forms a camp close 
to Durban, ib. ; on the night of the 23rd of May marches 
from his camp to attack the farmers assembled at Kongela, 
but is beaten back with heavy loss, ii 423 ; on the 31st of 
May his camp is invested by the farmers under Commandant- 
General Pretorius, ii 425 ; he holds out until the 26th of June, 
when a relieving force under Colonel Cloete arrives from Cape- 
town, ii 429 ; upon Colonel Cloete's departure in July he is 
again left in command of the troops in Natal with the rank 
of major, ii 440 ; on the 31st of August 1843 occupies Maritz- 
burg with troops, ii 452 ; in August 1845 is succeeded in 
command in Natal by Lieutenant- Colonel E. F. Boys, ii 461 ; 
is offered the situation of British resident in Adam Kok's 
country, but declines, it, ii 494 ; in November of this year is 
appointed agent-general and frontier commissioner, and is stationed 
at Fort Beaufort, ii 262 ; after the outbreak of war in 1846 
the office is abolished, Hi 36 

Smithfield, village in tiie Orange Free State : 
in November 1849 is founded, Hi 294 

Smyth, Captain J. Carmichael : 

in January 1806 becomes acting secretary to the government of 
the Cape Colony, i 212 

Snyman, Esaias Rynier : 

is acting president of the Orange Free State during the interval 
between the retirement of Mr. Boshof and the installation of 
Mr. Pretorius, iv 182 

Snyman, Jacobus Theodorus : 

in 1844 is head of a party of emigrant farmers in the valley of 
the Caledon river who are favourable to British rule, ii 487 ; 
and who profess to hold their lands from Moshesh, ii 491 ; in 
August 1848 he assists the British forces under Sir Harry Smith 
against the emigrant farmers under Commandant- General Pretorius, 
Hi 285 ; in September of this year is appointed a member of 
the war tribute commission, Hi 294 ; and in June 1849 be- 
comes a member of the legislative council of the Orange River 
Sovereignty, Hi 299 

SOFALA, THE FIRST SETTLEMENT OF THE PORTUGUESE IN SOUTH AFRICA: 

condition of in 1823, v 133; condition of in 1836, v 139 ; is 
destroyed by the Matshangana, ib. ; condition of in 1899, v 163 



Synoptical Index. 405 

Soga, Rev. Tiyo : 

as a boy in 1846 goes to Scotland on the outbreak of the seventh 
Kaffir war, Hi 8 ; and studies there for the ministry of the 
united presbyterian church ; is stationed as a missionary in 
Sandile's location ; accompanies Prince Alfred in the Euryalus 
from Durban to Capetown, iv 5 

Solomon, Saul : 

proceedings in the Cape parliament of, iv 72, 82, 96, 108, 137, 
145, 398, and 400 

Somerset, Lady, first wife of Lord Charles Somerset : 

in September 1815 dies in Capetown, and is buried under the 
pavement of the old Dutch church, i 280 

Somerset, Captain Henry, son of Governor Lord Charles 
Somerset : 
in 1820 quarrels with Sir Rufane Donkin, i 368 ; on the 28th of 
December 1821 is appointed resident of Simonstown in succession 
to Mr. Jan Hendrik Brand, i 309 ; (major) in October 1823 
succeeds to the command of the Cape regiment, i 386 ; 
(lieutenant-colonel) in December 1S25 conducts an expedition into 
Kaffirland, ii 2 ; in 1828 with a mixed force of soldiers and 
burghers goes to the assistance of the Xosas and Tembus against 
the Amangwane, i 453 ; and on the 27th of August in an 
engagement utterly breaks the power of the marauding tribe, 
i 454 ; in May 1829 drives Makoma from the Kat river over 
the Tyumie, ii 8 ; in December 1834 demands and obtains 
redress from the chief Eno for an act of violence, ii 88 ; after 
the outbreak of the sixth Kaffir war drives the invaders out 
of the colony, ii 100 ; on the 11th of February 1835 attacks 
the Xosas in the thickets of the Fish river, ii 101 ; in March 
commands one of the four divisions of the army which enters 
Kaffirland, ii 102 ; in November 1835 reports upon the causes 
of disaffection among the farmers, ii 268 ; in April 1846 is 
sent with a military force to occupy Sandile's kraal at Burnshill, 
Hi 5 ; but loses the greater part of his waggon train and is 
obliged to retreat, Hi 6 ; in May with the Cape corps drives 
the Xosas out of the colony, Hi 11 ; on the 1st of June 
succeeds in provisioning Fort Peddie, Hi 14 ; on the 8th of 
June at the Gwanga inflicts a very severe blow upon the clans 
of Umhala and Siyolo, Hi 15 ; in July and August commands 
the second division of the army of operations, Hi 18 ; in 
September scours the country between the Keiskama and Gonubie 
rivers, Hi 33; on the 7th of January 1847 is left by Sir 



406 History of South Africa. 

Peregrine Maitland in command of all the forces in the field, 
Hi 39 ; upon the arrival of Sir George Berkeley transfers the 
chief command to him, but serves with distinction till the close 
of the war, Hi 40 ; on the 29th of December 1850 fails in an 
attempt to relieve Fort Cox, Hi 99 ; (major-general) on the 
22nd of February 1851 recovers Fort Armstrong from the rebels, 
Hi 104 ; in December 1851 commands one of the columns 
that invade Galekaland, Hi 106 ; commands a column directed 
to scour the Kroome mountains, Hi 110; and in September 
1852 carries out that duty, Hi 112 

Somerset, Lord Charles : 

on the 6th of April 1814 becomes governor of the Cape Colony, 
t 275; on the 13th of January 1820 sails for England on leave 
of absence, i 320 ; on the 30th of November 1821 reaches the 
colony again and resumes the government, i 368 ; by his 
arbitrary conduct gives rise to much discontent, i 410; burdens 
the colony with a very expensive establishment, ib. ; after 1821 
does not give such satisfaction to the secretary of state as 
before that time, i 411 ; his conduct occupies a good deal of 
attention in the house of commons, i 412 ; he is recalled to 
England by the secretary of state to give explanations con- 
cerning various matters, i 425 ; on the 5th of March 1826 
leaves the colony, ib. ; in April 1827 resigns his situation as 
governor, i 426 ; the charges of tyranny against him are there- 
fore not pressed in the house of commons, ib. ; on the 21st of 
February 1831 he dies at Brighton, i 427 

Somerset East, district in the Cape province: 

in March 1825 is created, i 394; in 1834 it is reduced to a 
sub-district for fiscal purposes, and is attached to Albany, ii 44 ; 
in July 1837 it is again separated from Albany, ii 165 

Somerset East, village of : 

in April 1825 is founded, i 394 ; in January 1826 is first pro- 
vided with a clergyman, i 370 ; in February 1837 becomes a 
municipality, ii 167 

Somerset farm at the Boschberg, the site of the present village 
of Somerset East : 
in 1814 is established, i 281 ; in 1817 it becomes a commissariat 
depot, ib. ; in March 1825 the establishment is broken up, i 
394 

Somerset hospital, the new : 

in 1859 the building at Mouille Point is commenced, Hi 170 



Synoptical Index, 407 

Somerset West, village in the Cape province : 

in 1822 is founded, * 316 ; and in the same year is provided with 
a clergyman, ib. 

SOMERVILLE, Dr. WlLLIAM : 

in April 1800 is sent as assistant commissioner to the eastern 
frontier of the Cape Colony, i 72 ; in 1801 visits the Batlapin 
country, i 98 et seq. 

SOMERVILLE, MRS. MARY, WIFE OF THE ABOVE ; 

reference to, i 99 

SONTO, SON OF THE XOSA CHIEF ENO : 

in May 1846 takes part in an invasion of the Cape Colony, Hi 8 ; 

on the 7th of January 1848 takes an oath of allegiance to 

the queen of England, and has ground assigned to him in 
British Kafir aria, in 61 

SOTSHANGANA, ALIAS MANLKUSA, CHIEF OF A HORDE OF BANTU CALLED 
AFTER HIM THE MaTSHANGANA ! 

flees from Tshaka and after defeating the Angoni commits awful 
ravages among the tribes between Delagoa Bay and the Zambesi, 
i 439 ; in August 1828 compels a Zulu army to retire from the 
country he occupies, ii 335 ; in 1854 is master of the present 
Portuguese possessions south of the Zambesi, in 411 ; where he 
is a cruel tyrant to the earlier inhabitants, ib. ; further parti- 
culars of the career of, i 485, v 131, 138, 139, and 140; see 
Matshangana tribe 

de Sousa, Manuel Antonio : see Gouveia 

South Africa : 

condition of in 1859, Hi 178 

South Afeican bank : 

in 1838 is founded in Capetown, ii 226 

South African College : 

in October 1829 is established in Capetown, ii 20 ; particulars 
concerning its progress, ii 209 

South African Dutch colonists : 

are of mixed European blood, ii 265 ; speak a dialect different 
in some respects from the language of Holland of the present 
day, ib. ; characteristics of, ii 273 

South Afeican fire and life assurance company : 
in March 1831 is established in Capetown, ii 19 

South African goldfields exploration company : 

in 1868 is formed, v 11 ; in 1871 ceases operations, v 12 



408 History of South Africa. 

South African journal: 

on the 5th of March 1824 the first number of this magazine 
appears in Capetown, t 421 ; and on the 7th of May the second 
and last number, ib. 

South African missionary society: 
in 1799 is established, i 67 

South African public library : see Library 

South African Republic : 

on the 17th of January 1852 its independence is acknowledged by 
Great Britain, Hi 377 ; condition of the European inhabitants 
at that time, Hi 380 ; number of districts in 1853, in 409 ; 
form of government at this time, Hi 410 ; discord in, Hi 414 
and 420 ; in 1855 immigration of Europeans is invited under 
certain conditions by the volksraad, Hi 415 ; coat of arms of, 
iv 436 ; ecclesiastical disputes, ib. ; in April 1860 the republic 
of Lydenburg is united with it, iv 442 ; civil strife in, iv 444 
to 453 ; in June 1865 issues a quantity of paper money, thus 
commencing a public debt, iv 471 ; before 1865 the large wild 
animals are almost exterminated, ib. ; method of carrying on 
commerce in 1865, ib. ; position of civil servants in 1865, iv 
472 ; mineral wealth of as known in 1868, v 1 ; various views 
concerning the western boundary, v 16 to 21 ; revenue and 
expenditure in 1869, iv 500 ; public debt as represented by 
paper money, ib. ; in July 1869 concludes a commercial treaty 
with Portugal, v 148 ; qualifications required for the president 
as fixed in December 1871, v 50 ; migration in 1873 of farmers 
from the republic to the western coast, and their settlement in 
Portuguese territory, v 105 and 106 

Southern Matabeleland : 

condition of from 1826 to 1836, i 486 

Southey, Richard : 

in 1835 at the close of the sixth Kaffir war is appointed agent 
with some clans in the province of Queen Adelaide, ii 130 ; 
in December 1836 retires from the service ; on the 20th of 
December 1847 becomes private secretary to Sir Harry Smith, 
Hi 294; in September 1348 is entrusted with confidential duty 
of an important nature in the Orange River Sovereignty, ib. ; 
attempts in vain to define a satisfactory boundary between the 
white people and the Basuto, in 301 ; from the 1st of May 
1852 to the 24th of May 1854 acts as secretary to the govern- 
ment of the Cape Colony, Hi 138 ; in July 1864 succeeds Mr. 
Rawson as colonial secretary, iv 50 ; signs a memorandum in 



Synoptical Index. 409 

antagonism to the introduction of responsible government in the 
Cape Colony, iv 118; declines to form a ministry under respon- 
sible government, iv 146 ; draws up a reply to the Free State 
protest against the annexation of Griqualand West to the British 
dominions, iv 387 ; in January 1873 becomes administrator of 
Griqualand West, iv 147 and 408 ; after July has the title 
of lieutenant-governor, iv 410 ; in August 1875 retires from 
office, iv 420 

Sparks, Ensign Robert Manners, of the Cape mounted rifles: 
in December 1834 with a strong patrol is sent to obtain compensa- 
tion from the Xosa chief Eno for stolen horses, ii 87 ; seizes 
forty head of cattle, with which he sets out to return to Fort 
Willshire, ii 88 ; is attacked on the way, but is rescued by the 
chief Siokwe, ib. ; before reaching the fort receives a severe 
wound from a Kaffir who springs suddenly upon him, ib. 

Special heemraden : 

in September 1820 are appointed with considerable authority in 
the district of Albanv, i 359 

Spence, Captain John : 

acquires extensive concessions in Great Namaqualand, v 125 

Spektakel copper mine : 
account of the, Hi 87 

Sponsziekte in calves : 
mention of, Hi 152 

Sprigg, John Gordon (later Sir Gordon) : 

in 1864 is the leader of the party in British Kafiraria in favour 
of annexation to the Cape Colony, iv 70 ; proceedings in the 
Cape parliament of, iv 101, 137, 400, 423, and 432 

Springfontein copper MINE : 

account of the, Hi 85 ana 87 

van der Sptty, Rev. Mr. : 

in November 1806 is transferred to Drakenstein, i 269 ; in March 
1807 dies, ib. 

Spyker, Rev. J. : 

in June 1817 is transferred to Swellendam, i 316 ; in July 1822 
becomes the first resident clergyman of Somerset West, ib. 

Stamp duty : 

modification of by the first British administration, i 3 

Stanford, Captain Robert (later Sir Robert) : 

assists the government of the Cape Colonj 7 at the time of the 
anti-convict agitation, Hi 80 



410 History of South Africa. 

Stangee, De. William : 

on the 2nd of January 1845 is appointed surveyor-general of Natal, 
ii 461 ; on the 14th of March 1854 dies 

Stanley, Right Hon. E. G. : 

in April 1833 becomes secretary of state for the colonies, ii 28 

Stanley, Loed : 

on the 3rd of September 1841 becomes secretary of state for the 

colonies, ii 188 ; on the 25th of May 1844 announces the 

decision of the imperial authorities concerning the form of 

government of Natal as a British possession, ii 459 ; on the 
23rd of December 1845 retires from office, ii 239 ; on the 26th 

of February 1858 again becomes secretary of state for the 
colonies, in 220 

State chuech : 

privileges of members of in the Cape Colony before 1804, i 154 

Statue of Snt Geoege Geey in Capetown : 

on the 10th of November 1864 is unveiled, iv 20 

Steamship : 

in October 1825 the first that plied between England and India 
puts into Table Bay, i 395 

Steamship communication between England and South Afeica: 
particulars concerning, Hi 158 

Steele, Ensign, of the Cape coeps: 

on the 29th of August 1848 is mortally wounded in the battle 
of Boomplaats, Hi 291 

Stellenbosch, village of : 

in December 1803 is nearly destroyed by fire, i 176 ; on the 5th 
of June 1840 becomes a municipality 

Stephanus, a Eueopean membee of Afeikanee's gang in 1802 : 
career in crime of, i 102 

Steyn, Heemanus : 

in November 1795 transfers to Mr. Faure the office of landdrost 
of Swellendam, i 5 

Stockensteom, Andeies, senioe : 

occupies various positions in the service of the Dutch East India 
Company, t 5 ; in March 1796 becomes secretary of Swellendam, 
ib. ; on the 14th of February 1804 becomes landdrost of Graaff- 
Reinet, i 149 ; in December 1811 is murdered by Xosas of the 
Imidange clan, t 254 



Synoptical Index. 411 

Stockenstrom, Andries, junior (later Sir Andries) : 

is an ensign in the Cape regiment, i 257 ; in July 1812 is ap- 
pointed deputy landdrost of Graaff-Reinet, and is stationed at 
Cradock, ib. ; in May 1815 becomes landdrost of Graaff-Reinet, 
i 290 ; in 1819 commands one of the divisions of the force 
that operates against Ndlambe, i 339 ; recommends the extension 
of the Cape Colony northward, i 392 ; with Lieutenant Bonamy 
in 1822 to 1824 marks off a new boundary of the Cape Colony 
on the north and the east, % 393 ; in January 1828 is appointed 
commissioner- general for the eastern province, i 492 ; and a 
member of the council of advice, i 494 ; in 1829 locates a large 
number of Hottentots in the upper valleys of the Kat river, 
ii 9 ; in March 1833 leaves South Africa to visit Europe, ii 
84 ; and while there is obliged by the secretary of state to 
retire on a pension, ib. ; in 1835 is a pensioner living in Europe, 
ii 138 ; gives most damaging evidence against the colonists 
before a committee of the house of commons, ii 139 ; is sent 
out as lieutenant-governor of the eastern districts of the Cape 
Colony with instructions to restore the province of Queen 
Adelaide to the Xosas, ii 144 ; on the 4th of July 1836 arrives 
in Table Bay, ib. ; on the 25th of July 1836 takes the oaths 
of office in Capetown, ib. ; on arriving in Grahamstown is 
challenged by a mass meeting to prove his assertions before the 
committee of the commons, ii 147 ; on the 13th of September 
has a conference with the Rarabe chiefs at King-Williamstown, 
ii 148 ; forms a new line of defence along the Fish and Kat 
rivers, ii 149 ; on the 5th of December renounces British 
authority over the province of Queen Adelaide and over the 
territory east of the Stormberg spruit, ii 150 ; restores to Kreli 
the land ceded by him, ib. ; and concludes treaties with the 
Rarabe chiefs as independent powers, ib. ; five days later enters 
into a similar treaty with the principal Fingo captains at Fort 
Peddie, ii 152 ; on the 18th of January 1837 concludes a similar 
treaty with the emigrant Tembu chief Mapasa, ii 153 ; is unable 
to protect the Fingos from the Xosas, ii 157 ; makes an abortive 
attempt to form Hottentot locations along the Fish river, ii 158 ; 
finds himself in altogether a false position, ii 159 ; brings an 
action for libel against Captain Campbell, civil commissioner of 
Albany, ii 162 ; and loses the case, ii 163 ; which causes great 
rejoicing throughout the eastern province, ib. ; urges the occupa- 
tion of Port Natal upon Lord Glenelg as a means of forcing 
the emigrant farmers to return to the Cape Colony, ii 384 ; 
by order of Lord Glenelg a serious charge against him is investi- 
gated by a commission consisting of Sir George Napier, Major 



412 History of South Africa. 

Charters, and Captain Dundas, ii 179 ; who find that he shot 
a Kaffir, but that it was a lawful military act, ib. ; he then 
obtains leave of absence, and on the 9th of August 1838 em- 
barks for England, ii 180 ; where he tenders his resignation to 
the secretary of state, but afterwards withdraws it, ii 181 ; 
on the 31st of August 1839 is deprived of office by Lord 
Normanby, ii 182 ; but receives from Lord John Russell a 
baronetcy and a pension of £700 a year, ii 183 ; on the 31st 
of May 1840 reaches South Africa again, ib. ; on the 2nd of 
May 1846 is appointed commandant-general of the burgher forces 
of the eastern districts, Hi 10 ; in July and August when 
clearing the Amatola fastnesses behaves with great energy and 
courage, Hi 19 ; in the middle of August commands a division 
of the force sent against Kreli, Hi 22 ; on the 21st of August 
has a conference with Kreli and makes provisional terms of 
peace, Hi 23 ; which Sir Peregrine Maitland refuses to ratify, 
Hi 27 ; after the return of the expedition quarrels with several 
military officers, Hi 25 ; on the 25th of November tenders his 
resignation, which the governor immediately accepts, Hi 26 ; 
on the 23rd of July 1850 is appointed a member of the legis- 
lative council of the Cape Colony, Hi 122 ; on the 20th of 
September resigns his seat, Hi 124 ; in March 1851 leaves for 
England to secure support for a particular draft constitution, 
Hi 125 

Stockenstrom versus Campbell : 

particulars of an action for libel, ii 162 

Stockenstrom, Advocate : 

in 1875 is appointed judge of the land court of Griqualand West, 
iv 419 ; is compelled to throw out grants made by Nicholas 
Waterboer, iv 420 

Stockenstrom : 

on the 15th of August 1844 the Hottentot settlement at the Kat 
river has this name given to it, Hi 3 ; in March 1848 it is 
created a district, Hi 70 

Stoffels, Anjdries, a Gona Hottentot : 

in 1835-6 visits England with the reverend Dr. Philip, ii 137 ; 
gives evidence before a committee of the house of commons, 
ii 138 ; makes a tour through England, ib. ; contracts consump- 
tion, and dies at Capetown when returning to his home, ib. 

Stokwe, great son of the Xosa chief Eno : 

in December 1834 prevents the destruction of a military patrol, 
ii 88 ; on the 1st of April 1846 succeeds his father as chief 
of the Amambala clan, Hi 7 ; six weeks later takes part in an 



Synoptical Index. 413 

invasion of the Cape Colony, Hi 8 ; on the 21st of August 
1846 surrenders to Colonel Somerset, Hi 30 ; on the 7th of 
January 1848 takes an oath of allegiance to the queen of 
England, and has a location assigned to him in British KafLraria, 
Hi 61 ; in the war of 1850-52 takes part against the colony, 
Hi 100 ; on the 9th of March 1853 agrees to the terms of 
peace imposed upon him, Hi 114 ; takes a leading part in the 
self-destruction of the Xosa tribe, Hi 199 ; and after 1857 sinks 
into insignificance, Hi 213 

Stokwe, son of Ndlela, vassal Tembu chief: 
particulars concerning, iv 54 

Stole, Joachim Willem : 

on the 27th of August 1814 is appointed landdrost of the Cape 
district 

Stopford, Rear- Admiral Robert : 

on the 5th of January 1811 assumes command on the Cape 
station, % 244 ; on the 7th of February 1813 transfers the 
command to Rear-Admiral Tyler, i 273 

Storm in July 1822: 

causes great damage in the western districts of the Cape Colony, 
i 380 

Storm : 

account of very heavy rainfall at Durban, Natal, in April 1856, 
Hi 258 

Stormberg spruit : 

in 1822 is made the eastern boundary of the Cape Colony, * 393 

Strangury (cattle disease) : 

mention of, i 159, 171, and Hi 152 

Stretch, Captain Charles Lennox : 

at the close of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is appointed agent with 
the Gaika, Imidange, and Amambala clans, ii 130 ; is stationed 
at Fort Cox, ib. ; in December 1836 is removed from Fort Cox 
to Blockdrift, and is directed to act as consular agent, H 153 ; 
after the outbreak of war in 1846 his office is abolished, Hi 36 

Stuart, C. U. : 

in March 1849 is appointed civil commissioner and resident magis- 
trate of Bloemfontein, Hi 298 ; in December 1851 is dismissed, 
Hi 325 

Stuart, Jacobus : 

draws up the draft constitution of the South African Republic, 
Hi 422 



414 History of South Africa. 

Stucki, Rev. Me. : 

succeeds the reverend Daniel Lindley as clergyman of the Dutch 
reformed church at Maritzburg, Hi 230 

Stud faems foe sheep : 

establishment in 1805 in the Roggeveld of, i 165 and 166 

Stuet, Rev. Geoege : 

in September 1819 becomes chaplain of the English episcopal 
church in Sinionstown, i 317 

Stutteeheim, Baeon von : 

is commander of the British German legion, Hi 194 

Stuueman, David : 

succeeds his brother Klaas as captain of a Hottentot clan, and 
in 1804 has a location on the Gamtoos river assigned to him, 
t 125 ; owing to his hostile conduct, in 1810 he is sentenced 
to imprisonment for life, and the location on the Gamtoos river 
is confiscated, i 237 

Stuueman, a eobbee captain : 

after 1830 has his stronghold on islands in the Orange river, ii 
25 ; and ravages the country on all sides, ii 26 ; account of 
murders committed by his gang in the Cape Colony, ii 26 and 
27 
Succession duty : 

in 1864 is first imposed in the Cape Colony, iv 35 

le Sueue, Jacobus Johannes : 

in January 1828 is appointed resident magistrate of Worcester, 
i 493 

SUGAE PLANTING IN NATAL : 

account of, Hi 260 and iv 163 

SUPEEME COUET OF THE CAPE COLONY : 

in January 1828 is first established, i 491 ; in 1834 is constituted 
under a new charter of justice, ii 45 ; after August 1853 ceases 
to receive appeals from Natal, Hi 263 ; in 1855 is enlarged to 
a chief justice and three puisne judges, Hi 147 

SUPEEME COUET OF NATAL : 

constitution of, iv 165 

SUPEEME COUET OF APPEAL OF THE OeANGE FeEE STATE : 

as constituted in September 1854, Hi 467 
Suemon, Inspectoe William Heney : 

after Mr. Bowker's assuming command of the frontier armed and 
mounted police acts as his deputy as high commissioner's agent 
in Basutoland, 1; 62; in 1871 is appointed acting magistrate 
of the Berea district, v 71 



Synoptical Index. 415 

SUSA, XOSA CHIEFTAINESS : 

dealings with, ii 2 

Sutherland, Dr., surveyor- general of Natal: 

in March 1862 visits Noniansland to try to arrange a boundary 
with Sir Walter Currie, iv 67 

Sutherland, Rev. Henry: 

on the 18th of September 1824 commences duty as first resident 
clergyman of Worcester, t 310 

Sutherland, district in the Cape province : 

is named after the reverend Henry Sutherland, i 371 

Sutherland, village in the Cape province : 
in May 1857 is founded 

Sutton, Lieutenant William, of the 75th regiment : 

on the 10th of December 1834 is sent with a small patrol from 
Fort Beaufort to expel some intruding Xosas from colonial 
ground and to obtain compensation from them for stolen horses, 
ii 89 ; finds the intruders defiant, but manages to burn their 
huts and to seize some oxen, ib. ; when returning to Fort 
Beaufort is attacked, and with great difficulty and some loss 
reaches the fort, ib. ; in December 1845 becomes British resident 
in Adam Kok's territory, but in January 1846 resigns, ii 494 ; 
is subsequently raised to the rank of captain and is transferred 
to the Cape mounted rifles 

Sutton, Captain : 

in 1836 visits Moselekatse, ii 288 

SUTU, GREAT WIDOW OF THE XOSA CHIEF GaIKA : 

at the beginning of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 gives protection to 
several missionaries and traders, ii 99 ; throughout the war 
professes friendship to the Cape Colony, ii 111 ; upon the death 
of Tyali on the 1st of May 1842 is accused by a witchfinder 
of having killed that chief, ii 189 ; is protected from maltreat- 
ment by the diplomatic agent Stretch and the missionaries of 
the Glasgow society, ib. 

Swakop River, in Great Namaqualand : 
description of, v 96 and 109 

Swallow, her Majesty's ship : 

in October 1879 examines the coast of Hereroland, v 118 

SWANGENDABA, CHIEF OF THE ANGONI HORDE : 

career of, i 439, and v 131 and 137 



416 History of South Africa. 

SWAZI TRIBE : 

mention of, * 485 ; in 1855 cedes a tract of land to white people, 
iv 457 ; also a narrow strip of land along the Pongolo river 
to the South African Republic, iv 493 ; in 1864 assists the South 
African Republic against Mapok and Malewu, iv 456 

SWELLENDAM, DISTRICT OF : 

measures adopted by the British commanding officers in 1795 for 
the restoration of order in this district, i 4; in April 1811 the 
eastern portion is formed into a new district named George, 
i 225 ;"' but on the west it is enlarged by having a part of 
Stellenbosch added to it, i 226 

SWELLENDAM, VILLAGE OF : 

in 1798 is first provided with a clergyman, i 41 ; description of 
the village in 1803, • 121 ; on the 17th of May 1865 it is 
nearly destroyed by fire, iv 78 

Sykes, Rev. Me. : 

in 1859 assists to found a mission among the Matabele, v 5 

Synnot, Captain Walter : 

in 1820 brings a party of Irish settlers to the Cape Colony, i 352 ; 
who are located at Clanwilliam, t 354 ; subsequent movements 
of the party, i 355 

Synod of the Dutch reformed church in the Cape Colony : 

in November 1824 meets for the first time in Capetown, i 404 ; 
particulars of the second meeting in November 1826, i 407 ; 
constitution of, ii 221 ; since 1862 no clergymen or elders from 
places beyond the boundary of the colony can take part in 
the proceedings, iv 438 

Synod of the Dutch reformed church ln the Orange Free State : 
on the 10th of May 1865 meets for the first time, iv 215 



Taaibosch, Gert : 

succeeds Jan Hanto as captain of the Korana clan at Merumetsu, 
• 480 ; complains of the injustice done to him by the treaty 
of 1843 between Sir George Napier and the Basuto chief 
Moshesh, ii 483 ; in June 1845 has a conference with Sir 
Peregrine Maitland at Touwfontein, ii 492 ; but as he will not 
admit the authority of Moshesh no arrangement can be made 
with him in furtherance of a settlement between them, ib. ; 
in August 1845 offers a tract of land for settlement by Europeans, 
ii 497 ; in March 1846 agrees to submit his dispute with 
Moshesh to the decision of a commission to be appointed by the 



Synoptical Index, 417 

governor of the Cape Colony, ii 499 ; in June of the same year 
assists Major Warden to disperse the adherents of Jan Kock, 
ii 500 ; in September 1853 is killed in battle with r the Basuto, 
Hi 354 

Tabana, son of the Bavenda chief Ramapulana, in the South 
Afeican Republic : 
after his father's death is driven from his kraals by his brother 
Magadu, iv 478 ; but is protected by Joao Albasini, ib. 

Table Bay : 

plan of Captain Robert Knox for the improvement of, i 427 ; 
particulars of the construction of harbour works in, Hi 166 ;; in 
1882 a graving dock is opened for use, iv 143 ; see Breakwater 
and Dock 

Table Mountain : 

fall of masses of rock from, i 103 

Tait, Peter : 

in 1818 and 1819 brings a few Scotch labourers as immigrants to 
the Cape Colony, i 347 

Tambookie location west of the Indwe : see Glen Grey 

Tambusa, Zulu induna : 

in May 1835 on behalf of Dingana enters into a treaty with Captain 
Allen Gardiner, ii 347 ; in January 1840 is sent by Dingana to 
negotiate with the emigrant farmers, and is put to death by 
them, ii 393 

Tawane, chief of a Baeolong clan : 

in 1841 moves from Thaba Ntshu over the Vaal, ii 466 ; and has 
a tract of land assigned to him by Commandant Potgieter, upon 
which he lives as a favoured subject of the emigrant farmers, 
ib. ; in 1848 moves to Lotlakana, where his following rapidly 
increases, Hi 381 ; at the end of 1849 dies, and is succeeded 
by his son Montsiwa, Hi 382 ; see Barolong tribe 

Taylor, Rev. John : 

in 1818 leaves the service of the London missionary society and 
becomes the first clergyman of the Dutch reformed church at 
Beaufort West, i 308 ; in December 1823 is transferred to 
Cradock, i 370 

Taylor, Captain Richard : 

in 1853 is stationed at King-Williamstown as resident magistrate, 
Hi 189 

Tea: 

excessive use of by the Roggeveld graziers, i 164 

VOL. V. 2 EJ 



41 8 History of South Africa. 

Telegraph, electric: 

since the 1st of October 1864 has been open between East London 
and Simonstown, iv 11 ; in 1873 this line is purchased by the 
government of the Cape Colony, and one from Fort Beaufort 
to the diamond-fields is commenced, iv 144 and 145 

Tembuland : 

in July 1828 is invaded by a Zulu army, which does much 
damage, ii 333 

Tembu tribe : 

in 1809 is found by Colonel Collins living near the sea between 
the Bashee and Umtata rivers, except one small clan, under a 
captain named Tshatshu, that occupied a kraal east of the 
Tsomo, i 233 ; condition during the early years of the nine- 
teenth century, i 449 ; genealogical table of the chiefs, ib. ; 
in 1835 is governed by the regent Vadana, as the chief Umtirara 
is a minor, ii 104 ; has then little strength for warlike purposes, 
ib. ; in 1835 is attacked by the Bacas under Ncapayi and 
sustains much loss, ii 105 ; in 1834 and 1835 sends various 
offshoots into the territory along the Zwart Kei river, ii 107 ; 
in November 1836 is again attacked and plundered by Ncapayi, 
ii 406 ; in 1838 is reduced to such misery by attacks of the 
Pondos and Bacas that it flees to the territory along the upper 
branches of the Kei, ii 407 ; further particulars concerning, 
iv 56 ; see Bawana, Gangelizwe, Mapasa, Nonesi, Umtirara, 
Vadana, and Vusani 

Tente, inferior son of the Xosa chief Gaika : 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 professes friendship to the Cape 
Colony, ii 111 

Territory between the Kei and Bashee rivers : 

from 1858 to 1865 is held by the frontier armed and mounted 
police, and is kept almost unoccupied, Hi 209 and 213 ; number 
of Bantu inhabitants at the close of 1859, Hi 225 

Territory between the river Kei and the border of Natal : 
particulars concerning, iv 25 and 35 ; is abandoned by the British 
government, iv 4t4t et seq. 

Tete, Portuguese village on the southern bank of the Zambesi : 
in 1853 is plundered and partly destroyed by the rebel Bonga, 
v 164 ; condition of in 1899, v 165 and 166 

Teutsch, Rev. C. L. , Moravian missionary : 

in 1848 attempts to found a station with Hottentots on the Bcka, 
but is unsuccessful, Hi 69 



Synoptical Index. 419 

Thaba Bosigo mission station : 

in 1837 is founded by agents of the Paris evangelical society in 
Basutoland, ii 502 

Thaba Ntshu : 

in December 1833 becomes a Barolong settlement and a Wesleyan 
mission station, i 4tll 

Theatre : 

during the first English occupation of the Cape Colony a theatre — 
now St. Stephen's church — is built in Capetown, i 105 

Theological seminary of the Dutch reformed church at Stel- 
lenbosch : 
on the 1st of November 1859 is opened for use, iv 17 

Theopolis, mission station of the London society : 

in 1814 is founded, i 271 ; in the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is twice 
unsuccessfully attacked, i 336 ; investigation of Dr. Philip's 
charge against the Cape government of taking land from, i 500 ; 
in 1851 the residents go into rebellion and the station is broken 
up, Hi 102 

Thirty-three Articles : 

in 1844 the code of law so-called is drawn up by the volksraad 
at Potchefstroom, and in 1849 is adopted by all the parties 
north of the Vaal, Hi 421 

Thom, Rev. Dr. George : 

in November 1818 leaves the service of the London missionary 
society, and is appointed clergyman of Caledon, i 317 ; in 
1821 returns to Scotland on leave of absence, and is requested 
by Lord Charles Somerset to engage clergymen and schoolmasters 
for service in the colony, i 370 ; in which he is successful, ib. ; 
on the 24th of August 1825 is appointed clergyman of the 
Dutch reformed church at Tulbagh, ii 220 ; a few years later 
becomes insane, and in 1835 is removed to an asylum, ib. 

Thomas, Rev. Mr. : 

in 1859 assists to found a mission among the Matabele, v 5 

Thompson, Francis : 

in July 1878 is murdered at Cornforth Hill in Grigualand West, 
iv 430 

Thompson, J. C. : 

in October 1871 is appointed public prosecutor of Griqualana West 
and a member of the executive committee, iv 373 

Thomson, G. R. : 

on the 4th of November 1850 is appointed magistrate of the 
Umzinyati location in Natal, Hi 234 



420 History of South Africa. 

Thomson, Rev. William Ritchie : 

in November 1821 commences mission work in the Tyumie valley, 
» 370 ; in 1829 is stationed by the government as clergyman 
of the Dutch reformed church at the Kat river, ii 10 ; on the 
4th of May 1891 dies, i 370 

Threlfall, Rev. Mr. : 

gives an account of occurrences at Delagoa Bay in 1823, v 135 

Thunderbolt, the first steam ship-of-war on the Cape station: 
on the 3rd of February 1847 strikes on Cape Recife and becomes 
a wreck, Hi 45 

Tin: 

in 1837 is procurable at the Zoutpansberg, ii 280 

TlNDE CLAN OF THE XOSA TRIBE : 

since the middle of the eighteenth century has been gradually 
becoming weaker, ii 98 ; see Tshatshu 

Tobacco : 

cultivation of in the Cape Colony in 1805, i 171 ; cultivation of 
in Natal, Hi 261 ; see Exports, Hi 285 

Tola, chief of a section of the Imidange clan of the Xosa 

TRIBE : 

is head of the most expert robber band on the border of the 
Cape Colony, ii 190 ; in June 1843 is attacked by a military 
force, but as he is assisted by the Gaikas he makes his escape, 
ii 191 ; on the 16th of March 1846 causes one of his followers 
to be released by force when a prisoner in the colony, Hi 1 ; 
declines to surrender the rescued man when called upon to do 
so, Hi 2 ; from April to November 1846 carries on war with 
the Cape Colony, Hi 8 ; on the 7th of January 1848 takes an 
oath of allegiance to the queen of England, and has ground 
assigned to him in British Kaffraria, Hi 61 ; in the war of 
1850-52 takes part against the Cape Colony, in 100 ; on the 
9th of March 1853 agrees to the terms of peace imposed upon 
him, Hi 114 

Topnaars, Hottentot clan at Waliish Bay: 
account of, v 108 and 123 

Torture by Bantu on a charge of dealing in witchcraft i 
instance of, m 245 

Toyise, son of the Xosa chief Gasela : 

in March 1845 succeeds his father as chief of a clan, ii 264 ; 
in 1846 and 1847 carries on war against the Cape Colony, 



Synoptical Index. 421 

Hi 8 ; on the 7th of January 1848 takes an oath of allegiance 
to the queen of England, and has ground assigned to him in 
British Kanraria, in 61 ; further particulars concerning, Hi 213 

Trade with the Zulus : 

manner of conducting, ii 331 

Training school for teachers : 

in 1868 is established by the Paris evangelical society at Morija 
in Basutoland, v 76 

Transfer of the Cape Colony by Great Britain to the Batavian 
Republic : 
particulars concerning, i 109 et seg. 

Transfer dues in the Cape Colony : 

in 1863 are raised to four per cent of the value of land sold, 
iv 32 

Transvaal gold mining company : 

in 1872 is formed, and soon afterwards commences work at 
Eersteling, v 12 

Trappes, Captain Charles : 

in April 1819 is second in command at Grahamstown, i 337 ; 
in May 1820 becomes provisional magistrate at Bathurst, t 357 ; 
in May 1821 is relieved of duty, but in January 1822 is ap- 
pointed landdrost of Tulbagh, i 359 ; in January 1828 becomes 
civil commissioner of Worcester, ?' 492 

Treaties, particulars concerning : 

the treaty of Amiens between Great Britain and France, signed on 

the 27th of March 1802, its sixth article providing for the 

restoration of the Cape Colony to the Netherlands, i 105 
the treaty of Paris between the great European powers, signed on 

the 30th of May 1814, i 276 
between Sir Benjamin D'Urban and the Griqua captain Andries 

Waterboer, signed on the 11th of December 1834, ii 58 
between Captain Allen Gardiner and the Zulu chief Dingana, signed 

in Mav 1835, ii 347 
between Sir Benjamin D'Urban and the Matabele chief Moselekatse, 

signed on the 3rd of March 1836, ii 298 
between Lieutenant-Governor Stockenstrom and the Rarabe chiefs 

of the Xosa tribe, signed on the 5th of December 1836, ii 150 
between Lieutenant-Governor Stockenstrom and the Eingo captains 

Umhlambiso and Jokweni, signed on the 10th of December 1836, 

ii 152 



422 History of South Africa. 

between Lieutenant-Governor Stcckenstrom and the emigrant Tembu 

chief Mapasa, signed on the 18th of January 1837, ii 153 
between Sir George Napier and the captains of the Gunukwebe 

clans, signed on the 19th of June 1838, ii 176 
between Sir George Napier and the chiefs of the Gaika clans, 

signed on the 2nd of December 1840, ii 187 
between Sir George Napier and the Fingo captains, signed on the 

29th of December 1840, ii 187 
between Sir George Napier and the captains of the Ndlambe 

clans, signed on the 31st of December 1840, ii 188 
between Sir George Napier and the emigrant Tembu chief Mapasa. 

signed on the 28th of January 1841, ii 188 
between Sir George Napier and Adam Kok, Griqua captain of 

Philippolis, and Moshesh, chief of the Basuto tribe, signed in 

November and December 1843, it 482 
between Sir Peregrine Maitland and the Pondo chief Faku, signed 

on the 7th of October 1844, ii 457 
between Sir Peregrine Maitland and the Xosa chief Kreli, signed 

on the 4th of November 1844, ii 257 
between Sir Peregrine Maitland and the Rarabe and Fingo chiefs, 

signed in January 1845, ii 258 
between Sir Peregrine Maitland and the Griqua captain Adam 

Kok, signed in February 1846, ii 494 
of Smithfield, concluded in October 1855 between the government 

of the Orange Free State and the Basuto chief Moshesh, Hi 

458 
of Vaal River, concluded in June 1857 between the governments 

of the Orange Free State and the South African Republic, 

Hi 433 
of Aliwal North (first) concluded in September 1858 between the 

government of the Orange Free State and the Basuto chief 

Moshesh, Hi 393 
of Imparani, concluded in March 1866 between the government 

of the Orange Free State and the Basuto chief Molapo, iv 271 
of Thaba Bosigo, concluded in April 1866 between the government 

of the Orange Free State and the Basuto chief Moshesh, iv 273 
of Aliwal North (second) concluded in February 1869 between the 

governments of Great Britain and the Orange Free State, iv 

318 et seq. 
between Portugal and the South African Republic, signed on the 

29th of July 1869, v 22 
between Portugal and Great Britain, concerning the slave trade, 

v 134 
between Portugal and Great Britain, concerning commerce, v 142 



Synoptical Index, 423 

between Portugal and the South African Republic, signed in 

December 1875, v 151 
between Great Britain and Portugal, defining the boundary of 

Portuguese South Africa, v 160 

Treaties, agreements surversive of : 

concluded by Sir Harry Smith on the 25th of January 1848 with 
the Griqua captain Adam Kok, Hi 273 ; concluded by Sir Harry 
Smith on the 27th of January 1848 with the Basuto chief 
Moshesh, in 275 

Triegard, Louis : 

is leader of the pioneer party in the great emigration from the 
Cape Colony, ii 274 ; career of before crossing the Orange 
river, ib. ; names of the members of the party under his leader- 
ship, ii 277 ; in May 1836 reaches the Zoutpansberg, ib. ; life 
of the party at the Zoutpansberg, ii 279 ; in August 1837 
leaves the Zoutpansberg to explore the country to Delagoa Bay, 
ii 281 ; meets with many disasters, but in April 1838 reaches 
the bay, ii 282 ; where all of his party perish except twenty- 
six individuals who in July 1839 are rescued and conveyed by 
sea to Natal, ii 284 

Trinity church, King-Williamstown : 

the foundation stone is laid on the 7th of October 1848, Hi 66 

Tristan da Cunha : 

account of the island, i 303 ; on the 14th of August 1816 is 

formally taken possession of for Great Britain, t 304 ; from 

August 1816 to May 1817 a garrison is maintained there, ib. 

Tropsluiters at funeral processions : 
note concerning, t 280 

Truter, Jan Andries : 

in October 1803 is appointed secretary to the council under the 
Batavian administration, i 181 ; on the 4th of March 1809 
becomes fiscal, in August 1812 becomes chief justice, » 261 ; 
on the establishment of the supreme court on the 1st of January 
1828 retires with a pension, but is appointed a member of the 
council of advice, i 494 

Truter, Olof Johannes : 

in August 1870 is stationed as commissioner at the diamond-fields 
at Pniel, iv 349 ; in May 1871 is removed as landdrost to 
Dutoitspan, iv 352 ; is very popular with the diggers, iv 373 ; 
on the 16th of November 1871 a prisoner being rescued by the 
British officials from the Free State police, sends in a protest 
and retires to Bloemfontein, iv 376 



424 History of South Africa. 

Truter, Pieter Jan : 

in 1801 visits the Batlapin country, i 98 et seq. 

Truter, Pieter Jan (son of the above) : 

in 1834 becomes civil commissioner and resident magistrate of 
Worcester, ii 44 

Tsekelo, son or the Basuto chief Moshesh : 

in February 1865 visits Bloemfontein as a messenger of his father, 
and when returning home drives off forty horses belonging to 
Free State farmers, iv 226 ; in 1869 accompanies Mr. Buchanan 
to England, iv 324 ; seditious conduct of in 1870, v 63 

TSEPINARE, ADOPTED SON AND HEIR OF THE BAROLONG CHIEF MOROKO : 

in the war of 1865-6 commands the Barolong contingent fighting 
for the Free State, iv 241 

Tsetse fly : 

destruction of domestic animals by, ii 282 ; formerly infested 
parts of Zoutpansberg, but is no longer found there, iv 474 

TSHAKA, SON OF SENZANGAKONA, CHIEF OF THE ZULU TRIBE, BY AN 
INFERIOR WIFE : 

about the year 1783 is born, i 434 ; the Zulus are at the time 
vassals of the Abatetwa, ib. ; he grows up to be a handsome 
and exceedingly agile youth, ib. ; excites the jealousy of his 
father, and is obliged to flee for his life, i 435 ; takes refuge 
with Dingiswayo, chief of the Abatetwa, ib. ; in whose army he 
becomes a soldier, and owing to his courage and address soon 
raises himself to a position of command, i 436 ; upon the death 
of his father Senzangakona he is appointed chief of the Zulus 
by Dingiswayo, i 437 ; and upon Dingiswayo's death is raised 
by the army to supreme power, ib. ; he then conceives schemes 
of conquest on a vast scale, ib. ; organises a great army, which 
he subjects to severe discipline, and as a weapon of offence 
substitutes for the assagai a short-handled, long-bladed spear 
formed to cut or to stab, ib. ; brings the various regiments 
under the most perfect system of obedience, i 438 ; reintroduces 
a terribly formidable method of attack, i 437 ; then carries 
on a series of wars of extermination, and though he governs 
with ferocious cruelty gains the devoted attachment of his people 
through their pride of military fame, t 438 ; in July 1824 he 
is first visited by Europeans, ii 326 ; is badly wounded by a 
man who attempts to assassinate him, ib. ; but rapidly recovers 
under the skilful treatment of Mr. Henry Fynn, ii 327 ; owing 
to which circumstance he becomes a friend of the Englishmen 



Synoptical Index. 4 2 5 

i 

living at Port Natal, ib. ; on the 7th of August 1824 grants 
a large tract of land round the port to Mr. Farewell, ib. ; 
permits the Europeans at Port Natal to collect some fugitive 
blacks together and to rule them as chiefs, ii 331 ; allows no 
trade with his Zulu subjects, ib. ; grants to Mr. Henry Fynn 
a large tract of land, ii 332 ; in April 1828 sends an embassy 
to the Cape government, ii 333 ; which is not acknowledged 
by the colonial authorities, though the indunas are -well treated, 
ib. ; he next sends John Cane with a friendly greeting to the 
governor, ib. ; in July 1828 sends an army to destroy the tribes 
between Natal and the Cape Colony, which marches to within 
eighteen miles of the Bashee, t 453 ; he accompanies the army 
himself as far as the Umzimkulu, where he fixes his head- 
quarters, i 454 ; lays waste the Pondo country, then withdraws 
his army from Tembuland, and returns home, ib. ; on the 23rd 
of September 1828 is assassinated by his brother Dingana and 
two others, ii 335 ; leaves no heir, all his children having been 
put to death as soon as born, ii 336 

TSHATSHU, CHIEF OF A TEMBU CLAN : 

in 1809 is found by Colonel Collins to have wandered away from 
the Tembu country proper, and to have settled with his people 
on the eastern bank of the Tsomo, i 233 

TSHATSHU, CHIEF OF THE TlNDE CLAN OF THE XOSA TRIBE : 

during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 professes friendship to the Cape 
Colony, ii 111 ; but the greater part of his clan joins its enemies 

TSHATSHU, Jan, son of the above and long A RESIDENT at Bethels- 

DORP MISSION STATION : 

in 1835 and 1836 visits England with the reverend Dr. Philip, 
ii 137 ; appears there as a powerful Kaffir chief, ii 138 ; gives 
evidence before a committee of the house of commons, and 
makes a tour through England, ib. ; becomes so conceited and 
fond of wine that he is utterly ruined, ib. ; in the war of 1846-7 
joins the Gaikas against the Europeans, and on the 28th of 
May 1846 takes part in the attack upon Fort Peddie, Hi 14 ; 
on the 7th of January 1848 takes an oath of allegiance to the 
queen of England, m 61 ; during the war of 1850-52 plays a 
suspicious part, Hi 100 ; further particulars concerning, Hi 213 

TSHILOANE, ISLAND OF: 

is occupied by the Portuguese, v 141 

TSHIVASA, CHIEF OF A BAVENDA CLAN ) 

account of, iv 476 



426 History of South Africa. 

TSHUPANGA, ON THE ZAMBESI : 

description of, v 163 

Tucker, John Scott : 

in January 1859 becomes civil engineer of the Cape Colony, Hi 166 

TULBAGH, DISTRICT OF : 

in July 1804 a portion of the district of Stellenbosch is cut off 
by proclamation of the commissioner-general De Mist, to which 
General Janssens gives the name Tulbagh, i 152 ; in August 
a landdrost is appointed to the new district, ib. ; in September 
a farm adjoining Roodezand's church is fixed upon as the site 
of the new drostdy, i 153 ; in February 1808 a portion of 
Stellenbosch is cut off and added to it, i 224 ; in November 
1822 it is renamed by Lord Charles Somerset the district of 
Worcester, and the landdrost is removed to the new village of 
that name, i 382 ; but in March 1848 a portion of the extensive 
area is constituted a district with the name Tulbagh, in 70 

Tulbagh, village of: 

description of in 1803, i 145 

TULU, CHIEF OF A BATAUNG CLAN, SON AND SUCCESSOR OF MAKWANA : 

in 1845 is visited by the special commissioner Gideon Joubert, 
it 496 ; in April 1853 is utterly despoiled by Gert Taaibosch 
and Sikonyela, Hi 347 ; so that he is obliged to abandon his 
location and take refuge with his kinsman Molitsane at Mekuatling, 
in 348 

Tweed, Arthur: 

in October 1871 is appointed registrar and master of the high court 
of Griqualand West, iv 373 

Tyala, counsellor of the Xosa chief Sandile : 
pathetic manner of the death of, Hi 210 

Tyali, left-hand son of the Xosa chief Gaika: 

about the year 1827 takes possession of the valley of the Man- 
kazana, ii 5 ; in September 1833 on account of the depredations 
of his people is expelled by a military force from the valley 
of the Mankazana, when he settles on the banks of the Gaga, 
ii 54 ; as the depredations are continued, in November of the 
same year he is driven across the next higher tributary of the 
Tyumie, ii 55 ; during the year 1834 gives great annoyance 
to the frontier colonists, ii 87 ; on the 21st of December 1834 
sends his followers to invade and lay waste the frontier districts 
of the Cape Colony, ii 90 ; attempts to entrap Colonel Somerset, 
ib. ; after securing an immense booty proposes peace on con- 
dition of matters remaining as they are, ii 95 ; but his offer 



Synoptical Index. 427 

is rejected by Colonel Somerset, ib. ; he continues the conflict 
until the 17th of September 1835, when he agrees to become a 
British subject, ii 125 ; on the 5th of December 1836 is released 
from his allegiance and enters into a treaty with the British 
government, ii 150 ; on the 2nd of December 1840 agrees to 
certain modifications of the treaty proposed by Sir George Napier, 
ii 187 ; on the 1st of May 1842 dies of a chest complaint in 
the Tyumie valley, ii 189 

Tydschrift, het Nederduitsch Zuid-Afrieaansce : 

in April 1824 the first number of this magazine appears, f 421 

Tyler, Rear- Admiral Charles : 

on the 7th of February 1813 assumes command of the fleet on 
the Cape station, i 273 ; on the 15th of October 1815 is suc- 
ceeded by Rear-Admiral Sir George Cockburn, i 302 



UlTENHAGE, DISTRICT IN THE CAPE PROVINCE : 

in February 1804 a portion of the old district of Graaff-Reinet 
is cut off by proclamation of Commissioner- General De Mist, 
i 150 ; in April the name Uitenhage is given by Governor 
Janssens to the tract of land thus cut off, and a landdrost is 
appointed to it, i 151 ; in October a portion of the old district 
of Swellendam is cut off and added to Uitenhage, ib. The 
landdrost's office was in Fort Frederick at Algoa Bay until 
October 1807, when it was removed to the village of Uitenhage 

Uitenhage, village of : 

in 1804 is founded, i 152 ; in March 1817 is first provided with 
a resident clergyman, i 316 

Uithaalder, Willem, a discharged soldier of the Hottentot 
regiment : 
in 1851 is chosen as their leader by the rebel Hottentots, Hi 103 ; 
assumes the title of general, Hi 109 ; a reward of £500 is offered 
for his apprehension, Hi 113 ; after the failure of his plans 
manages to conceal himself, and on the 8th of April 1865 
commits suicide, in 115 

Ukane, chief of the Xolas : 

in 1866 is made a British subject under the government of Natal, 
but gives some trouble before he submits, Hi 232 

Umbopa, servant of the Zulu chief Tshaka : 

in September 1828 assists in putting his master to death, ii 335 



428 History of South Africa. 

Umbulazi, son of the Zulu chief Panda : 

quarrels with his brother Ketshwayo, in 240 ; on the 2nd of 
December 1856 is defeated by Ketshwayo in a great battle on 
the bank of the Tugela, and is afterwards captured and put 
to death, Hi 241 

Umditshwa, chief of a clan of the Pondomsi tribe: 
particulars concerning, iv 63 

Umdungazwe : see Gungunyana 

Umgeni falls in Natal: 
mention of, Hi 259 

Umhala, minor son of the Xosa chief Ndlamee : 

upon his father's death in 1828 supplants his brother Umkayi, 
ii 50 ; allies himself with the Gaikas, ii 56 ; in December 
1834 sends his followers to invade and lay waste the frontier 
districts of the Cape Colony, ii 90 ; continues the conflict until 
the 17th of September 1835, when he agrees to become a British 
subject, ii 125 ; on the 5th of December 1836 is released from 
his allegiance and enters into a treaty with the British govern- 
ment, ii 150 ; on the 31st of December 1840 agrees to certain 
modifications of the treaty proposed by Sir George Napier, 
ii 188 ; on the 2nd of January 1845 enters into a new treaty 
framed by Sir Peregrine Maitland, ii 259 ; in April 1846 joins 
in the seventh Kaffir war against the Cape Colony, Hi 8 ; on 
the 8th of June 1846 loses many of his best warriors in the 
battle of the Gwanga, Hi 15 ; in November surrenders to a 
British commissioner, Hi 37 ; on the 7th of January 1848 takes 
an oath of allegiance to the queen of England, and has a tract 
of land assigned to him in British Kafrraria, Hi 61 ; during 
the war of 1850-52 plays a suspicious part, Hi 100 ; in 1856 
and 1857 takes a leading part in the self-destruction of the 
Xosa tribe, Hi 199 and 201 ; career of from 1857 until his 
death on the 10th of April 1875, Hi 212 

UMnLAKAZA, PROFESSED KAFFIR PROPHET : 

particulars concerning, Hi 198 et seq. 

UMHLAMBISO, CHIEF OF A REMNANT OF THE HLUBI TRIBE : 

in April 1835 at Butterworth solicits Sir Benjamin D'Urban to 
give him protection against the Xosas, ii 110; his request is 
complied with, and he has land assigned to him between the 
Fish and Keiskama rivers, ii 113; in December 1836 as an 
independent chief enters into a treaty with the British govern- 
ment, ii 152 ; in August 1837 is badly wounded in an attack 



Synoptical Index. 429 



by Kaffirs upon his people, ii 157 ; on the 29th of December 
1840 consents to certain modifications of the treaty proposed 
by Sir George Napier, ii 187 

Umhlonhlo, chief of a clan of the Pondomsi tribe : 

particulars concerning, iv 63 ; in January 1872 asks to be taken 
under the authority of the Cape Colony, iv 89 

Umjusa, son of the Xosa seer Makana : 

particulars concerning, i 341 and in 213 ; raid in 1866 on the 
kraal of, iv 79 

Umkayi, great son of the Xosa chief Ndlambe : 

upon his father's death in 1828 is supplanted by his brother 
Umhala, ii 50 ; during the war of 1834-5 professes friendship 
to the Cape Colony, ii 111 ; becomes a British subject, but on 
the 5th of December 1836 is released from his allegiance and 
enters into a treaty with the British government, ii 150 ; in 
1838 is in league with some mutineers of the Cape corps, ii 
175 ; on the 31st of December 1840 agrees to certain modifica- 
tions of the treaty proposed by Sir George Napier, ii 188 ; on 
the 2nd of January 1845 enters into a new treaty framed by 
Sir Peregrine Maitland, ii 259 ; early in 1846 asks for leave 
to move into the Cape Colony, as he is sure there will shortly 
be war, ii 264 ; during the war of 1846-7 resides in Grahams- 
town, Hi 8 ; in the war of 1850-52 aids the Cape Colony, 
Hi 100 

Umkungunhlovu, residence of the Zulu chief Dingana: 
description of, ii 337 

Umkunku, son of the Zulu chief Panda : 
is a refugee living in Natal, iv 178 

Umlanjeni, Xosa pretended miracle worker : 

account of, Hi 92 and 108 ; on the 28th of August 1853 dies, 
Hi 115 

Umlazi location in Natal : 

in 1846 is set apart for the use of the Bantu, Hi 230 

Umpande : see Panda 

Umpangazita, Hlubi chief : 

in 1821 when fleeing from his enemies crosses the Drakensberg, 
i 441 ; falls upon the Batlokua and disperses them, ib. ; is 
killed in a battle with the Amangwane near Lishuane, % 462 

Umqikela, great son of Faku : 

on the 29th of October 1867 succeeds his father as nominal para- 
mount chief of the Pondos, iv 69 



430 History of South Africa. 

UMSHUKUNGUBO, A tETTY CHIEF IN NATAL : 

in 1857 is killed by another petty chief named Sidoyi, Hi 242 

Umsilieazi : see Moselekatse 

Umsutu, chief of a remnant of the Abasekunene tribe : 

in April 1835 at Butterworth solicits Sir Benjamin D'Urban to 
give him protection against the Xosas, ii 110 ; his request is 
complied with, and he has land assigned to him between the 
Fish and Keiskama rivers, ii 113 

Umtamvtjna River : 

in 1865 becomes the southern bomidary of Natal, iv 166 

Umtasa, principal chief in the district of Manika : 

in September 1880 places himself under the protection of the 
British South Africa Company, v 155 ; particulars concerning, 
v 156, 157, and 159 

Umthlangana, son of the Zulu chief Senzengakona : 

in September 1828 assists his brother Dingana to assassinate Tshaka, 
tt 335 ; and is afterwards murdered by Dingana, ii 336 

Umthlela, Zulu induna : 

in May 1835 on behalf of Dingana enters into a treaty with Captain 
Allen Gardiner, ii 347 ; on the 30th of January 1840 commands 
Dingana's army in the great battle with the rebel Zulus under 
Nongalaza, ii 395 ; and is killed in the hottest part of the 
field, ib. 

Umtirara, son and heir of Vusani, paramount chief of the Tembu 
tribe : 
at the time of the Kaffir war of 1834-5 is a minor, »» 104 ; on 
the 25th of March 1845 enters into a treaty with Sir Peregrine 
Maitland, ii 260 ; in 1838 goes to live on the Zwart Kei, 
being driven from his own country by the Pondos and Bacas, 
Hi 9 ; in 1846-7 professes to be neutral in the war between 
the Xosas and the Cape Colony, Hi 8 ; is only paramount 
chief in name, as the emigrant Tembu clans are quite inde- 
pendent of his authority, Hi 9 ; is at feud with Kreli, which 
prevents their union against the Cape Colony, ib. ; sends to the 
governor of the Cape Colony to request that he may be declared 
a British subject, and the land from the colonial border to the 
Indwe be declared British territory, Hi 31 ; his conduct, how- 
ever, towards the colonists is exceedingly suspicious, n't 32 ; in 
August 1846 nearly the whole of his prople are driven over 
the Indwe by the tribes with which he is at enmity, ib. ; on 
the 3rd of December he has an interview with Sir Peregrine 



Synoptical Index. 431 

Maitland at Blockdrift, and renews his request for British pro- 
tection, ib. ; which the governor recommends to the secretary 
of state, ib. ; in January 1848 is promised protection by Sir 
Harry Smith if he chooses to live west of the Indwe, Hi 63 

Umtonga, son of the Zulu chief Panda : 

in February 1861 flees into the district of Utrecht through fear 
of Ketshwayo, iv 459 ; see Ketshwayo 

Umvoti location in Natal : 

in 1846 is set apart for the use of the Bantu, in 230 

Umzila, son of Manikusa, chief of the Matshangana : 

in 1858, on account of a quarrel with one of his brothers, is 
obliged to flee from his own country, iv 479 ; takes refuge in 
Zoutpansberg, where a location is assigned to him by Joao 
Albasini, ib. ; in 1861 proceeds to Delagoa Bay, where he obtains 
assistance from the Portuguese authorities which enables him to 
defeat his brother, ib. ; he then becomes chief of the Mat- 
shangana, but as a vassal of the Portuguese, ib. ; in 1864 desires 
Albasini to surrender a refugee named Monene to him, iv 480 ; 
further particulars concerning, v 147 and 148 

Umzimvubu river, mouth of : 
see Port St. John's 

Umzinyati location in Natal : 

in 1846 is set apart for the use of the Bantu, in 230 

Unandi, mother of Tshaka : 
mention of, i 434 

Union bank: 

in 1847 is established in Capetown, ii 243 ; on the 31st of July 
1890 is closed 

Union between the Cape Colony and the Orange Free State : 
efforts to bring about, iv 209 and 215 

Union between the Orange Free State and the South African 
, Republic : 
efforts to bring about, in 490 ; iv 186 to 188, 442, and v 51 

Union steamship company : 

in 1857 commences its connection with South Africa, Hi 158; 
particulars concerning, iv 149 

Upset price of crown land in Natal : 

as fixed in 1847 by the secretary of state for the colonies, Hi 255 



432 History of South Africa. 

Usutu: 

is a name adopted by the adherents of Ketshwayo, tii 241 

Utrecht, district of : 

in 1843 is settled by emigrants from Natal, who form an inde- 
pendent republic there; in September 1854 the ground is formally 
ceded by Panda to the farmers occupying it, iv 458 ; in May 
1858 the district is united to the republic of Lydenburg, Hi 
428 ; and in April 1860 with Lydenburg becomes part of the 
South African Republic, iv 442 

Uys, Dirk Cornelis, a young lad : 

on the 11th of April 1838 while behaving in a most gallant 
manner is killed in battle with the Zulus, ii 372 

Uys, Jacobus : 

in 1837 is leader of a party of emigrants from the Cape Colony, 
ii 309 ; is presented with a large bible by the people of 
Grahamstown as a mark of their regard, ib. ; resolves to set 
up a government independent of the other parties somewhere 
in Natal, ii 318; in July 1838 dies in Natal, ii 375 

Uys, Pieter Lavras : 

in 1834 with a party of farmers from the Cape Colony inspects 
the territory of Natal, ii 343 ; in 1837 leaves the Cape Colony 
with a party under the leadership of his father, ii 309 ; par- 
ticulars concerning, ib. ; acts in absolute independence of all 
the other parties of emigrants, ii 316 ; on the 14th of August 
1837 he and his party issue a declaration to this effect, ib. ; 
on the 19th of October 1837 makes an agreement of friendship 
with Moroko, ii 318 ; in November of this year assists Com- 
mandant Potgieter to drive the Matabele from the Marikwa, ib. ; 
in December 1837 visits the emigrant camp in Natal, but 
declines to acknowledge Mr. Pvetief's authority, ii 357 ; after 
the massacres in Natal hastens to the aid of his countrymen, 
ii 366 ; but declines to serve under Maritz, ii 369 ; in company 
with a body of men under Hendrik Potgieter proceeds to 
attack Dingana, ii 370; and on the 11th of April 1838 is killed 
in battle, ii 372 

Uys, Mrs. Pieter Lavras : 

unjust prosecution of, ii 313 



Vadana ; 

is regent oi the Tembu tribe during the minority of Umtirara, 
heir of Vusani, ii 104 ; during the Kaffir war of 1834-5 offers 



Synoptical Index. 433 

protection to white people who can escape from the Xosa 
country, ii 105 ; in April 1835 assists a patrol under Captain 
1 Warden to capture cattle from one of Hintza's kraals, ii 112 ; 
in November 1838 is plundered by Ncapayi, and in vain seeks 
aid from Lieutenant-Governor Stockenstrom, ii 406 ; in 1856 
and 1857 takes a leading part in the cattle killing delusion, 
in 200 : in 1857 becomes head of a robber band, but is 
captured and sent as a prisoner to Capetown, Hi 215 

Vagrant act : 

particulars concerning the unsuccessful effort in 1834 to pass an 
ordinance concerning vagrancy in the Cape Colony, ii 80 et seq. 

Vandeleur, Brigadier-General Thomas : 

in 1799 is in command of the troops that suppress the insurrection 
in Graaff-Reinet, * 54 

Vanderkemp, Dr. Jacobus Theodorus : 

in March 1799 arrives in South Africa as an agent of the London 
missionary society, i 67 ; attempts to form a station near the 
kraal of the Xosa chief Gaika, i 68 ; but not succeeding in 
this, he removes to Graaff-Reinet, ib. ; towards the close of 1801 
with a party of Hottentots he proceeds from Graaff-Reinet to 
a farm near Algoa Ba}-, where he is assisted by the government 
to form a temporary station, * 92 ; in 1803 a tract of land is 
selected for a mission station, which the government grants to 
the London society, and to which Dr. Vanderkemp gives the 
name Bethelsdorp, i 124; on the 15th of December 1811 he 
dies in Capetown 

Vatwahs, Bantu fugitives from Zululand: 
description of, v 129 and 130 

van Velden, Rev. Dirk: 

in January 1850 is appointed first resident clergyman of Winburg, 
Hi 309 

Venable, Rev. Mr., American missionary : 

in June 1836 with two associates goes to reside with the Matabele 
in the valley of Mosega, ii 302; in January 1837 retires with 
the emigrant farmers, ii 303 ; in July 1837 arrives in Natal 
and commences to labour there, ii 348 ; visits Dingana a few 
hours after the massacre of Pieter Retief and his party, ii 363 ; 
gives notice at the different stations, when all the missionaries 
retire to the port, ib, ; in April 1838 leaves Natal, and does 
not return, ii 374 

VOL. v. 2 F 



434 History of South Africa. 

Venter, Jacobus Johannes : 

is chairman of a commission appointed in February 1855 to 
administer the government of the Orange Free State temporarily, 
Hi 456 ; and makes a useless arrangement with Moshesh, ib. ; 
acts as president between the retirement of Mr. M. W. Pretorius 
and the assumption of duty by Advocate J. H. Brand, iv 208 

Veeeker, Lieutenant : 

in April 1817 is in command of a patrol sent into Kaflirland in 
search of stolen cattle, t 326 

Verulam, village in Natal : 
in 1850 is founded, Hi 263 

Vetberg line : 

in October 1855 is laid down by Adam Kok, acting as arbitrator, 
between the districts belonging to Nicholas Waterboer and 
Cornells Kok, Hi 465 ; in 1869 is beaconed off by a Free State 
commission, iv 338 

Vetch, Captain James : 

submits an elaborate plan for an enclosed harbour in Table Bay, 
Hi 167 

Vice -Admiralty court : see Court 

Victoria East : 

in December 1847 is constituted a division of the Cape Colony, 
Hi 67 

Victoria West, district in the Cape province: 
in November 1855 is created, Hi 148 

Victoeia West, village of : 

in 1844 is founded, ii 248 ; in April 1844 the first consistory of 
the Dutch reformed church commences its duties, ib. ; in February 
1871 is greatly damaged by a sudden flood, when sixty-two lives 
are lost, iv 13-3 

VlERVOET, BATTLE OF: 

on tho 30th of June 1851 is fought between the Basuto of 
Moshesh and forces collected by Major Warden in the Orange 
River Sovereignty, when the latter are defeated, Hi 320 

Views of the Cape colonists and the missionaries regarding Sir 
Benjamin D'Urban's settlement of the province of Queen 
Adelaide, ii 135 

Vigne, Frederick : 

in 1855 is appointed magistrate with the Gunukwebe chief Pato, 
Hi 190 



Synoptical Index. 435 

Viljoen, Jan Willem : 

in December 1863 heads an insurrection against the existing govern- 
ment of the South African Republic, iv 450 ; on the 5th of 
January 1864 is defeated by forces commanded by Paul Kruger, 
iv 451 

VlLLIERSDORP, VILLAGE IN THE CAPE PROVINCE : 

in 1841 is founded, ii 228 

de Villiers, John Geoege : 

in February 1837 is appointed resident magistrate of the new 
district of Port Elizabeth, ii 164 

de Villiers, J. H. (later Lord De Villiees) : 

in 1871 is a member of the federation commission, iv 128 ; pro- 
ceedings in parliament of, iv 137 ; in November 1872 becomes 
attorney-general of the Cape Colony under responsible govern- 
ment, iv 146 

Visagie, J. H. : 

is secretary to the Transvaal delegates when concluding the Sand 
River convention, Hi 376 

VOLKSRAAD : 

on the 2nd of December 1836 the first is elected by the emigrant 
farmers, ii 296 ; on the 6th of June 1837 the second is elected, 
ii 306 

VOLKSRAAD OF NATAL : 

constitution and powers of, ii 378 and 400 ; in 1840 tries to 
induce the British government to acknowledge the independence 
of the republic, ii 402 ; but while correspondence on the subject 
is being carried on, sends a ccmmando to punish the Baca 
chief Ncapayi for theft of cattle, ii 410 ; upon being apprised 
that Sir George Napier is sending troops to protect Faku, writes 
in justification of the attack upon Ncapayi, but fails to convince 
the governor, ii 413 ; in August 1841 resolves to locate all the 
Bantu refugees in Natal in the territory between the Umzimvubu 
and Umtamvuna rivers, ii 414 ; on the 11th of October 1841 
writes to Sir George Napier asserting its independence and 
refusing to consent to a proposal made by him to station a 
body of troops at Durban, ib. ; on being informed that British 
troops are being sent to occupy Durban, on the 21st of February 
1842 announces a determination to resist, ii 416 ; in April 
1842 sends Mr. J. A. Smellekamp to Holland to negotiate a 
treaty placing Natal under the protection of the king of the 
Netherlands, ii 420; on the 17th of May requires the English 
force to leave Natal within two days, and instructs Commandant- 



436 History of South Africa. 

General Pretorius to enforce the demand, ii 422 ; after the 
defeat of the emigrant farmers and the loss of Durban, on the 
15th of July submits to the authority of the queen, ii 439 ; 
but continues its functions as before, ii 440 ; on the 8th of 
August 1843 consents to the conditions for the settlement of 
the country imposed by the secretary of state for the colonies, 
ii 451 ; on the 4th of September gives expression to its views 
concerning the future government of Natal, ii 452 ; in the last 
sessions, at the close of 1844 and beginning of 1845, shows itself 
very inimical to British authority, ii 460 

VOLKSBAAD OF THE ORANGE FREE STATE : 

is the supreme authority of the republic, and consists of one 
member for each fieldcornetcy and one for each seat of magis- 
tracy. The members must be of European blood, over twenty- 
five years of age, resident at least one year in the state, 
possessed of unmortgaged landed property of the value of £200, 
and never convicted of crime. The members are elected for 
four years, half of them retiring every second year. The 
volksraad meets once a year in ordinary session, but may be 
called together in extraordinary session by the executive if need 
should arise. Twelve members form a quorum. The president 
and the state secretary have the right of debating, but not of 
voting in the volksraad. For provisions of constitution of 
1854 see chapter lxi ; and for amendments made in 1864 see 
chapter lxxii 

Volksraad of the South African Republic : 

is the supreme authority of the state, and consists of three 
members for each of the districts of Potchefstroom, Lydenburg, 
Rustenburg, Zoutpansberg, Pretoria, Wakkerstroom, Utrecht, 
Middelburg, Heidelberg, Waterberg, Marico, and Bloemhof, and 
one member for each of the towns of Potchefstroom, Lydenburg, 
Rustenburg, and Pretoria. The members must be of European 
blood, over thirty years of age, possessed of landed property, 
members of a Protestant church, never convicted of crime, and 
voters in the republic of at least three years' standing. No 
member can be elected by fewer than forty votes in his favour. 
Father and son cannot have seats in the volksraad at the same 
time. Before 1873 the members were elected for two years. 
Half the members retire every second year. The volksraad 
meets once a year in ordinary session, but may be called 
together in extraordinary session by the executive if need should 
arise. Twelve members form a quorum. The president and 
members of the executive council have the right of debating 



Synoptical Index. 437 

but not of voting in the volksraad. For provisions of the 
constitution of January 1857 see chapter lx 

Volksraad of Potchefstroom : 

constitution and powers of, ii 402 

VOLONTAIRE, FRENCH FRIGATE : 

in March 1806 is captured in Table Bay, i 213 

Voluntary principle in the maintenance of public worship: 

opinions in the Cape Colony regarding, in 157 ; in 1875 an act 
depriving all churches of aid from the government is passed by 
both houses of parliament of the Cape Colony and becomes 
lav/, iv 145 

Volunteers in the Cape Colony : 
particulars concerning, Hi 186 

VOORUITZIGT, FARM ON WHICH THE KlMBERLEY DIAMOND MINE IS 
SITUATED : 

is purchased by the government of the Cape Colony, iv 411 

Vos, Rev. Michiel Christiaan : 

in April 1802 proceeds to Europe, i 93 ; returns from Europe, 
and in March 1810 is stationed at Zwartland's church, i 269 ; 
in April 1811 assumes duty as first clergyman of Caledon, i 227 ; 
in May 1818 retires on account of illness and old age, i 317 

Vowe, Thomas Whalley : 

in September 1848 succeeds Mr. O'Reilly as civil commissioner and 
resident magistrate at Smithfield, Hi 293 

VUSANI, PARAMOUNT CHIEF OF THE TEMBU TRIBE : 

in 1828 assists the Cape colonial forces and the warriors of Hints a 
in destroying the Amangwane under Matiwane, who have invaded 
and taken possession of his country, i 454 ; further mention 
of, i 450 

Wade, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Francis : 

from the 10th of August 1833 to the 16th of January 1834 acts 
as governor of the Cape Colony, ii 29 

Wakkerstroom, district in the South African Republic : 
in 1859 is established, iv 440 

Waldensian, the : 

on the 13th of October 1862 is wrecked at Struys Point, iv 29 

Walfish Bay, on the coast of Great Namaqualand : 

description of, v 107 ; in December 1795 is taken possession of 
for Great Britain, i 25 ; note upon the name, ib. ; in May 
1868 all the buildings at this place are plundered and destroyed 
by Hottentots, v 101 ; in March 1878 it is proclaimed part of 



438 History of South Africa. 

the British dominions, v 116; and in August 1884 is formally 
annexed to the Cape Colony, ib. 

van deb, Walt, Tjaart : 

in February 1802 commands in the operations against Hottentot 
marauders in the eastern part of the Cape Colony, j 92; in 
an engagement on the 13th of February loses one of his sons, 
ib. ; in June 1802 is commandant-general of the large force 
called out, i 95 ; but on the 8th of August is killed in battle, 
% 96 

War of 1799-1803 between the Cape Colony and a section of 
the xosa teibe and its hottentot allies, known as the 
third Kaffir war : 
in March 1799 the Xcsa chief Ndlambe, who has been for some 
time a prisoner at Gaika's kraal, makes his escape, and with 
a large body of followers crosses the Fish river and invades 
the Cape Colony, i 57 ; he is joined by all the clans that since 
1793 have been living in the Zuurveld, the Gunukwebe only 
excepted, ib. ; the farmers flee before the invaders, some of 
them being obliged to abandon all their property, ib. ; the 
Gunukwebe clan, without allying itself with Ndlambe, attacks 
a column of British troops on the march towards Algoa Bay, 
and afterwards attacks General Vandeleur's camp, but is repulsed 
with heavy loss, i 58 ; it outs off and massacres a detachment 
under Lieutenant Chumney, ib. ; the insurgent Hottentots under 
Klaas Stunrman and other leaders now join the Xosas, i 59 ; 
in June two large burgher commandos take the field, but 
become dispirited by being kept waiting while the authorities 
carry on long and fruitless negotiations with the invaders, ib. ; 
the united Xosas and Hottentots now overrun and pillage nearly 
the whole district of Graaff-Reinet, ib. ; in July a band ravages 
Longkloof and murders fifteen white people, ib. ; in September 
an arrangement is made by the government with the Xosas 
and Hottentots, under which the Zuurveld is abandoned to the 
invaders, who promise not to trespass beyond it, i 62 ; after 
this arrangement the district of Graaff-Reinet remains in a very 
wretched state, i 86 ; the Hottentots continue to roam about 
and plunder such colonists as attempt to carry on farming, 
t 91 ; early in 1802 a commando is called out to punish them, 
but so few men appear that the operations undertaken are not 
successful, i 92 ; in May a much larger number of burghers 
are called out, i 94 ; very favourable terms are offered to Klaas 
Stuurman, but he declines them, i 95 ; he and his Xosa allies 
are then attacked by a burgher force under Commandant Tjaart 
van der Walt, and for several weeks success attends the colonists, 



Synoptical Index. 439 

ib. ; on the 8th of August, however, Commandant Van der Walt 
is killed in battle, and immediately afterwards the burghers 
disperse in great confusion, i 96 ; General Dundas then pro- 
ceeds to the frontier, taking Mr. Honoratus Maynier with him, 
ib. ; a few petty Hottentot captains are induced by Mr. Maynier 
to lay down their arms, but most of the marauders remain 
defiant, ib. ; the combined Xosas and Hottentots ravage the 
country as far west as Kaaiman's River, near the present village 
of George, i 97; in January 1803 a large burgher force takes 
the field, but as the Hottentots and Xosas are quarrelling about 
a division of the spoil, they now profess to desire peace with 
the white people, ib. ; and on the 20th of February a general 
cessation of hostilities is agreed to, i 98 

War of 1811-12 between the Cape Colony and a section or the 

XOSA TRIEE, KNOWN AS THE FOURTH KAFFIR WAR : 

every possible effort having been made to conciliate the Xosas 
in the Zuurveld, without their depredations ceasing, in October 
1811 a burgher force is called out to expel them from the Cape 
Colony, i 252 ; Lieutenant-Colonel Graham is appointed com- 
mandant-general, and is directed to employ the burghers and 
the Hottentot regiment in the duty, ib. ; the Xosas refuse to 
remove peaceably, and the chief Xdlambe announces his intention 
to keep possession of the Zuurveld, i 253 ; before military 
operations commence, Landdrost Stockenstrom and eight farmers 
are murdered by a division of the Imidange clan, i 254 ; in 
January 1812 the Gunukwebe clan is driven from its stronghold, 
with the loss of its chief Cungwa and twelve or fourteen men, 
i 255 ; Ndlambe and Pato — Cungwa' s son and successor — then 
abandon the contest and retire across the Fish river, ib. i 
early in February the Zuurveld is thoroughly scoured, and by 
the 24th of this month there is hardly a Xosa within the 
colonial border, i 256 ; the prisoners, sufficient corn for seed, 
and the cattle that have been captured, are then restored to 
the expelled clans, who are informed that they will not be 
molested as long as they remain in their own country, ib. 

War of 1818-19 between the Cape Colony and a section of the 
Xosa tribe, known as the fifth Kaffir war : 
in the winter of 1818 Gaika, having been defeated by his rival 
Ndlambe in a great battle, requests aid from the white people, 
i 334 ; it being the policy of the colonial government of that 
time to support him, Lieutenant -Colonel Brereton with a small 
force of soldiers and mounted burghers is sent to his aid, i 
335 ; Xdlambe's followers retire to dense thickets, but some of 



440 History of South Africa. 

their kraals are destroyed, and twenty-three thousand head of 
cattle are captured, ib. ; as the followers of Gaika are unwilling 
to show mercy to their opponents, the commando is soon with- 
drawn and the burghers are disbanded, ib. ; Ndlambe then pours 
his followers into the colony, and they devastate the Zuurveld 
and kill a number of people, i 336 ; on the 22nd of April 
1819, under the leadership of a seer named Makana, they attack 
Grahamstown, i 337 ; but after sustaining great loss of life 
are repulsed, i 338 ; in July 1819 a strong European force in 
three divisions enters Kamrland and inflicts very heavy loss upon 
the adherents of Ndlambe, who are utterly broken, * 339 ; on 
the 15th of August 1819 Makana surrenders, ib. ; hostilities 
then cease, though the European forces are kept in the field, 
% 341 ; on the 15th of October Lord Charles Somerset has a 
conference at the Gwanga with Gaika and other chiefs, ib. ; 
when it is arranged that the tract of land between the Fish 
and Keiskama rivers shall be kept without other inhabitants 
than soldiers, i 343 

War of 1834-5 between the Cape Colony and the Xosa tribe, 

KNOWN AS THE SIXTH KaFFTR WAR : 

in the evening of the 21st of December 1834 a great horde of 
Xosas begins to cross the boundary and lay waste the frontier 
colonial districts, ii 90 ; in ten or twelve days the whole of 
the open country as far west as the village of Uitenhage is 
ravaged, twenty-two white men are murdered, four hundred and 
fifty -six houses are burned, and an immense number of horses, 
horned cattle, sheep, and goats are driven off, ii 91 ; fortunately 
most of the colonists receive warning in time to take refuge in 
the towns and villages, ii 92 ; all the trading stations in 
Kamrland are pillaged, and ten of the traders are murdered, 
ib. ; the three military posts farthest in advance are of necessity 
abandoned, ib. ; Lieutenant- Colonel Smith and all the troops 
that can be spared from the Cape peninsula are sent to the 
scene of hostilities as rapidly as possible, ii 94 ; the burgher 
forces of the colony are called out, and a number of Hottentots 
are levied, ii 95 ; on the 10th of January 1835 a patrol under 
Major Cox leaves Grahamstown and commences operations against 
the Xosas, ii 96 ; on the 20th of January Sir Benjamin D'Urban 
arrives in Grahamstown and takes command of the assembled 
forces, ii 97 ; the missionaries and surviving traders in Kamr- 
land are brought out by patrols sent to rescue them, ii 99 ; 
early in February the Xosas are driven out of the colony, but 
take possession of the thickets along the Fish river, ii 100 ; 
where they are attacked on the 12th of February, and on the 



Synoptical Index. 441 

loth are obliged to retire, ii 101 ; on the 19th of February 
they make a sudden raid into the Kat river settlement, but 
are beaten back, ib. ; they manage, however, to recover the 
fastnesses of the Fish river, from which it is with difficulty 
that they are again expelled, ii 102 ; they then retire to the 
forests along the Amatola mountains, ib. ; on the 31st of March 
the colonial forces cross the Keiskama to attack them there, 
ii 106 ; between the 2nd and the 10th of April a good many 
cattle are recovered and the Xosas are driven out of the fast- 
nesses of the Amatola, ii 107 ; on the loth of April a division 
of the army under Sir Benjamin D'Urban crosses the Kei into 
the territory of Hintsa, paramount chief of the tribe, who has 
been aiding the Rarabe clans in the war, ii 10S ; on the 17th 
this force encamps at Butterworth, ii 109 ; when certain Fingo 
captains apply to the governor for protection, whereupon Sir 
Benjamin D'Urban adopts a plan of settlement which involves 
the removal of them and their people to the territory between 
the Fish and Keiskama rivers, ii 110 ; as Hintsa does not give 
satisfaction for his hostile conduct, on the 24th of April war 
is declared against him, ii 112 ; the forces then commence to 
scour the Galeka country, and succeed in capturing some cattle, 
which causes Hintsa to come to the camp on the 29th of April 
to ask for peace, and on the following day terms are agreed 
upon, ib. ; on the 2nd of May the troops begin to move towards 
the colony, ib. ; on the 4th of May terms of peace are offered 
to the Rarabe chiefs, which they refuse to accept, ii 114 ; 
Hintsa does not fulfil his agreement, and is killed while attempt- 
ing to escape from a patrol sent out on his proposal to collect 
cattle, ii 116; on the 19th of May peace is concluded with 
his son Kreli, ii 117 ; the Rarabes are encouraged to continue 
the war by the language of their European sympathisers, ii 118 ; 
on the 23rd of May the farmers are disbanded that they may 
get seed grain in the ground, and the Hottentots who are kept 
under arms have pay assigned to them, ii 120 ; the forces 
in the field continue to harass the Rarabes as much as possible, 
ii 121 ; as soon as the seed is in the ground the farmers are 
called to arms again, ii 122 ; but negotiations are now opened 
with the Rarabe chiefs through the medium of some Wesleyan 
missionaries, and on the 15th of August a suspension of hostili- 
ties is arranged, ii 123 ; on the 11th of September Sir Benjamin 
D'Urban has a conference at Fort Willshire with the Rarabe 
chiefs, and on the 17th peace is finally concluded by the chiefs 
consenting to become British subjects and to have locations 
assigned to them in the province of Queen Adelaide, ii 125 



44 2 History of South Africa, 

War of 1846-7 between the Cape Colony and the Xosa tribe 
assisted by the emigrant tembus, known as the seventh 
Kaffir war, also as the war of the axe : 
on the 16th of March 1846 a Xosa detected in theft at Fort 
Beaufort is being sent as a prisoner to Grahamstown for trial, 
when he is rescued on colonial ground by his friends, and a 
constable is killed, Hi 1 ; the lieutenant-governor demands the 
rescued man and the murderer of the constable from the chiefs 
Tola, Botumane, and Sandile, all of whom decline to surrender 
them, Hi 2; he then, 11th of April, sends a military force to 
occupy Sandile's kraal at Burnshill, Hi 4 ; the force meets 
with resistance, loses the greater part of its stores, and is 
obliged to retreat to Blockdrift, Hi 6 ; the Xosas now pour 
into the colony and lay waste the border districts, ib. ; nearly 
the whole tribe is united against the Europeans, and is aided 
by the emigrant Tembus under Mapasa, Hi 8 ; on the 30th of 
April the Xosas are greatly elated by the retreat of a military 
force sent to the Beka to attack them, Hi 10 ; during the 
following month, however, they are driven out of the colony, 
Hi 11 ; on the 21st of Ma}' a train of forty-three waggons 
laden with supplies for Fort Peddie is captured by them in the 
jungle of the Fish river, Hi 13 ; on the 28th of May they make 
an unsuccessful attempt to get possession of Fort Peddie, ib. ; 
on the 1st of June much-needed supplies reach that fort, ttt 14 ; 
on the 8th the warriors of Umhala and Siyolo sustain a crushing 
defeat at the Gwanga, Hi 15 ; in the third week of July Pato 
is pursued across the Kei and some cattle are recovered from 
him, Hi 18 ; at the end of July the Amatola fastnesses are 
scoured, but the Xosas manage to escape, Hi 19 ; an expedition 
is then sent against Kreli, but it does nothing to chastise him, 
Hi 22 ; though when returning it inflicts some injury upon the 
Tembus of Mapasa, Hi 24 ; owing to long drought and the 
scarcity of provisions away from the sea the bulk of the regular 
forces now moves to a camp at Waterloo Bay, and on the 
16th of September the burghers are disbanded, Hi 27 ; parties 
of Xosa raiders continue to devastate the districts of Albany 
and Somerset and to murder unprotected people, Hi 29 ; after 
the fall of rain in September the Gaika and Imidange chiefs, 
who want to plant maize and millet, express a desire for peace, 
tit 30 ; and on the 30th of that month a conference takes 
place between them and Lieutenant-Colonel Johnstone, when 
they reject without hesitation the terms offered by the governor, 
Hi 31 ; shortly after this the emigrant Tembus are reduced to 
such straits that they are unable to take part again in the war. 



Synoptical Index. 443 



Hi 32 ; the clan of Umhala is also severely punished, Hi 33 ; 
the Xosas now adopt a system of passive resistance, ib. ; in 
October Makoma surrenders, Hi 34 ; on the 18th of November 
Sandile professes to agree to terms of peace, Hi 37 ; after 
which every Xosa who chooses to surrender a musket or six 
assagais is registered as a British subject and permitted to set 
about cultivating the land, ib. ; by the beginning of December 
the only chiefs west of the Kei openly in arms against the colony 
are Pato, Kobe, and Toyise, but many followers of the others 
are with these, ib. ; towards the close of this month a strong 
force endeavours to surround Pato and his associates between 
the Gonubie and the Kei, but fails in its object, Hi 38 ; on 
the 1st of January 1847 this force proceeds to Butterworth to 
attack Kreli, and succeeds in capturing a good many cattle, 
with which it returns to King-Williamstown, Hi 39 ; on the 
13th of January Sir Peregrine Maitland, believing the war to 
be nearly over, abolishes martial law in the colony, though Pato 
is still in arms, Hi 40 ; in April a line of posts is formed along 
the western bank of the Buffalo river, Hi 45 ; as soon as 
bis crops are gathered Sandile again assumes a hostile attitude, 
Hi 46 ; in June, owing to his conduct, an attempt is made to 
arrest him, when his followers fire upon the patrol, Hi 48 ; 
Governor Sir Henry Pottinger then sends him an ultimatum, 
which he treats with disdain, so on the 27th of August he is 
declared a rebel and forces are set in motion to subdue him, 
Hi 49 ; on the 19th of September three strong patrols enter the 
Amatola fastnesses and keep constantly moving from place to 
place to prevent the hostile Xosas from settling anywhere, Hi 
51 ; so that on the 19th of October Sandile and Anta surrender, 
Hi 52 ; the troops then move to the Kei to attack Kreli and 
Pato, ib. ; with the result that on the 19th of December Pato 
is obliged to surrender, Hi 53 ; on the 23rd of December 
Governor Sir Harry Smith proclaims the country between the 
colonial boundary and the Kei a British province, which, with 
the exception of small areas round forts and mission stations, 
is to be preserved for the exclusive use of Bantu, Hi 57 ; on 
the 7th of January 1848 the Rarabe and emigrant Tembu chiefs 
take an oath of allegiance to the queen of England, Kreli and 
Buku agree to the terms offered to them, and peace is pro- 
claimed, in 61 

War of 1850-53 between the Cape Colony and the Xosa tribe 
aided by the emigrant tembus and rebel hottentots, 
known as the eighth kaffir war : 
on the 24th of December 1850 a patrol sent to arrest Sandile is 



444 History of South Africa. 

attacked in the Boomah pass, and suffers heavy loss, Hi 95 ; 
on the same day fifteen soldiers are murdered at Debe Nek, 
ib. ; on Christmas day the military villages in the Tyumie valley 
are destroyed, and their male occupants are murdered, Hi 96 ; 
the governor is at Fort Cox, which is at once besieged by a large 
force of Xosas, and an attempt to relieve his Excellency by a 
patrol from Fort Hare fails, but on the 30th at the head of 
two hundred and fifty Cape mounted riflemen he makes a dash 
through the enemy and escapes, Hi 99 ; the Kaffir police then 
desert and go over to the enemy, and a destructive raid into 
the colony is made, ib. ; a large number of Hottentots join the 
Xosas, Hi 101 ; and with them many Cape mounted riflemen, 
Hi 102 ; on the 7th of January 1851 Fort Beaufort is attacked 
by a mixed horde under the leadership of Hermanus Matroos, 
but the assailants are beaten off and Hermanus is killed, Hi 
103 ; on the 22nd of February 1851 Fort Armstrong is recovered, 
but for some months afterwards nothing of importance can be 
done to oppose the enemy, Hi 1C4 ; a second destructive raid 
into the colony is made, ib. ; Whittlesea is repeatedly attacked 
by the Tembus, but always unsuccessfully, ib. ; the Zulu chief 
Panda offers to assist the English, but his proposal is declined 
with thanks, Hi 105 ; in December 1851 Galekaland is invaded, 
and much damage is done to the enemy, ib. ; on Christmas 
day the Tembus suffer a severe defeat, Hi 106 ; soon afterwards 
Kreli invades the colony, but is beaten back by a burgher force 
under Captain Tylden, Hi 109 ; large reinforcements of troops 
arrive from England, Hi 110; in August 1852 Galekaland is 
again invaded, and Kreli is brought to desire peace, Hi 112; 
in September the Kroome and Amatola ranges are cleared of 
the enemy, and forts are built in such positions that the Xosas 
cannot return to these fastnesses, ib. ; on the 9th of October 
Siyolo surrenders, and his example is followed by the Tembu 
chiefs, ib. ; as well as by most of the Hottentot rebels, Hi 113; 
a settlement of the Tembus is then effected by those people 
being located at Glen Grey under charge of Mr. J. C. Warner, 
ib. ; in February 1853 peace is formally concluded with Kreli, 
ib. ; and on the 9th of March with the Rarabe chiefs, who are 
deprived for ever of the Amatola fastnesses, Hi 114 

War of 1858 between the Orange Free State and the Basuto 
tribe under the chief moshesh : 
on the 19th of March 1858 is proclaimed at Bloemfontein, Hi 473; 
Mr. J. Sauer, landdrost of Smithfield, is directed with a commando 
to disarm the Basuto at Beersheba, Hi 476 ; he stations a guard 
at the ford of the Caledon, which is attacked, and a skirmish 



Synoptical Index. 445 



takes place, ib. ; the Basuto at Beersheba decline to give up 
their arms, and are consequently fired upon, ib. ; on the 28th 
of March a commando under Hendrik Weber defeats Xehemiah 
and Poshuli at Vechtkop, and destroys Poshulfs villages, Hi 
478 : on the 30th it loses sixteen men in an ambush at Mohali's 
Hoek, ib. ; on the 25th of March a commando under W. J. 
Pretorius defeats Moperi and Molitsane at Koranaberg, ib. ; two 
commandos, under F. Senekal and W. J. Pretorius, fight their 
way through a dense mass of Basuto at Cathcart's drift, Hi 
479 ; and on the 25th of April effect a junction with Weber 
at Jammerberg drift, ib. ; the united force attacks Letsie at 
Morija, defeats him, and takes his kraal, ib. ; marches from 
Morija to Thaba Bosigo, arriving there on the 6th of May, but 
at once recognises the impossibility of taking the stronghold, 
Hi 480 ; the burghers now learn that while they have been 
engaged in Basutoland swarms of light horsemen have been 
ravaging the districts of Winburg and Smithfield, ib. ; in conse- 
quence of these tidings and the hopelessness of their position 
the burghers disperse to their homes, Hi 481 ; in the mean time 
President Boshof has applied to the South African Republic for 
aid, ib. ; and the volksraad of the northern state has directed 
President Pretorius and Commandant-General Schoeman to pro- 
ceed to Bloemfontein and endeavour to restore peace, under the 
assurance that if Moshesh should refuse reasonable terms the 
united countries will deal with him, ib. ; the president has also 
requested Sir George Grey to mediate, ib. ; and with the approval 
of the parliament of the Cape Colony that governor has con- 
sented to do so, Hi 482 ; before a reply is received from either 
Potchefstroom or Capetown, the Free State force has dispersed, 
and President Boshof is compelled to ask Moshesh to suspend 
hostilities, Hi 483 ; Moshesh replies in a haughty tone, out 
consents to receive a deputation to arrange a truce, and on 
the 1st of June an armistice is signed to last until the arrival 
of Sir George Grey, ib. ; Governor Sir George Grey frames a 
treaty of peace which gives to the Basuto a large strip of 
country, but transfers the Beersheba lands to the Free State, 
Hi 494 ; on the 29th of September this treaty is signed by 
the representatives of both parties, and on the 15th of October 
by Moshesh himself, Hi 495 

War of 1858 between the Orange Free State and the Bushmen, 

KORANAS, AND BaTLAPIN : 

in May and June 1858 Scheel Kobus, Goliath Yzerbek, and 
Gasibone, seeing the Free State forces occupied with the Basuto, 
make several unprovoked raids into the territory of the republic, 



446 History of South Africa. 

plundering the country and murdering several of the inhabitants, 
Hi 485 ; a commando under Hendrik Venter is sent against 
them, which attacks the robbers' stronghold on the 5th of July, 
and captures it, in 487 ; forty-three men and fifty women and 
children are made prisoners, Hi 488 ; the men are sent under 
escort of a Fingo guard to the prison at Bloemfontein, but are 
met on the way by a party of burghers and shot down, ib. 

War of 1858 between the South African Republic and the 
Batlapin tribe of Betshuana : 
as the Batlapin captains Gasibone and Matlabane had taken 
advantage of the confusion caused by the Basuto war to plunder 
some farms and murder a burgher north of the Vaal, a com- 
mando under Paul Kruger is sent against them, Hi 489 ; 
Gasibone flees to Mahura, who gives him shelter and declines 
to surrender him when called upon to do so, ib. ; in conse- 
quence the Batlapin are attacked, and on the 13th of August 
Gasibone is killed in battle, ib. ; as soon as this is known 
Mahura asks for peace, and on the 18th terms are signed, in 
which Mahura agrees to surrender all captured property and 
within three months pay the costs of the campaign, ib. 

War of 1865-69 between the South African Republic and the 
Bavenda tribe in the district of Zoutpansberg : 
is commenced in April 1865 by commandos of Europeans and 
Knobnoses attacking some clans who are giving shelter to a 
fugitive from justice, iv 481 ; the white inhabitants of the 
northern part of the district of Zoutpansberg retire into lagers, 
i6. ; much property is destroyed by the insurgents, iv 482 ; 
a strong commando is called out by the government, but the 
burghers decline to obey the call, ib. ; in June 1866 a small 
commando under the president takes the field, but effects nothing, 
iv 483 ; the clans now begin to quarrel among themselves, 
but early in 1867 suspend their dissensions and attack the 
Europeans again, ib. ; in May 1867 Commandant-General Paul 
Kruger with five hundred men, ill supplied with munitions of 
war, attacks Katlakter, but does not succeed in capturing that 
chief's stronghold, iv 484 ; in June 1867 the commandant- 
general finds it necessary to abandon Schoemansdal and permit 
the burghers to return to their homes, iv 485 ; after the 
commando is disbanded, the president endeavours to raise a 
force of volunteers, but succeeds in obtaining only fifty-three 
men, iv 486 ; these take the field under Commandant Stephanus 
Schoeman, but can effect nothing, ib. ; in February 1868 only 
two hundred and sixty men assemble out of a thousand called 



Synoptical Index. 447 

out, so that Kruger can do nothing but disband them, iv 487 ; 
the people in the lagers are by this time reduced to extreme 
poverty, iv 488 ; in May 1868 between eight and nine hundred 
men assemble, and attack Mapela, who has joined the other 
insurgents, ib. ; they inflict heavy losses upon him, ib. ; the 
principal insurgents are now quarrelling with each other, iv 489 ; 
in July 1868 a kind of peace is concluded by President Pretorius 
and Mr. S. Schoeman with the Baramapulana, ib. ; and in 
February 1869 a formal peace is made with Mapela and Matshem, 
iv 490 ; the clans then fight with each other, and in October 
1869 a Swazi army nearly annihilates the most powerful of 
them, ib. 

War of 1865-6 between tee Orange Free State and the Basuto 

TRIBE : 

every effort to induce Moshesh to fulfil his engagements having 
. failed, and various acts of violence having been committed by 
Basuto chiefs on Free State soil, on the 9th of June 1865 war 
is proclaimed by President Brand, iv 227 ; on the 13th of June 
the Free State army under Commandant-General Fick forms a 
camp a short distance from Mabolela, the residence of the chief 
Moperi, iv 230 ; on the 14th eight hundred and fifty men leave 
the camp to attack Mabolela, ib. ; but are opposed on the march 
by an overwhelming force of Basuto, iv 231 ; at the same time 
a strong detachment of the Basuto arm} 7 , under the chief 
Lerothodi, advances to attack the camp, ib. ; upon ascertaining 
this, the commando falls back and repels Lerothodi, thus failing 
in the design of taking Mabolela, but saving the camp, ib. ; 
on the 20th and 21st of June a column of Basuto under Poshuli 
and Morosi makes a destructive raid into the district of Smith- 
field, iv 232 ; on the 27th and 28th of June another party 
under Masupha and Moperi makes a raid into the Bloemfontein 
district, and murders fifty-four halfbreeds and a number of 
Europeans, iv 234 ; ,but on the 29th is encountered at Verkeerde 
Vlei by a party of burghers, and is defeated with heavy loss, 
iv 235 ; a third raiding party ravages the country to within 
two hours' ride of the village of Kroonstad, ib. ; on the 14th 
of July Vechtkop is taken by the division of the Free State 
forces under Commandant Wepener, invading Basutoland from 
the south, iv 239 ; and on the 31st of July Letsie's kraal 
Matsieng is occupied by the same commando, iv 240 ; when 
Commandant Wepener issues a proclamation declaring the country 
up to a line from Bamboesplaats to Thaba Tele and thence 
north by compass to the Caledon annexed to the Free State, 
ib. ; Commandant- General Fick advances from the north, and 



448 History of South Africa. 

on the 20th of July crosses the Caledon, when he proclaims the 
territory north and west of that river part of the Free State, 
ib. ; on the 25th of July he takes the Berea mountain by storm, 
iv 240 and 241 ; and forms his camp on the site of Masupha's 
kraal, iv 241 ; on the 3rd of August Wepener joins Fick before 
Thaba Bosigo, where the whole Free State force is concentrated, 
iv 242 ; on the 8th of August an unsuccessful attempt is made 
to take Thaba Bosigo by storm, ib. ; and again on the 15th 
of August another unsuccessful attempt to scale the mountain 
is made, iv 245 ; on the 23rd of August Moshesh proposes to 
President Brand to invite the high commissioner to arrange 
terms of peace, and asks for an armistice, iv 246 ; on the 25th 
the president informs Moshesh of the terms on which he is 
prepared to make peace, iv 247 ; which terms are rejected by 
the great chief, iv 250 ; on the 24th of August the council 
of war resolves to blockade Thaba Bosigo, and scour the sur- 
rounding country, iv 246 ; during the blockade many thousands 
of oxen perish on Thaba Bosigo, iv 247 ; on the 25th of 
September, owing to the return home of most of the burghers, 
the siege of Thaba Bosigo is raised, iv 251 ; on the 27th of 
June five burghers of the South African Republic travelling 
through the Free State are murdered by Ramanela's people, 
and their property is seized, iv 236 ; on the 7th of August 
President Pretorius demands from Moshesh the murderers and 
the value of the property, iv 249 ; as Moshesh does not comply 
with the demand, a force of nine hundred and seventy men is 
sent under Commandant-General Kruger to punish him, iv 252 ; 
on the morning of the 29th of September this force is attacked 
at Naauwpoort by Molapo's followers, but quickly puts them to 
flight, ib. ; on the 6th of October the forces under Kruger and 
Fick unite at Molapo's kraal Leribe, ib. ; when Fick proclaims 
the district between the Caledon and the Putiatsana Free State 
territory, ib. ; on the 23rd of October the combined forces defeat 
a great Basuto army at Cathcart's drift, ib. ; on the 30th of 
October Kruger's commando leaves for home without making 
peace with the Basuto, iv 253 ; on the 1st of November Com- 
mandant Pieter Wessels defeats Morosi, ib. ; President Brand 
commissions Messrs. Webster and Tainton to raise bodies of 
European and coloured volunteers, iv 255 ; Sir Philip Wode- 
house objects to this, and threatens if it is carried out to 
prevent supplies of ammunition passing through the British 
colonies, ib. ; on the 1st of December General Fick takes Leribe, 
when Molapo retreats to Thaba Patsoa, ib. ; in December 
Lebenya with his clan crosses the Orange river into the Witte- 



Synoptical Index. 449 

bergen reserve, and claims British protection, iv 256 ; on the 
8th of January 1866 Molitsane attacks the village of Winburg, 
and causes some damage, iv 262 ; on the 22nd of the same 
month Molapo attacks the village of Bethlehem, but is beaten 
back with heavy loss, ib. ; in the beginning of February the 
burghers again take the field in force, iv 263 ; on the 19th of 
February Molapo and Ramanela are defeated, iv 268 ; on the 
22nd of February the volksraad declines an offer which Sir Philip 
Wodehouse has made to act as mediator, iv 266 and 267 ; 
from the 23rd of February to the 2nd of March the Drakensberg 
is scoured by a large commando, and a good many cattle are 
captured, iv 268 ; which causes Molapo to ask for peace iv 
269 ; an armistice is agreed to with him, and afterwards with 
Moshesh and Letsie, iv 270 ; on the 26th of March peace is 
concluded with Molapo, and the treaty of Imparani is signed* 
by which that chief becomes a vassal of the Free State, iv 
272 ; as Moshesh and Letsie decline to make peace on the 
president's terms, on the 22nd of March war is renewed with 
them, iv 271 ; on the 31st of March at an assembly of chiefs 
at Thaba Bosigo it is resolved to profess to agree to peace in 
order to save the crops then ready to be gathered, iv 272 ; 
Moshesh writes to the president asking for peace, and offering 
to cede the territory which Messrs. Fick and Wepener have 
proclaimed part of the Free State, iv 273 ; on the 3rd of April 
terms are agreed to on both sides, and peace is concluded by 
the signing of the treaty of Thaba Bosigo, ib. ; in November 
Moshesh makes overtures to President Pretorius, of the South 
African Republic, for a general treaty of peace, iv 492 ; a 
deputation is sent from Pretoria to Thaba Bosigo, and in 
February 1867 an agreement of peace and friendship is signed, ib. 

War of 1867-8 between the Orange Free State and the Basuto 

TRIBE : 

on the 16th of July 1867 President Brand calls the burghers to 
arms to compel Moshesh to observe the treaty of Thaba Bosigo, 
and on the 5th of August two strong brigades enter the dis- 
turbed territory, iv 290; on the 25th of September Makwai's 
mountain is taken by Chief-Commandant Pansegrouw's division, 
iv 291 ; Chief -Commandant G. J. Joubert destroys extensive 
fortifications in the ceded district north of Basutoland, iv 297; 
on the 28th of January 1868 Tandjesberg is captured by Chief, 
Commandant Pansegrouw, iv 298 ; on the 22nd of February 
1868 the Kieme is taken by Chief-Commandant Pansegrouw, iv 
300; on receipt of this intelligence Sir Philip Wodehouse, to 
preserve the Basuto tribe intact, proclaims Moshesh' s people 
VOL. V. 2 G 



450 History of South Africa. 

British subjects and their country British territory, iv 301 ; 
on the 26th of March Sir Walter Currie and a force of police 
arrive at Thaba Bosigo, iv 304 ; President Brand then issues 
orders to the Free State forces not to cross the boundary fixed 
by the treaty of Thaba Bosigo, iv 305 ; the volksraad resolves 
to send a deputation to England to protest to the imperial 
authorities, iv 306 ; the reverend Mr. Van de Waal and Mr. 
C. J. de Villiers are sent to England, iv 313 ; but are informed 
at the colonial office that her Majesty's government will not 
withdraw the negotiations from the high commissioner, ib. ; 
and the matter is left entirely in Sir Philip Wodehouse's hands, 
ib. ; meantime a fruitless correspondence is carried on between 
the high commissioner and the Free State government, ib. ; 
owing to no settlement being effected, the Basuto generally 
become dissatisfied, and the country is in a state of lawlessness, 
iv 316 ; the Natal government desires the annexation of Basuto- 
land to that colony, iv 317 ; the Free State, having no alter- 
native, consents to negotiate, and on the 4th of February 1869 
its deputies meet the high commissioner at Aliwal North, iv 
318 ; where on the 12th of February 1869 the second treaty 
of Aliwal North is signed, by which a portion of the territory 
ceded by the treaty of Thaba Bosigo is restored to the Basuto, 
iv 319 

Warden, Captain Henry Douglas, of the Cape mounted rifles : 
in April 1835, during the sixth Kaffir war, is sent with a patrol 
to rescue the missionaries and traders who have taken shelter 
at Clarkebury, it 111 ; a few days later, with the assistance of 
the Tembu chief Vadana, takes four thousand head of cattle 
from one of Hintsa's kraals, it 112 ; assists in the conferences 
by which the war is brought to an end, it 124 ; in January 
1841 accompanies a military force sent to form a camp on the 
Umgazi river for the protection of the Pondo chief Faku, it 
412 ; in 1845 accompanies a military force sent from the Cape 
Colony to assist the Griquas of Adam Kok against the emigrant 
farmers, ii 490 ; in July is left at Philippolis in command of 
a small garrison, ii 494; in January 1846 becomes^ British 
resident in Adam Kok's territory, ib. ; in March holds a con- 
ference with the chiefs and captains in the country between 
the Orange and Vaal rivers, and induces them to consent to 
refer their disputes to a commission to be appointed by the 
governor of the Cape Colony, ii 499 ; is promoted to the rank 
of major ; in June with the assistance of some blacks and half, 
breeds disperses Jan Kock's adherents at Winburg, ii 500 ; on 
the 17th of July 1848 is obliged to capitulate to Commandant* 



Synoptical Index. 451 

General Pretorius, Hi 282 ; retires with his adherents to the 
left bank of the Orange river near Colesberg, Hi 283 ; after 
the defeat of the emigrant farmers at Boomplaats returns to 
Bloemfontein as British resident, Hi 294 ; endeavours in vain 
to promote peace between the Basuto and the Batlokua, in 
300 ; in October 1849 lays down a boundary for the territory 
to which the Basuto of Moshesh are restricted, Hi 306 ; towards 
the close of this year defines reserves for all the Bantu and 
other clans in the Sovereignty, Hi 307 ; on the 21st of September 
1850 punishes Molitsane for plundering a mission station, and 
by doing so brings on a war with the Basuto tribe, Hi 315 ; 
collects all the force at his disposal for the purpose of punishing 
the Basuto, Hi 318 ; on the 30th of June 1851 is defeated in 
the battle of Viervoet, Hi 320 ; carries on a correspondence 
with Mr. A. W. J. Pretorius, which Leads to the Sand River 
convention, Hi 371 ; on the 23rd of July 1852 is succeeded as 
British resident in the Orange River Sovereignty by Mr. Henry 
Green, Hi 331 

Warm Bokkeveld, tract of land in the Cape province : 
description of, i 161 

Warner, E. J. : 

in 1865 is stationed at Southeyville with the title of Tembu agent, 
iv 54 and 57 

Warner, J. C. : 

in 1852 is placed at Glen Grey to represent the Cape government, 
Hi 113 ; transactions of in connection with the removal of the 
Emigrant Teinbus, iv 45, 46, 50, and 51 ; in 1865 is stationed 
at Idutywa with the title of British resident, iv 54 ; in October 
1869 is withdrawn, when the office is abolished, ib. 

Warren, Colonel (later Sir Charles) : 

commands the volunteers in the suppression of the Griqualand 
West rebellion, iv 426, 428, 429, and 431 

Waterberg, district in the South African Republic : 

in March 1866 is formed out of parts of Zoutpansberg and 
Rustenburg, iv 499 

Waterboer, Andries : 

upon the removal of the captains Barends and Kok from Griqua- 
town in 1820 is elected head of the station, it 57 ; he is a 
firm supporter of the missionaries, who in turn do all they can 
to strengthen him, ib. ; in June 1823 assists to defeat the 
Mantati horde, i 444; obliges the Barolong chief Sifunelo to 



452 History of South Africa. 

pay six hundred oxen for a theft committed by Molitsane's 
Bataung, i 473 ; but under pressure from the government of 
the Cape Colony restores the cattle to their owners, ib. ; in 
1832 assists a commando under Mr. W. C. van Ryneveld, civil 
commissioner of Graaff-Reinet, against the robber captain Stuur- 
man ; towards the close of 1834 visits Capetown with the 
reverend Peter Wright, ii 57 ; and on the 11th of December 
of that year enters into a treaty with the British authorities 
in South Africa, ii 58 ; in February 1837 through the efforts 
of the missionaries enters into close alliance with Abraham Kok, 
ii 476 ; but from September of that year until the beginning 
of 1841 assists Adam Kok III in war against his brother 
Abraham, ii 477 ; in November 1838 enters into a treaty with 
Adam Kok III, in which they divide on paper an immense 
region between them, ib. ; in 1848 assists the British forces 
under Sir Harry Smith against the emigrant farmers in the 
Orange River Sovereignty, Hi 285 ; in 1850 claims the territory 
between the Modder and Orange rivers westward to Adam 
Kok's reserve, but his right is not recognised by Major Warden, 
Hi 312 ; on the 13th of December 1852 dies, ib. 

Waterboer, Nicholas, son of the above : 

on the 23rd of December 1852 is elected captain of Griquatown, 
Hi 312 ; is recognised as such by the British government, but 
the treaty with his father is declared to have been a personal 
one and therefore no longer in force, in 313 ; in 1854 has his 
claim to ground above the junction of the Orange and Vaal 
rivers recognised by the government of the Orange Free State, 
Hi 447;, in October 1855 submits his dispute concerning terri- 
tory with Cornells Kok to the arbitration of Adam Kok, and 
is awarded the land south of the Vetberg line, Hi 465 ; after 
October 1855 is recognised by the Free State government as 
possessing sovereign as well as proprietary rights in the district 
between the Orange river and the Vetberg line. Hi 466 ; further 
particulars concerning, iv 418, 420, and 425 ; see Arnot and 
Griqualand 

Waterloo, the, convict ship : 

on the 28th of August 1842 is wrecked in Table Bay, ii 229 

Waterloo Bay : 

in July 1846 is first used as a convenient place for landing stores 
for the troops in the field, Hi 17 

Watermeyer, Advocate Egidius Benedictus : 

on the 13th of November 1857 is appointed third puisne judge in 
the supreme court of the Cape Colony, Hi 148 



Synoptical Index. 453 

Water supply of Capetown : 

particulars concerning the, i 245 

Weber, Hendrik : 

in the war of 1858 is the first commandant-general of the Free 
State forces, Hi 478 

Weenen, village in Natal : 
in 1840 is founded, ii 398 

Weights and measures : see English 

Weir, James, missionary of the Glasgow society at the Tyumie : 

in December 1834 is required by the chief Tyali to act as his 

messenger to Colonel Somerset, ii 95 ; on the 20th of January 

1835 is rescued by a military patrol, ii 99 ; at the close of 

the war returns to his station at the Tyumie, ii 131 

Wellington, village in the Cape province : 

in 1838 is founded, ii 219 ; in July 1840 the first consistory of 
the Dutch reformed church commences duty here, ib. 

Wentzel, Willem Adriaan : 

in January 1828 is appointed resident magistrate of George, * 493 

Wepener, Lourens Jacobus : 

removes from the Cape Colony to the Orange Free State, and at 
the commencement of the war of 1865-6 with the Basuto is 
elected commandant of the district of Bethulie, iv 231 ; on the 
15th of Juno 1865 offers to call for volunteers to attempt to 
take Mabolela by storm, but the council of war rejects the 
proposal, iv 232 ; on the 14th of July takes Vechtkop by storm, 
iv 239 ; on the 31st of July takes Matsieng, iv 240 ; on the 
3rd of August joins General Fick before Thaba Bosigo, iv 242 ; 
on the 15th of August is killed while leading a party of 
volunteers in an attempt to take Thaba Bosigo, iv 245 

Wepener, village in the Orange Free State : 
in October 1867 is founded, iv 307 

Wesleyan chapel in Capetown : 

in June 1822 the first is opened, i 408 

Wesleyan society : 

in April 1816 commences mission work in South Africa, i 319 ; 
particulars concerning its missions, i 318, 408, 472, 475, 477, 
478, and 479, ii 6, 17, 52, 132, and 405, Hi 192, 224, and 
233, iv 216 and 466, ^ 95; in 1866 it is treated by the Free 
State government in exactly the same manner as the French 
evangelical society, iv 282 ; after this date has only the station 
of Thaba Ntshu between the Orange and the Vaal, ib. 



454 History of South Africa. 

Wesleyville mission station : 

in December 1823 is founded with the Gunukwebe clans by the 
reverend William Shaw, i 409 

Western boundary of the South African Republic: 
various views concerning, v 1G to 21 

West, Martin Thomas : 

on the 21st of August 1838 becomes civil commissioner and 
resident magistrate of Albany, ii 182 ; on the 13th of November 
1845 is appointed lieutenant-governor of Natal, ii 462 ; on the 
1st of August 1849 dies, Hi 228 

Western Province bank : 

in 1847 is established at Paarl, ii 243 

de Wet, Olof Godlieb : 

from 1797 to 1803 is president of the high court of justice of 
the Cape Colony, i 73 ; loses office on the restoration of the 
colony to the Batavian Republic, i 114 ; hi 1806 again becomes 
president of the high court of justice, i 212 ; in March 1809 
retires on account of ill health, i 259 

Whale fishing on the South African coast: 

in 1795 is extensively carried on, i 25; .in 1817 is commenced 
by the Portuguese at Delagoa Bay, v 128 

Whaling establishment at Robben Island : 
note concerning, i 310 

Wheat : 

exportation from the Cape Colony of, i 23 ; price of in 1800, 
i 77 ; and in 1806, i 213 ; in 1820 the growing crop is attacked 
by blight, and completely fails, i 359 ; in 1821 it is again 
destroyed by blight, i 372 

Wheat growing in Natal : 

particulars concerning, iv 164 

Whindus, Captain E. J. : 

in January 1882 is sent from Capetown with a party of volunteers 
to Walfish Bay to protect the stores there, v 123 

White, Dr. Henry : 

in November 1872 becomes treasurer of the Cape Colony under 
responsible government, iv 146 

White, Lieutenant Thomas : 

in 1820 brings a party of settlers to the Cape Colony, and is 
located on the river Zonder End, i 353 ; subsequent movements 



Synoptical Index. 455 

of the party, i 355 ; he is one of the early breeders of merino 
sheep in the district of Albany, ii 41 ; in May 1835 is killed 
by the Xosas near the Bashee river, ii 116 

Whittle, a trader : 

in 1832 explores the country along the upper Limpopo, ii 287 

Whittlesea, village in the Cape province : 

in 1851 is repeatedly attacked by the Tembus, but always un- 
successfully, Hi 104 

William Christian, captain oe the Bondelzwarts clan of Hotten- 
tots in Great Namaqu aland : 
mention of, v 112 

William Pitt, Indiaman : 

during the night of the 13th of December 1813 is lost on a shoal 
about nine English miles to the eastward of Cape Recife, when 
all on board perish. The disaster became known through a 
box of letters and some of the passengers' trunks with other 
wreckage washing ashore 

Williams, Jane : 

is living with the family of the reverend Mr. Owen at Umkun- 
gunhlovu, and on the 6th of February 1838 witnesses the 
massacre of Pieter Retief and his party, of which she afterwards 
publishes an account, ii 363 

Williams, Joseph, lay evangelist : 

in June 1816 forms a mission station on the Kat river in con- 
nection with the London society, t 325 ; in August 1818 dies 
there, * 318 

Willshire, Lieutenant-Colonel : 

in February 1819 succeeds Lieutenant-Colonel Brereton as com- 
mandant of the forces acting against the Xosa chief Ndlambe, 
i 337 

Willson, Thomas : 

in 1820 brings a party of settlers to the Cape Colony, i 351 ; 
subsequent career of, i 360 

Wilson, Dr., American missionary: 

in June 1836 with two associates goes to reside with the Matabele 
in the valley of Mosega, ii 302 ; in January 1837 retires with 
the emigrant farmers, ii 303 ; in July 1837 arrives in Natal 
and commences to labour there, ii 348 ; in April 1838 leaves 
Natal, and does not return, ii 374 



456 History of South Africa, 

WlNBURG, DISTRICT OF : 

boundaries in 1840, ii 402 

WlNBTJRG, VILLAGE IN THE ORANGE FREE STATE : 

in 1837 is founded by the emigrant farmers under Commandant 
Hendrik Potgieter, ii 303 

WlNDVOGELBERG : 

is named after its last Bushman occupant, iv 3 

Wine : 

encouragement given by the British government in 1800 to the 
production of, i 74 ; efforts to improve the quality of, i 172 ; 
inducements held out between 1806 and 1835 to improve the 
quality and increase the quantity of, ii 36 ; in 1834 the trade 
is in a state of rapid decline, ii 83 ; which is further hastened 
by the emancipation of the slaves, ii 192 

Witchcraft : 

Bantu belief concerning, Hi 92 

Withuis Kloof : 

action of the 9th of June 1878 at, iv 428 

WlTSI, CHIEF OF A ROBBER CLAN CALLED THE BAKOLOKWE : 

account of, Hi 348 and 450 ; plunders the farmers in the district 
of Harrismith, Hi 461 ; in May 1855 is punished by a com- 
mando, but not humbled, ib. ; in 1856 is driven from his place 
of residence, still known as Witsi's Hoek, by a commando under 
Landdrost Joseph M. Orpen, Hi 462 ; retires to Basutoland, 
and becomes a subject of Moshesh, ib. 

WOBURN, MILITARY VILLAGE IN THE TyUMIE VALLEY : 

in January 1848 is founded, Hi 68 ; on the 25th of December 
1850 is destroyed by the Xosas of Oba's clan, and its occupants 
are murdered, Hi 96 

WODEHOUSE, DISTRICT IN THE CAPE PROVINCE : 

in 1871 is formed, iv 131 ; in 1872 is constituted an electoral 
division, iv 141 

Wodehouse, Lady : 

on the 6th of October 1866 dies in Capetown, iv 83 

Wodehouse, Sir Philip Edmond : 

in January 1862 arrives in South Africa as governor of the Cape 
Colony and her Majesty's high commissioner, iv 200 ; on the 
15th of that month takes the oaths of office, iv 20 ; positions 
previously held by, iv 21 ; twelve days after his arrival ad- 
dresses a very unfriendly letter to the president of the Orange 



Synoptical Index. 457 

Free State, iv 200; in 1862 visits British Karrraria, iv 24; 
from February to November 1864 resides in the eastern province, 
iv 34 ; is in conflict with the Cape parliament, iv 100 ; is 
urgently requested by the Free State government to point out 
to Moshesh the boundary between whites and blacks denned 
by the British authorities in the time of the Sovereignty, as 
the Basuto are trespassing far beyond it, iv 204 ; in October 
1864 visits the Free State for that purpose, iv 219 ; inspects 
the country along the Warden line, iv 220 ; and on the 28th 
of October 1864 gives a written award in favour of the boundary 
claimed by the Free State, ib. ; is deceived by Moshesh's pro- 
fessions of desire to act in good faith, iv 223 ; on the 27th 
of June 1865, war having broken out between the Orange Free 
State and the Basuto tribe, issues a proclamation of neutrality, 
iv 237 ; on the 13th of January 1866 proposes to the secretary 
of state for the colonies to take over the Basuto as British 
subjects, iv 263 ; objects to the conditions of the treaties of 
Imparani and Thaba Bosigo, iv 278 ; in May 1867 expresses 
dissatisfaction with the reception by the Free State of many 
Basuto chiefs and clans as subjects, iv 287 ; in September 1867 
again recommends the reception of the Basuto as British subjects, 
iv 295; on the 9th of December 1867 the secretary of state 
for the colonies gives his consent to the annexation of Basuto- 
land to Natal, iv 296 ; upon receipt of a despatch to that 
effect, Sir Philip Wodehouse proposes a cessation of hostilities, 
iv 297 ; and as the Free State government does not consent, 
he prohibits the removal of ammunition from colonial ports to 
the republic, iv 299 ; on the 12 th of March 1868 proclaims the 
Basuto British subjects and their country British territory, iv 
301 ; on the 27th of March proposes to President Brand as a 
settlement a belt of three hundred farms behind the border of 
1864, iv 306 ; to which the president does not agree, iv 307 ; 
on the 14th of April he writes to President Brand proposing 
a temporary boundary and no molestation from either side 
pending negotiations, iv 308 ; the president declines to agree 
to any other boundary than the one fixed by the treaty of 
Thaba Bosigo, ib. ; on the 15th of April Sir Philip Wodehouse 
meets the Basuto chiefs at Thaba Bosigo, iv 310 ; they express 
a desire that the country shall not be annexed to Natal, iv 
311 ; a few days later they request that Basutoland may be 
declared a reserve independent of both colonies, ib. ; on the 12th 
of February 1869 Sir Philip Wodehouse concludes a treaty with 
the Free State, by which a portion of the territory ceded by 
the treaty of Thaba Bosigo is restored to the Basuto tribe, 



45 8 History of South Africa. 

iv 319 ; on the 22nd of February 1869 he meets the Basuto 
chiefs at Korokoro, iv 320 ; in March visits Nomansland, and 
assigns locations to various Bantu clans there, iv 322 ; in May 
1870 draws up a series of regulations for the government oi 
the Basuto tribe, v 61 ; objects to the boundaries of the South 
African Republic as defined in President Pretorius's proclamation 
of the 29th of April 1868, v 16 ; on the 20th of May 1870 
leaves South Africa, iv 109 ; subsequent career of, ib. 
Wood, William : 

in August 1831 arrives in Natal, ii 342 ; resides for several 
months at Umkungunhlovu as interpreter to Dingana, ii 363 ; 
on the 6th of February 1836 witnesses the massacre of Pieter 
Retief and his party, ib. ; a few days later leaves Zululand, ib. ; 
publishes instances of Dingana's ferocity, u 338 

Woods, Samuel : 

on the 21st of November 1843 is appointed first collector of 
customs at Durban, Natal, ii 456 
Wool, sheep's : 

unsuccessful efforts to produce in the Cape Colony, i 76, 157 
et seq., and 246; account of the efforts which proved successful 
in the production of, ii 38 ; after the emancipation of the slaves 
is produced in rapidly increasing quantities, ii 193 ; quantity 
produced in 1865 in the Cape Colony, iv 43 

WOOLLED SHEEP : 

objections of the flockmasters in the Cape Colony in 1805 to the 
introduction of, i 164, 165 ; 166, and 168 ; introduction of into 
Natal, Hi 261 

Worcester, district of: 

in November 1822 the district of Tulbagh is thus renamed, i 382 ; 
in March 1824 a small portion is cut off and added to the 
district of the Cape, » 382 

Worcester, town of : 

in October 1819 a deputy landdrost is stationed at this place, 
t 309 ; in February 1820 the first building allotments are sold, 
ib. ; in October 1822 it is made the residence of the landdrost 
of the district, * 381 ; in September 1824 it is first provided 
with a clergyman, i 370 

Woyer, Jan Pieter : 

in 1795 and 1796 is one of the chief opponents of British rule 
in Graaff-Reinet, t 8 ; the government endeavours to have him 
arrested, but fails, i 10 ; he proceeds to Batavia in a Danish 
ship that puts into Algoa Bay, and procures assistance for the 
nationals of Graaff-Reinet, i 19 



Synoptical Index. 459 

Wrecks of ships on the South African coast, account of those 
not already mentioned in this index : 
of the Waldensian in October 1862, iv 29; of a number of ships 
in a great gale in Table Bay on the 17th of May 1885, iv 
76 to 78 ; of the Eastern Province in June 1865, iv 38 ; of 
the Dane in December 1865, iv 78; of the Bosporus in 
October 1867, iv 95; of ships in Algoa Bay in October 1859 
and September 1889, iv 105; of seven vessels at East London 
in May 1872, iv 150; of the Jane Davis near East London 
on the 28th of May 1872, iv 150; of four vessels at Natal 
in July 1872, iv 174 

Wright, Rev. William: 

on the 10th of January 1828 is appointed chaplain at Bathurst 

van Wyk, Hermanus : 

mention of, v 104 

van Wye, Commandant Stephanus : 

in February and again in March 1835 by the governor's orders 
calls upon Hintsa to cease assisting the enemies of the Cape 
Colony, ii 103 ; commands one of the four divisions of the 
army which in March 1835 enters Kaffirland, iv 102 

Wylde, Sir John : 

on the 1st of January 1828 becomes chief justice in the newly 
established supreme court of the Cape Colony, i 491 ; favours 
a partly elected legislative council for the Cape Colony, Hi 120; 
on the 13th of December 1859 dies, Hi 148 

Wynberg, near Capetown : 

in January 1839 is created a magisterial district, ii 227 

Wynberg railway company : 
particulars concerning, iv 11 

Wynyard, Lieutenant-General Robert Henry : 

on the 20th of May 1859 succeeds Sir James Jackson as lieutenant- 
governor, and on the 20th of August takes over the adminis- 
tration of the Cape Colony from Sir George Grey, which he 
retains until the 4th of July 1860, Hi 66; from the 15th of 
August 1861 to the 15th of January 1862 is again acting 
administrator, iv 1 



Xanthium splnosum (burrweed) : 

in 1859 begins to spread in the Cape Colony, Hi 176 



460 History of South Africa, 

Xavier, Major Cardas : 

in May 1891 commands the Portuguese volunteers at Andrada, 
v 159 

Xayimpi, a captain under the Xosa chief Oba: 

leads the party that on the 25th of December 1850 destroys 
the military village of Auckland in the Tyumie valley, Hi 97 ; 
further particulars concerning, Hi 98 

Xesibe tribe : 

account of, Hi 231 and iv 63 ; in 1886 is received under the 
government of the Cape Colony, Hi 231 

Xolo tribe : 

account of the, H 331, and Hi 232 

Xosa tribe : 

particulars concerning, i 36, 37, 133, 185, 233, 250, 321, Hi 65 ; 
particulars concerning its self-destruction in 1856 and 1857, 
Hi 198 et seq. ; see Anta, Botumane, Buku, Casa, Eno, Gasela, 
Hintsa, Jalusa, Kama, Kobe, Kona, Kreli, Makoma, Matwa, 
Nonibe, Pato, Sandile, Siwani, Siyolo, Sonto, Stokwe, Sutu, 
Tente, Tola, Toyise, Tshatshu, Tyali, Umhala, Umkayi, and 
Xoxo ; see also the several paragraphs under the heading War 

Xoxo, Xosa captain, son of Galea : 

in December 1834, just before the outbreak of war, is slightly 
wounded in attacking a military patrol, H 89 ; upon the death 
of Tyali on the 1st of May 18-12 is chosen regent of that chief's 
clan during the minority of Oba and Fini, ii 189 ; from April 
to November 1846 is in arms against the Cape Colony, Hi 8 ; 
on the 7th of January 1848 takes an oath of allegiance to the 
queen of England, Hi 61 



Yonge, Sir George : 

on the 10th of December 1799 becomes governor of the Cape 
Colony, i 71 ; is greatly disliked by all classes of the inhabi- 
tants, i 79 ; complaints of his m isgovernment and corruption 
are sent to England, ib. ; in April 1801 he is dismissed and is 
required to return to England, ib. ; a commission is appointed 
to enquire into his conduct, * 80 ; and a mass of evidence 
of a scandalous nature is collected, i 81 et seq. ; measures that 
may be placed to his credit, i 85 ; on the 25th of September 
1812 he dies at Hampton Court, ib. 



Synoptical Index. 461 

Yorke, Major-General : 

is appointed second in command of the troops in the Cape Colony, 
Hi 107 ; on the 24th of March 1852 arrives in Capetown, 
Hi 108 ; commands a column directed to scour the Amatola 
range, Hi 110; and in September and October 1852 carries out 
this service, Hi 112 

Young, Sir Henry Edward Fox : 

on the 9th of April 1847 arrives in South Africa as lieutenant- 
governor of the eastern province, ii 241 ; collects a mass of 
evidence upon the question of a separate government for that 
province, ib. ; makes regulations for locations of coloured people 
within the boundaries of municipalities, ib. ; is appointed lieu- 
tenant-governor of South Australia, and on the 4th of November 
1847 leaves Grahamstown, ii 242 



Zeerust, village in the South African Republic : 
in 1868 is founded, iv 499 

Zevenfontein, tract of land on the right bank of the Caledon 
RrvER : 
in 1833 is occupied by a party of farmers from the Cape Colony, 
i 483 ; it afterwards becomes Beersheba mission station, which 
see 

ZlBI, CHIEF OF A PETTY HLUBI CLAN : 

in 1869 has a location in Nomansland assigned to him by Sir 
Philip Wodehouse, iv 68 ; in January 1872 asks to be taken 
under the authority of the Cape Colony, iv 69 

Ziervogel, J. F. : 

in 1834 becomes assistant civil commissioner and resident magis- 
trate of Somerset, ii 44 

Zonnebloem Institution, at Woodstock, adjoining Capetown : 
foundation of, Hi 71 

Zoutpansberg : 

description of the district, iv 473 ; in January 1857 separates 
from the South African Republic, Hi 427 ; but in January 
1858 is again united to it, Hi 440 ; in 1864 contains many 
lawless Europeans, iv 476 ; from 1865 to 1868 is the theatre 
of constant wars and disturbances 

Zuid Afrikaan NEWSPAPER : 

on the 9th of April 1830 is first issued in Capetown, H 16 

Zulu tribe : see Dingana, Mawa, Nongalaza, Panda, Tambusa, Tshaka, 
Umbopa, Umthlangana, and Umthlela 



462 History of South Africa. 

zumbo, farthest interior settlement of europeans on the 
Zambesi river : 
after long abandonment in 1862 is reoceupied by the Portuguese, 
v 143 

zuurveld, tract of land along the lower terraces between the 

. Bushman's and Fish rivers : 

description of by Lord Charles Somerset, i 348 ; attempt by Sir 
John Cradock to settle a population in, i 323 ; similar attempt 
by Lord Charles Somerset, ib. ; in 1820 is occupied by a large 
number of British settlers, i 352 ft seq. 

Zwartberg baths, in the village of Caledon: 
account of, * 227 

Zwartbooi, Abraham, captain of a section of the red nation in 
Great Namaqu aland : 
assists the Hereros in their war of independence, v 97 ; further 
mention of, v 110, 111, 122, and 123 

ZWARTKOPJES : 

account of the skirmish on the 2nd of May 1845 between British 
troops and emigrant farmers, ii 490 

ZWARTKOPS LOCATION IN NATAL : 

in 1846 is set apart for the use of the Bantu, Hi 230 

ZWIDE, CHIEF OF THE NDWANDWE TRIBE IN ZULULAND ; 

notable career of, ii 330 



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